Political Parties

Political parties are groups of voluntary or organized individuals who share the same political views, seek political power through constitutional means, and work to promote national interests.

There are four types of political parties in modern democracies:

(i) A conservative political party that believes in the status quo.

(ii) A reactionary party clinging to an old socio-economic and political system.

(iii) The Liberal Party trying to reform the existing system.

(iv) A radical political party that aims to establish a new order by overthrowing existing systems. These parties are called left-wing, centrist, and right-wing parties. For example, in India, CPI and CPM are examples of left-wing parties, and centrist parliament and BJP are examples of right-wing parties.

There are three types of party systems in the world

(i) A one-party system in which there is only one ruling party, such as Eastern European countries and former communist countries such as the Soviet Union, and opposition is not allowed.

(ii) A two-party system with two major political parties, such as the United States and the United Kingdom

(iii) Multi-party system. There are several political parties, such as France, Switzerland, and Italy, that lead to the formation of a coalition government.

India’s party system

India’s party system has the following characteristics:

Multi-party system Numerous parties due to the continental size of the country, the diverse nature of Indian society, the introduction of a universal adult party system, the unique nature of the political process, and other factors.

Lack of a clear idealism With the exception of BJP and the two Communist Party, all other parties do not have a well-defined idealism. They are idealistically close to each other. Therefore, politics became problem-based rather than idealistic, and pragmatism replaced the attachment to principles.

One-party dominant party system Despite the multi-party system, India’s political situation has long been dominated by parliament. Therefore, prominent political analyst Rajni Kothari preferred to describe India’s party system as a “one-party dominance” rather than a “parliamentary system.”

Cult of personality is known to leaders, not manifests. It is true that Congress’s popularity was largely due to the leadership of Nehru, Indira Gandhi and Rajiv Gandhi. The emergence of local political parties Another important feature of India’s party system is the emergence of a large number of local political parties and their growing dominance.