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Chalcolithic Cultures

At the end of the Neolithic period, the use of metal was seen. The first metal used was copper, and some cultures were based on the use of both copper and stone tools. This culture is called the Chalcolithic and means the Chalcolithic.

Technically, the Chalcolithic applies to the pre-Harappa stage. However, in different parts of India, the Chalcolithic culture inherited the Bronze Age Harappa culture. During the Chalcolithic period, mainly stone and copper objects were used, but sometimes even inferior bronze and iron were used. They were primarily rural communities spread over a wide area with hilly land and rivers.

On other hand, the Harappans used bronze and had urbanized on the basis of the produce from the flood Plains in the Indus valley. In India, settlements relating to the Chalcolithic phase are found in southeastern Rajasthan, the western part of MP, Western Maharashtra, and in southern and Eastern India.

However, the most extensive excavations have taken place in western Maharashtra. Several Chalcolithic sites, such as Jorwe,Nevasa, Daimabad in Ahmednagar district; Chandoli Sonagaon, and Inamgaon in Pune District; and also Prakash and Nasik have been excavated. They are all related to the Jorwe culture, named after Jorwe , a type site on the left bank of the Pravara River, a tributary of the Godavari River in the Ahmed Nagar district. The Jorve culture owed much to the Malwa culture, but also shared elements of the Southern Neolithic culture. People in the Chalcolithic used small stone tools and weapons, but the stone blades and blades in them were important factors. In many places, especially South India, the stone blade industry flourished and stone axes continued to be used. People in the Chalcolithic used different types of pottery, one of which was called black and red and seemed to be popular until nearly 2,000 BC. from. It was moved and sometimes painted with a white liner design. This applies not only to the settlements of Rajasthan, MP and Maharashtra, but also to the residences in Bihar, West Bengal. People living in Maharashtra, MP and Bihar produced channeling pots, sand bowls and stand bowls. It is a mistake to think that everyone who uses black and red pottery belongs to the same culture. Black and red pottery from Maharashtra, MP and Rajasthan was painted, but East Indian agriculture had few such painted pots.


Harappan Civilization


The Bronze Age Harappa culture discovered in Harappa, Punjab, Pakistan was an original discovery. In 1853, A. Cunningham, a British engineer who became a great dredger and explorer, noticed the seal of Harappa. The seal had a bull and six letters on it, but he didn’t understand what it meant. Long after, in 1921, when Indian archaeologist Daya Ram sani began excavation, the possibility of the Harappa archaeological site was recognized. Around the same time, R.D. Historian Banerjee excavated at the ruins

of Mohenjo-daro, Sindh. Both found pottery and other ancient relics that show a developed civilization. The large-scale excavation was carried out in Mohenjo-daro in 1931 under the general supervision of Marshall. Mackay excavated the same site in 1938. The barrel was excavated in Harappa in 1940. In 1946, Mortimer Wheeler excavated Harappa, and pre-independence and pre-division excavations revealed important ancient relics of Harappa culture in various places where bronze was used. The culture of Indus or Harapan is older than the previously studied Chalcolithic culture, but much more developed than the latter as a culture using bronze. It developed in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent. It is called Harappa because this civilization was first discovered in 1921. In a modern location in Harappa, Punjab, Pakistan. To date, nearly 2,800 Harapan sites have been identified in the subcontinent. They are associated with the early, mature and late Pakistani Harappa culture. The third city was in Chanhu Daro, about 130km south of Mohenjo-daro, Sindh, and the fourth city was in Lothal, Gujarat, at the top of the Gulf of Khambhat. The fifth city of Kalibangan, which means the black bracelet of northern Rajasthan. The sixth Banawali is located in the Hisar district of Haryana.

City planning and structure

Harappa culture was notable in the system of city planning. Both Harappa and Mohenjo-daro had citadels or acropolises that could have been occupied by members of the ruling class. Under the citadel, there was a low tower of brick houses in each town where the common people lived. A notable point of the layout of the city house is that it follows a grid system where the streets intersect at almost right angles. Mohenjo-daro scored points against Harappa in terms of structure. The city monument symbolized the ruling class’s ability to mobilize the workforce in collecting taxes. The huge brick building was a way to instill the prestige and influence of their rulers in the common people.


The relatively rainless Indus area is not as fertile as it is today, but the prosperous villages and towns of the past prove to be fertile in ancient times. Today`s the rainfall is about 15cm, but in the 4th century BC One of the historians of Alexander informs us, that sindh was a fertile part of India. in earlier times, Indus region had more natural vegetation which contributed to rainfall.It supplied timber for baking bricks and also for construction.In course of time,the natural vegetation was destroyed by the extension of agriculture,large scale grazing and supply of fuel.

Mahatma Gandhi

Mahatma Gandhi, byname of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, (born October 2, 1869, Porbandar, India—died January 30, 1948, Delhi), Indian lawyer, politician, social activist, and creator who have become the chief of the nationalist motion in opposition to the British rule of India. As such, he got here to be taken into consideration the daddy of his country. Gandhi is across the world esteemed for his doctrine of nonviolent protest (satyagraha) to acquire political and social progress.

In the eyes of tens of thousands and thousands of his fellow Indians, Gandhi become the Mahatma (“Great Soul”). The unthinking adoration of the large crowds that accrued to peer him all alongside the path of his excursions made them a intense ordeal; he should infrequently paintings in the course of the day or relaxation at night. “The woes of the Mahatmas,” he wrote, “are recognized handiest to the Mahatmas.” His reputation unfold global in the course of his lifetime and handiest extended after his death. The call Mahatma Gandhi is now one of the maximum universally diagnosed on earth.


Gandhi become the youngest infant of his father’s fourth wife. His father—Karamchand Gandhi, who become the dewan (leader minister) of Porbandar, the capital of a small principality in western India (in what’s now Gujarat state) beneathneath British suzerainty—did now no longer have a great deal withinside the manner of a proper education. He become, however, an capin a position administrator who knew how to influence his manner among the capricious princes, their lengthy-struggling subjects, and the headstrong British political officials in power.Gandhi’s mom, Putlibai, become absolutely absorbed in faith, did now no longer care a great deal for finery or jewelry, divided her time among her domestic and the temple, fasted frequently, and wore herself out in days and nights of nursing on every occasion there has been illness withinside the family. Mohandas grew up in a domestic steeped in Vaishnavism—worship of the Hindu god Vishnu—with a sturdy tinge of Jainism, a morally rigorous Indian faith whose leader tenets are nonviolence and the notion that the entirety withinside the universe is eternal. Thus, he took without any consideration ahimsa (noninjury to all residing beings), vegetarianism, fasting for self-purification, and mutual tolerance among adherents of diverse creeds and sects.The instructional centers at Porbandar have been rudimentary; withinside the number one faculty that Mohandas attended, the kids wrote the alphabet withinside the dirt with their fingers. Luckily for him, his father have become dewan of Rajkot, every other princely state. Though Mohandas sometimes gained prizes and scholarships on the nearby schools, his document become at the entire mediocre. One of the terminal reviews rated him as “right at English, truthful in Arithmetic and vulnerable in Geography; behavior very right, awful handwriting.” He become married on the age of thirteen and for this reason misplaced a yr at faculty. A diffident infant, he shone neither withinside the lecture room nor at the gambling field. He cherished to exit on lengthy solitary walks whilst he become now no longer nursing his through then ill father (who died quickly thereafter) or assisting his mom together along with her family chores.He had learned, in his words, “to perform the orders of the elders, now no longer to experiment them.” With such intense passivity, it isn’t unexpected that he need to have long gone via a segment of adolescent rebellion, marked through mystery atheism, petty thefts, furtive smoking, and—maximum surprising of involved in a boy born in a Vaishnava family—meat eating. His childhood become probable no stormier than that of maximum kids of his age and class. What become first-rate become the manner his younger transgressions ended.“Never again” become his promise to himself after every escapade. And he saved his promise. Beneath an unprepossessing exterior, he hid a burning ardour for self-development that led him to take even the heroes of Hindu mythology, along with Prahlada and Harishcandra—mythical embodiments of truthfulness and sacrifice—as residing models

Fundamental Duties

The basic obligations were introduced into the Indian Constitution by the 42nd Amendment. There are 11 basic obligations of Indian citizens written in accordance with the moral, ethical and cultural codes of conduct that people should follow. Duty is educational in nature and directs citizens to act in good faith and honor. Basic obligations essentially mean the moral obligations of all citizens of the country, and today in India 11 basics written in Part IVA of the Constitution to promote patriotism and strengthen India’s unity. I have a duty. Originally, India’s basic obligations were not part of the Indian Constitution, but were added by the Constitutional Amendments of Articles 42 and 86. The list of basic rights and obligations and the guiding principles of national policy are part of the Constitution of India, detailing the obligations and rights of the Indian people as well as the essential obligations of the state to the people. Just as all citizens have equal rights, there is also the same basic obligation to uphold other rights (as set forth in Article 21) and not infringe those rights. One cannot expect to enjoy all the privileges and freedoms under the law without fulfilling the basic obligations.

Detailed definition of basic obligations-

Basic obligations were established in 1976 by the Swaran Singh Commission, established by Indira Gandhi shortly after the declaration of a national emergency to study and amend the Constitution. Added. The committee was chaired by Sardar Swaran Singh, India’s longest-serving trade union minister. Based on his recommendations, the Government has incorporated several amendments to the Constitution, including the preamble up to the 42nd Amendment, which includes the basic obligations of the Indian Constitution. However, by the 86th Amendment in 2002, the original 10 duties were then increased to 11, under Article 51A, Part IVA of the Constitution of India.

The 10 fundamental duties are as follows:

1.To oblige with the Indian Constitution and respect the National Anthem and Flag 2.To cherish and follow the noble ideas that inspired the national struggle for freedom

3.To protect the integrity, sovereignty, and unity of India 4.To defend the country and perform national services if and when the country requires 5.To promote the spirit of harmony and brotherhood amongst all the people of India and renounce any practices that are derogatory to women 6.To cherish and preserve the rich national heritage of our composite culture 7.To protect and improve the natural environment including lakes, wildlife, rivers, forests, etc. 8.To develop scientific temper, humanism, and spirit of inquiry 9.To safeguard all public property 10.To strive towards excellence in all genres of individual and collective activities The 11th fundamental duty which was added to this list is: To provide opportunities for education to children between 614 years of age, and duty as parents to ensure that such opportunities are being awarded to their child. The 11 fundamental duties look at the crisis in Indian society and become a tool for straightening it out. They serve as a source of protection for the liberty of the people.

Need & Importance of Fundamental Duties-

In case there is a violation of fundamental duties, Article 51A of the Constitution categorizes it as contempt of the constitution which is punishable under the Prevention of Insults to National Honour Act, 1971. It is easy to assume that constitutional duties are similar to the fundamental duties of the Indian citizen. The Indian Constitution provides a list of fundamental rights and duties to the citizens and lays down the State`s duties toward ensuring that these rights are protected and provided equally to everyone. These duties were drafted on the lines of moral, ethical, and cultural code of conduct which is to be followed by the people to uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity, and integrity of our country. It also helps the government in maintaining proper governance and enabling the proper functioning of a democratic society.

Foundation of the Indian National Congress

It was retired English civil servant,A.O.Hume,who mobilised leading intellectuals of the time and, with their corporation, organized the first session of the Indian national Congress at Gokuldas Tejpal Sanskrit College in Bombay in December 1885. As a prelude to this, two sessions of the Indian national conference had being held in 1883 and 1885, which had representatives drawn from all major towns of India.Surendranath Banerjee and Ananda Mohan Bose were the main architects of the Indian national conference.The first session of the Indian National Congress was attended by 72 delegates and presided over by Womesh Chandra Bonnerjee.Hereafter,the Congress met every year in December,in a different part of the country each time.

Some of the great presidents of the Congress during this early phase were Dadabhai Naoroji,Badruddin Tyabji,Pherzoeshah Mehta,P.Anandacharlu,Surendranath Banerjee,Romesh Chandra Dutt,Bal Gangadhar Tilak,Sisir Kumar Ghosh,Motilal Ghosh,Madan Mohan Malaviya,G.Subramania Aiyar,etc. In 1890,Kadambini Ganguly,the first woman graduate of Calcutta University,addressed the Congress Session,which symbolised the commitment of the freedom struggle to give the women of India their due status in national life. There is a theory that Hume formed the Congress with the idea that it would prove to be a `safety valve` for releasing the growing discontent of the Indians.To This end,he convinced Lord Dufferin not to obstruct the formation of the Congress.

The extremist leaders like Lala Lajpat Rai believed in the `safety valve’ theory.Even the Marxist historian’s ‘conspiracy theory’was an offspring of the ‘safety valve’ notion.For exampleR.P. Dutt opined that the Indian National Congress was born out of a conspiracy to abort a popular uprising in India and the bourgeois leaders were a party to it.

Aims and Objectives of the Congress

The main aims of the Indian National Congress in the initial stage were to:

(i)found a democratic,nationalist movement (ii)politicise and politically educate people.

(iii) Establish a movement headquarters.

(iv) Promote friendly relations between nationalist politicians in different parts of the country.

(v) Development and dissemination of the idealism of anti-colonial nationalists.

(vi) Develop and precede the general government’s requirement to unite people around a common economic and political program.

(vii) Foster and promote and nurture Indian nationhood.

The Economic Impact of British Rule

There changed into infrequently any component of the Indian economic system that changed into now no longer modified for higher or for worse for the duration of the whole length of British rule right all the way down to 1947.

The financial rules accompanied via way of means of the British caused the Rapid transformation of India`s economic system right into a colonial economic system whose nature and shape had been decided via way of means of the desires of the British economic system. In this admire the British conquest of India differed from all preceding overseas conquests. The preceding conquerors had overthrown Indian political powers, however had made no fundamental modifications withinside the country’s financial shape. They had progressively emerge as part of Indian existence, political in addition to financial.The Peasant,the artisan and the dealer had non-stop to guide the identical kind of lifestyles as before. The fundamental financial pattern, that of the self enough ruler economic system, were perpetuated.

Ruin of Artisans and Craftsmen-

The break of Indian Industries, mainly rural artisan Industries, proceeded even extra swiftly as soon as the Railways had been built. The Railways enabled British manufactures to attain and uproot the conventional industries withinside the remotest villages of the country. As the American writer, the D.H. Buchanan,has placed it, “The Armour of the remoted self-enough village changed into pierced via way of means of the Steel rail, and its existence blood ebbed away”. The Cotton-weaving and spinning industries had been the worst hit. Silk and woollen textiles fared no higher and a comparable destiny overtook the iron, Pottery glass, paper, metals,guns, shipping, oil- pressing, tanning, and Dyeing industries. The excessive import responsibilities and different regulations imposed at the import of Indian items into Britain and Europe for the duration of the 18th and nineteenth centuries, mixed with the improvement of current production industries in Britain caused the digital remaining of European markets to Indian producers of the 1820. The slow disappearance of Indian rulers and their courts had been the principle clients of the Handicrafts produced additionally provide a huge blow to those industries. “For instance, the Indian states had been absolutely depending on the British withinside the manufacturing of army weapons.”The British bought all their army and different authorities shops in Britain. Morever, Indian rulers and nobles had been changed as the ruling elegance via way of means of British officers and army officers who patronised their personal home- merchandise nearly exclusively. This extended the value of Handicrafts and decreased their ability to compete with overseas items.

Impoverishment of the Peasantry-

The Peasant changed into additionally gradually impoverished below British rule. Although he changed into now unfastened from inner wars,his cloth situations deteriorated and he progressively shank into poverty. The situation of the cultivators withinside the Ryotwari and Mahalwari regions changed into no higher. Here the authorities took the vicinity of the zamindars and levied immoderate land sales which changed into in starting constant as excessive as one-1/3 to one-1/2 of of the produce.Heavy evaluation of land changed into one of the important reasons of the boom of poverty and the deterioration of agriculture withinside the nineteenth century.

Ruin Of Old Zamindars and Rise of New Landlordism-

The first few a long time of British rule witnessed the break of maximum of the vintage zamindars in Bengal and Madras. The everlasting agreement in North Madras and the transient Zamindari agreement in Uttar Pradesh had been fast Harsh at the neighborhood Zamindars. But the situation of the Zamindar quickly advanced radically. In order to permit the zamindars to pay the land sales in time, the government extended their strength over the tenants via way of means of extinguishing the conventional rights of the tenants. The Zamindars now got down to push up the rents to the maximum limit. Consequently, they swiftly grew in prosperity.In the Ryotwari regions too the gadget of landlord-tenant family members unfold progressively. As we’ve got visible above, an increasing number of land handed into the fingers of cash lenders, merchants, and wealthy peasants who generally were given the land cultivated via way of means of tenants. One purpose why the Indian moneyed instructions had been eager to shop for land and emerge as landlords changed into the absence of powerful shops for funding in their capital in industry.

Civil Disobedience Movement-The Salt Satyagraha

Gandhi’s Eleven Demands- To continue the mission given by the Lahore Parliament, Gandhi presented the government with 11 requests and issued an ultimatum on January 31, 1930 to accept or reject these requests.

The request is as follows:

Issues of general concern 1. Reduce spending on military and public services by 50%.

2. Introduce a total ban 3. Implementation of reforms in the criminal investigation department4. Allows general control over amendments to the Firearms Act and issuance of firearms licenses.

5. Release of political prisoners.

6. Accept the invoice for the postal reservation. Specific bourgeois request

7. Reduce the Rupeesterling exchange ratio to 1s4d.

8. Introduce fiber protection

9. Book coastal transportation for Indians. Requests of specific farmers

10. Reduce land income by 50%.

11. Abolition of salt tax and state salt monopoly.

With no positive response forthcoming from the government on these demands,the Congress Working Committee invested Gandhi with full powers to launch the Civil Disobedience Movement at a time and place of his choice.By February end,Gandhi ji had decided to make salt the central formula for the movement.

Why Salt was Chosen as the Important Theme As Mahatma Gandhi said,”There is no other article like salt,outside water,by taxing which the government can reach the starving millions,the sick,the maimed and the utterly helpless.It is the most inhuman poll tax the ingenuity of man can devise”. Salt in a flash linked the ideal of swaraj with a most concrete and Universal grievance of the rural poor.Salt afforded a very small but psychologically important income,like khadi,for the poor through selfhelp.Like khadi,again,it offered to the urban populace the opportunity of a symbolic identification with mass suffering.

Dandi March(March 12April 6,1930)

On March 2,1930,Gandhi informed the viceroy of his plan of action.According to this plan,Gandhi along with a band of 78 members of Sabarmati Ashram,was to march from his headquarters in Ahmedabad through the villages of Gujarat for 240 miles.On reaching the coast at Dandi,the salt law was to be violated by collecting salt from the beach. Even before the proposed march began, thousands thronged to the ashram.Gandhi ji gave the following directions for future action. # Whenever possible, civil disobedience to the salt law should be initiated. # Foreign liquor stores and textile stores may be picked up. # If we have the power to do so, we can refuse taxes. # Lawyers can give up practicing. #public can boycott the court by abandoning the proceedings. # Government officials can resign from their post. # All of these must be subject to one condition. Truth and nonviolence as a means of achieving Swaraj must be faithfully preserved. # After Gandhi’s arrest, local leaders should obey.

The historic march, which marked the beginning of the civil disobedience movement, began on March 12, and Gandhi broke the salt law by picking up a lump of salt in Dandi on April 6. Violations of the law were seen as a symbol of the Native Americans’ determination not to live under English law and therefore under British rule. Gandhi made salt from the seawater of his house and openly urged people to break the salt law in newspapers. In Gujarat, 300 village officials have resigned in response to Gandhi’s complaint. Parliamentary staff engaged in grassroots organized tasks.


An archive is a collection of historical records and documents, usually primary sources, that is, documents created as a necessary part of administrative, legal, social, or commercial activity. They are unique / original documents that have not been consciously created or created to convey information to future generations. An important part of the archives related to modern India are official records, that is, articles of government agencies at various levels.

The East India Company records detail the trade situation from 1600 to 1857. When the King of England took over, it also held a large variety of official records. These records help historians track all major developments step by step, tracking the decision-making process and the psychology of policy makers. Records from other European East India companies such as Portuguese, Dutch and French also help build the history of the 17th and 18th centuries. They are especially important from an economic history perspective, but you can also learn a lot about political constellations.

There are four categories in official records 1. Central Government Archives 2. State government Archives 3.records of intermediate and subordinate authorities 4. Judicial records

Apart from these there a private Archives and archival sources available abroad.

Central Government Archives

The National Archives of India located in New Delhi, contains most of the Archives of the Government of India. These provide authentic and reliable source materials on varied aspects of modern Indian history. The records of the National Archive of Japan are divided into different groups representing different branches of the Secretariat at different stages of their development.

State Government Archive

The State Archives source documentation contains the following files: (i) Former British state of India. (ii) The former feudal kingdom and the former feudal lords incorporated into the Indian Union after 1947 (iii) Foreign governments other than the United Kingdom.

In addition, records of parts of India that have been taken over by Britain, such as the archives of the Kingdom of Lahore, are important sources. Another important collection of India’s pre-British archives is Peshwa Daftar, housed in the Alienation Bureau of Pune. It is the single most valuable source of information for studying the history of Marathi for almost a century before the collapse of Peshwa in .

Court record

The mayor’s court archive of Fort St. George, housed in the Madras Records office in , is the earliest available court archive since 1689 AD. The records of the Mayor’s Court of Fort Williams before Placey have been lost, but the 177573 records are kept in the Bengal Supreme Court’s archive in the Calcutta High Court Archive Room . Similarly, records from the Mayor of Bombay, founded in 1728, are available at the Archives Office of the Maharashtra Secretariat, which also maintains the archives of the Bombay Records Court and the Supreme Court.

NITI Aayog

NITI Aayog (National Institution for Transforming India) was established on January 1, 2015. On August 13, 2014, the Government of Narendra Modi announced that it would abolish the 65-year-old planning committee and replace it with a new organization called NITI Aayog.

Like the Planning Committee, NITI Aayog was created by the Coalition Cabinet. NITI Aayog is a political think tank representing the Government of India. Provides technical advice related to the center and state. NITI Aayog has been replaced by a planning committee to better meet the needs and aspirations of the Indian people.

Configuration -The configuration of NITI Aayog is as follows:

(A) Chairperson-The Prime Minister of India is the chairperson of NITI Aayog.

(B) Governing Council -It consists of the Prime Ministers of all states, the Prime Ministers of the Union Territory, and the Lieutenants. Governor of another Union Territory.

(C) Regional Council -These consist of the Prime Minister and the Deputy Governor of the Union Territory of the region. These are led by the chair person(Prime Minister) of NITI Aayog or his deputy. These councils are formed to address specific issues and are formed over a specific period of time.

(D) Special Invitors -Special invitees are experts, professionals and practitioners with special knowledge and are appointed by the Prime Minister.

NITI Aayog Specialized Wings

NITI Aayog has a number of Specialized Wings

2.Consultancy Wing-It provides a market place of whetted panels of expertise and funding,for the central and state Governments to tap into matching their requirements with solution providers,public and private,national and international.

3.Team India Wing- Consists of representatives from all states and departments and serves as a permanent platform for national cooperation. Each representative confirms that all states / ministries continue to speak out and participate in NITI Aayog.

NITI Aayog is responsible for making recommendations, making decisions and implementing them to the central and state governments.

NITI Aayog Objectives

NITI Aayog has several objectives:

1. Particular attention should be paid to parts of society that are at risk of not fully benefiting from economic development.

2. Make sure that national security benefits are incorporated into the economic strategies and policies of the areas specifically mentioned.

3. Design strategic and long-term policy and program frameworks and initiatives, and monitor their progress and effectiveness.

4. Creating a system that supports knowledge, innovation and entrepreneurship.

5. Actively and frequently monitor and evaluate the implementation of the program.

6.To focus on technology upgradation and capacity building for implementation of initiatives.

7.To evolve a shared vision of national development priorities,sectors and strategies with the active involvement of States.

8.To develop mechanisms to formulate credible plans at the village level.

9.To provide advice and encourage partnerships between key stakeholders and national and international like minded think tanks.

What is comparative politics

What is comparative politics and it is strategies?Comparative politics is the take a look at and settlement of home Politics throughout Countries.It is particularly Inter Disclipinary.It is a subfield of Politics.It usually goal to Promote assessment in politics entities.It makes a speciality of Internal Structure.(like Parliament and executives),actor(voters,parties,hobby groups),processes(coverage making, communication,political culture).In totality,we are able to say that via way of means of Comparative politics we spotlight the inner Political Structure of every state;Their governing functions,what and the way choices are made and additionally how political areas are made,who have an effect on the political choices,how authorities engage with population.According to John Blondel, Comparative politics is”thee take a look at of styles of country wide governments withinside the cutting-edge world”.Comparative Governments goal is to sell universally legitimate concept.In different words,we are able to say that Comparative politics is the subfield of political technology that compares the pursuit of electricity throughout countries.Need for Comparative politics-1.We want Comparative politics to higher recognize how positive regimes paintings for functions of global members of the family and overseas coverage.2.It permits us to examine from different countries.3.One may have a deeper know-how of Merits and Demerits.4.It permits us to emerge as greater knowledgeable citizens.5.It sharpen our important thinking.Methods of Comparative Politics There are strategies of Comparative politics which are as follows- A.Traditional technique-It is particularly typical earlier than Fifties and conventional technique specially focus on theoretical take a look at of subject.i.e.,numerous kinds of organization or authorities,and their powers.Features of Traditional technique-1.Traditional technique is particularly slender in scope.2.Traditional technique is specially primarily based totally on Formal and legal.3.Traditional technique is procial.4.Tradtional tactics are by and large normative and stresses on cost of politics.5.It made little or no strive to narrate concept and research.There are many kinds of Traditional tactics-1.Philosophical Approach2.Historical Approach3.Institutional Approach4.Legal ApproachB.Modern Method-The political philosophers afterward found out the want to take a look at politics from a brand new viewpoint.These tactics are specially worried with medical take a look at of politics.The first innovation on this regard comes with the appearance of Behavioural Revolution in political technology.Features of Modern Approaches-1.These tactics draw end from empirical data2.These tactics pass past the take a look at of political systems and it is ancient analysis.3.Modern tactics consider in inter-disciplinary take a look at.4.They pressure medical strategies of take a look at and try to draw medical conclusions in Political technology.There are many kinds of Modern approach-1.Political monetary approach2.System approach3.Behavioural approach4.Structural-Functional