The Bronze Age Harappa culture discovered in Harappa, Punjab, Pakistan was an original discovery. In 1853, A. Cunningham, a British engineer who became a great dredger and explorer, noticed the seal of Harappa. The seal had a bull and six letters on it, but he didn’t understand what it meant. Long after, in 1921, when Indian archaeologist Daya Ram sani began excavation, the possibility of the Harappa archaeological site was recognized. Around the same time, R.D. Historian Banerjee excavated at the ruins
of Mohenjo-daro, Sindh. Both found pottery and other ancient relics that show a developed civilization. The large-scale excavation was carried out in Mohenjo-daro in 1931 under the general supervision of Marshall. Mackay excavated the same site in 1938. The barrel was excavated in Harappa in 1940. In 1946, Mortimer Wheeler excavated Harappa, and pre-independence and pre-division excavations revealed important ancient relics of Harappa culture in various places where bronze was used. The culture of Indus or Harapan is older than the previously studied Chalcolithic culture, but much more developed than the latter as a culture using bronze. It developed in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent. It is called Harappa because this civilization was first discovered in 1921. In a modern location in Harappa, Punjab, Pakistan. To date, nearly 2,800 Harapan sites have been identified in the subcontinent. They are associated with the early, mature and late Pakistani Harappa culture. The third city was in Chanhu Daro, about 130km south of Mohenjo-daro, Sindh, and the fourth city was in Lothal, Gujarat, at the top of the Gulf of Khambhat. The fifth city of Kalibangan, which means the black bracelet of northern Rajasthan. The sixth Banawali is located in the Hisar district of Haryana.
City planning and structure
Harappa culture was notable in the system of city planning. Both Harappa and Mohenjo-daro had citadels or acropolises that could have been occupied by members of the ruling class. Under the citadel, there was a low tower of brick houses in each town where the common people lived. A notable point of the layout of the city house is that it follows a grid system where the streets intersect at almost right angles. Mohenjo-daro scored points against Harappa in terms of structure. The city monument symbolized the ruling class’s ability to mobilize the workforce in collecting taxes. The huge brick building was a way to instill the prestige and influence of their rulers in the common people.
The relatively rainless Indus area is not as fertile as it is today, but the prosperous villages and towns of the past prove to be fertile in ancient times. Today`s the rainfall is about 15cm, but in the 4th century BC One of the historians of Alexander informs us, that sindh was a fertile part of India. in earlier times, Indus region had more natural vegetation which contributed to rainfall.It supplied timber for baking bricks and also for construction.In course of time,the natural vegetation was destroyed by the extension of agriculture,large scale grazing and supply of fuel.