In this age of globalisation and commercialisation, everybody is looking for some avenue of gaining and not losing. The real estate developers have speeded up the process of urbanisation of the adjoining areas of the urban centres. The decreasing agricultural productivity and social injustices, poor villages are moving towards urban centres for sustenance and dream of better living conditions. Urban planners and policy makers see the migration as a necessary evil to meet the need of cheap labour for the domestic services and to meet the ever increasing demand for the cheap construction workers.
Migration is a two way process which is governed by the two prominent factors popularly known as the push factor and pull factor. Before, we start discussing the factors of migration, let’s define the term migration. Migration is the voluntary action of a group of people to move from one place of residence to another place for relatively longer period of time not for mere pleasure or recreation which tourist undertake. Migration can be classified into various categories like temporary and permanent, rural to rural, rural to urban, inter-state migration, international migration etc.
Having understood the basic character of the migration, we are in a position to move further in the direction of analysing the various factors of migration. Here, is necessary to discuss in detail the various push and pull factors that is fueling the process of migration. You will be surprised to know that the maximum number of the people who migrate from one place to others are the married women.
Lets discuss in some detail the push factors that lead to migration of the people. The economic sustainability of the family of small land holding farmers are becoming a serious problem due to subsequent subdivision of the ancestral land holding among the various members of the family. The snail pace of the rural development programmes are adding fuel to fire. The social discrimination among the different castes and creed lead to migration of well to do lower caste families in the urban areas for better and respectful living condition. The large scale famine and drought is now not coming in news but still some areas of the rural population are facing the challenge of meeting the basic necessities of life. The poor quality of the living condition forces many families to leave village. There are many smaller issues which can be overlooked like non-availability of basic amenities in rural areas.
Like the push factors that we discussed above, there are many pull factors that attract people from one place to other. The improved health and educational facilities in urban area attract a lot of well to do families from rural areas. The diverse economic opportunities in urban areas attract a lot of people who are in search of some economically sustainable vocations. The living style of the urban populace popularised by the cinema and television also acts as an incentive for migration to urban areas. There can be many more smaller ones like the easy availability of water and other amenities in urban areas which are also adding to the pull factor of the migration. The ethnic violence is a major source of international migration. The war, terrorism and civil strife (internal terrorism) also fuels the international migration.