Chalcolithic Cultures

At the end of the Neolithic period, the use of metal was seen. The first metal used was copper, and some cultures were based on the use of both copper and stone tools. This culture is called the Chalcolithic and means the Chalcolithic.

Technically, the Chalcolithic applies to the pre-Harappa stage. However, in different parts of India, the Chalcolithic culture inherited the Bronze Age Harappa culture. During the Chalcolithic period, mainly stone and copper objects were used, but sometimes even inferior bronze and iron were used. They were primarily rural communities spread over a wide area with hilly land and rivers.

On other hand, the Harappans used bronze and had urbanized on the basis of the produce from the flood Plains in the Indus valley. In India, settlements relating to the Chalcolithic phase are found in southeastern Rajasthan, the western part of MP, Western Maharashtra, and in southern and Eastern India.

However, the most extensive excavations have taken place in western Maharashtra. Several Chalcolithic sites, such as Jorwe,Nevasa, Daimabad in Ahmednagar district; Chandoli Sonagaon, and Inamgaon in Pune District; and also Prakash and Nasik have been excavated. They are all related to the Jorwe culture, named after Jorwe , a type site on the left bank of the Pravara River, a tributary of the Godavari River in the Ahmed Nagar district. The Jorve culture owed much to the Malwa culture, but also shared elements of the Southern Neolithic culture. People in the Chalcolithic used small stone tools and weapons, but the stone blades and blades in them were important factors. In many places, especially South India, the stone blade industry flourished and stone axes continued to be used. People in the Chalcolithic used different types of pottery, one of which was called black and red and seemed to be popular until nearly 2,000 BC. from. It was moved and sometimes painted with a white liner design. This applies not only to the settlements of Rajasthan, MP and Maharashtra, but also to the residences in Bihar, West Bengal. People living in Maharashtra, MP and Bihar produced channeling pots, sand bowls and stand bowls. It is a mistake to think that everyone who uses black and red pottery belongs to the same culture. Black and red pottery from Maharashtra, MP and Rajasthan was painted, but East Indian agriculture had few such painted pots.