Tag Archives: how to write a research paper step by step

What are the tips and hacks to get research paper?

As you know writing is one of the toughest tasks in the academic life of every student. pexels-photo-269810.jpegEspecially the academic future is at stake. If the stake is high, the stress is high, the pressure is high, and all of this will depends on the ability to getting together, point out and write the good paper of life. This is not easy to say, but somewhat we can easy to do. The first thing that you have to remember is never to submit to the offer of taking essays from the web. We live in the technological world, and if it is easy to take anything from internet, it is also the college professors to check the same by using the plagiarism checkers.

The following are some of the tips for completing a research paper.

Know the Assignment

Ensure that you are following to write an assignment. Ensure that you have to understand the expectations and requirements for completing the paper. How long must be the research paper is? Do you want to include any particular sources? Do you have any free sort of topics; is there any particular prompt for the same?

Start with a Good Argument

What are you going to write about? What is this research paper is trying to show or prove? Don’t just type each of the thought in the head in chase of which 2000 word count. The research paper must present a considerate, well-articulate argument which will reach a nuanced summary.

Then Back it up- Support the Argument

Having a powerful thesis statement is significant for any of the good research paper. How you can prove your point of view? With proof! Source and cite and source some more. Initial sources must point out on academic sources such as newspapers, journals, books etc. The secondary sources can be more different like interviews, magazines etc. Clearly, the sorts of sources wanted will depend on the research paper and the writing assignment. Some of the professors need a minimum number of resources. Ensure that you are always trying to follow the writing prompt.

Proofread and Proofread Again

As you know errors are death. Spelling and grammar mistakes can mainly hurt the final grade for the paper. And never trust on or rely autocorrect or any kind of spelling checkers for selecting up on everything that you write.

Say it in your own words- Don’t make Plagiarism

This must go without saying- but don’t be a copier. Plagiarism is a defilement of the academic code of every school. So you have to use your win words and voice while you write, with the number of resources online it can be alluring to just make copy and paste. But do the work and never take from any other sources. Most of the schools have plagiarism checking tool which will catch the plagiarism. It is not value it.

Avoid Words that you don’t know

Expanding the vocabulary is creditable but if you don’t really know the phrase or word don’t use it in the paper. Don’t feel the want to pepper the paper with the old SAT vocabulary words. If you can use a word wrongly, it will discredit the argument, and the teachers can see right through it.

Don’t use these words

The transitions like first, second, and third must be used interspersed and sparingly within the paragraph, rather than to pledge each of the paragraph. And also try to avoid the meaningless filler words such as accurately, additionally, simultaneously and factually, are not useful in proving or forming an argument. Removing the instances of wordiness will make the language sounds cleaner and more cultured.

Write and revise

First of all I would like to say congrats for finishing the first draft. Now the tough task begins. And in some energy. Ensure that you read through the research paper that will aloud to yourself. This will help you to catch the main errors but will also help to review the argument. PRO-TIP is that you can copy and paste the paper in to the Google translate and have it read back to you. Hearing the paper read loudly can provide you a new viewpoint, and will help with the editing

Get feedback-Don’t be Afraid to get Help

Each of the writers has a great editor. If that is someone to help to check and proofread for mistakes, or just ask someone to help for guiding you for a better laid out argument. Use all of the resources which are available for you. There is no shame in getting the academic writing help, and it is always better to have someone seek over the work before you are going to submit it.

In Conclusion

Ensure that the paper will leave a good impression. The conclusion or summary of the paper must be in the mica drop. This is the best chance to summarize the argument and also convince the reader.


Richard is a freelance content writer of one of the best college paper writing service. He is mainly focusing his writing passion to some of the educational and technology related blogs.


Long-Term Potentiation Research Paper


Long-Term Potentiation (LTP) is a process, which is mainly attractive for the contemporary neuroscience. In fact, this branch of science is relatively new, but at the same time, it is essential and profound research in this field is nowadays fundamental since they contribute significantly to better understanding of many processes traditionally hidden from a naked eye but which can define the life and normal functioning of a living being.

writing-research-brief383109052In this respect, it is particularly noteworthy to discuss the presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms which are integrally involved in the maintenance of LTP, and one of the primary goals of this paper would be to find out the role of these two different processes in the maintenance of LTP across different time periods and stages.

The essence of LTP

Before discussing presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms and their role and impact on LTP, it is primarily necessary to briefly define LTP and find out the core of this notion because it will naturally help to better understand the role of both mechanisms in the maintenance of LTP.

First of all, it should be said that LTP is traditionally defined as the long-lasting strengthening connection between two nerve cells (Westbrook and Guthrie 1984). Naturally, such a definition seems to be quite simple, but at the same time, it is insufficient for the profound understanding of the essence of LTP. This is why it is necessary to explain the nature of this notion mostly.

In this respect, it is possible to refer to practice. To put it more precisely, it should be said that the recent experiments have revealed the fact that “a series of short, high-frequency stimulations to a nerve cell synapse can strengthen, or potentiate, the synapse for minutes to hours” (Bliss and Lomo 1973:354). In other words, it is possible to estimate that the time of the strengthening of the synapse may last from several minutes to hours under the impact of specific stimulation on a nerve cell.

However, it should be pointed out that these results were received in the temporary situation while in nature, in living cells, LTP may occur readily under the impact of natural mechanisms and can last much longer than experiments showed. Notably, it can last not only for hours but even for days, months, and years.

Probably, it is necessary to briefly the mechanism of LTP to understand better its significance and the significance of period for which it lasts in nature. So, it should be said that LTP occurs in the result of the interplay of protein kinases, phosphatases, and gene expression. Eventually, this gives rise to “synaptic plasticity and provides the foundation for highly adaptable nervous system” (Otmakhova 2000:4451). Nowadays many specialists working on neuroscientific learning theories estimate that long-term potentiations along with its opposing process, long-term depression, are the cornerstone, the cellular basis of learning and memory.

It is why it is hardly possible to underestimate the value of this process and consequently the importance of further research in this filed, which is relatively new for the modern science because LTP was initially discovered in the mammalian hippocampus by Terje Lomo in 1966. In such a way, the research in this field has lasted even for less than a half of a century, but it does not make these investigations any less significant. It is not a secret that LTP remains in the focus of attention of many specialists.

In this respect, it is necessary to point out that the modern LTP studies seek to “better understand its biology, while other research aims to develop drugs that exploit these biological mechanisms to treat neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease” (Rogan et al. 1997:607). It is why the role of research concerning LTP is vital and, in such a situation, it is particularly important to find out the role of presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms in the maintenance of LTP across different time periods.

The role of presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms in the maintenance of LTP

Speaking about the impact of presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms on the support of LTP, it is necessary to underline from the beginning that there are defined two main phases. The first stage is an early phase which is traditionally defined as protein-synthesis independent phase (E-LTP). Remarkably, specialists note that this step may last for a relatively short period from one to five hours. The second stage is entirely different and, to a certain extent, contrary to the previous one. This phase is traditionally defined as the late phase (L-LTP), and it is a protein synthesis-dependent phase, which lasts for quite a long time from several days to months (Otmakhova 2000).

Speaking E-LTP, as it has been just mentioned above, produces a potentiation of a few hours duration. Specialists explain that it occurs in the result of “making the postsynaptic side of the synapse more sensitive to glutamate by adding additional AMPA receptors into the postsynaptic membrane” (Weisskopf 1999:10514).

In stark contrast, L-LTP results in “a pronouncing strengthening of the postsynaptic response largely through the synthesis of new proteins” (Weisskopf 1999:10515). These proteins include glutamate receptors, for instance, AMPAR, transcription factors, and structural proteins that enhance the existing synapses and form new connections.

Furthermore, it is also necessary to point out that some of the recent researches revealed that “late LTP prompts the postsynaptic synthesis of a retrograde messenger that diffuses to the presynaptic cell increasing the probability of neurotransmitter vesicle release on subsequent stimuli” (Otmakhova 2000:4449). At the same time, it should be pointed out that the conclusions made in the results of the researchers are highly hypothetical since they are obviously insufficient and need to be continued. In fact, it is really hardly possible to estimate that the researches that have been held in recent years are absolutely reliable because firstly, certain time is needed to provide sufficient pieces of evidence of the conclusions of the researches and, secondly, it is necessary to take into consideration the conclusions and results of further researches. To prove the low reliability of the researches, it should be said that the mechanism of L-LTP, which has been just proposed above, are only weakly supported by existing data. Moreover, some specialists in the field of neurobiology even doubt the very existing of L-LTP.

Nonetheless, to support the thesis of the significance of presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms in the maintenance of LTP, it is necessary to draw some practical examples of recent researches. For instance, according to the analysis of Esteban (2003) the researcher, is looking for the existence and functionality and existence of presynaptic mechanisms, arguments transmitter release in hippocampal slices. The researcher presented “simulations with a quantitative model glutamatergic synaptic transmission that includes modulation of the presynaptic fusion pore, realistic cleft geometry and a distributed array of postsynaptic receptors and glutamate transporters” (Esteban 2003:122)). Eventually, he concludes that such modeling supports the idea that “changes in the dynamic of glutamate release can contribute to synaptic silencing” (Esteban 2003:218).

At the same time, the research held by Nicoll may be summoned up as follows. First of all, paired-pulse facilitation thought to be emblematic of presynaptic change, not found in perforant path, where LTP occurs. Consequently, not presynaptic and as a researcher estimates both confirmed and challenged. Furthermore, AMPA component of glutamate response increased by LTP, consistent with the postsynaptic mechanism, whereas presynaptic would have affected both. Finally, the research showed that both failure rate and coefficient of variation of release, both consistent with presynaptic effect. By the way, it is noteworthy that Nicoll remarks that “the result is robust, but not conclusive” (2003:726).

The role of tetanic stimulation and importance of multiple systems for the control of LTP

On analyzing the research concerning LTP and both presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms, it should be said that tetanic stimulation can also play an essential role in this process as well as multiple control for LTP, which is also of paramount importance.

Speaking about the role of tetanic stimulation, it should be pointed out that, depending on its strength, tetanic stimulation can induce LTP and it will be either of a single pathway to a synapse, or cooperatively via the weaker stimulation of many (). Such a phenomenon may be explained by the fact that there is a stimulus threshold, which has to be reached to induce LTP.

Consequently, if one pathway into a synapse is stimulated weakly, it results in insufficient postsynaptic depolarization to induce LTP. On the other hand, when “weak stimuli are applied to many pathways that converge on a single patch of the postsynaptic membrane, the individual postsynaptic depolarisations generated may collectively depolarise the postsynaptic cell enough to induce LTP cooperatively” (Otmakhova et al. 2000:4449).

As for the importance of multiple systems for the control of LTP, it should be pointed out that such operation is needed objectively to receive reliable results of the research. Otherwise, it would be hardly possible to speak about scientific reliability of any research lacking such a system. At the same time, the development of the multiple systems for the control of LTP is another problem specialists currently face researching LTP because the development of such a system is also a severe problem since the research in this field are relatively new. Consequently, there is an absolute lack of reliable multiple methods for the control of LTP, which, as it has been just mentioned above, are essential.


Thus, taking into account all above mentioned, it is possible to conclude that presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms can play a crucial role in the process of LTP. It should be pointed out that the presynaptic mechanism’s maintenance of LTP may be defined in temporal terms as lasting from one to five hours. As for the postsynaptic mechanism, its maintenance of LTP may be defined respectively as varying from several hours to several months. However, it should be emphasized that the data of the research are still insufficient and it is still necessary to continue the investigation in this field.

Our team is grateful to a freelance writer hired by Smart Writing Service for sharing this research paper sample.