Eye Care In Digital Era ”


Today’s Human Civilization is Accustomed of Digital Tools and Surrounded With gadgets those operated Digitally, we interacts Every minute every hour with digital tools and and gadgets with the passage of epoch we had developed Advanced  systems, tools and mechanism to reduce physical efforts of humans and provide them an era of comfort, and introduce the entire civilization with ‘Digital Endeavour’ Where sitting before a computer system and on a single chair one can operate Significant number of operations involving corporate world ,Business, World of Entertainment etc. But this all had brought us to a stage of ‘Enslavement’ .It Seems Impossible to spend even a single minute without Mobile phones, Laptops, and digital Gadgets. All the deeds and operations are carried out by the means of digitalization and it is also the need of the hour. Today We spent long hours sitting before screens Emitting Blue Lights, UV rays which are Exceptionally Deteriorating for Eyes and Insensitive to eyesight give rise to various Significant Problems Like Dry Eyes, Eye Strain, Blurred Vision, Macular Degeneration and Computer Vision Syndrome, and have Capability even to Block the Colourful world.

So, In today’s world we must bring something in our Diet Schedules and Exercises that is enormously Important. Usage of foods and fruits and Subtle Exercises while working on screens can Sooth your Eyes.

: Fishes

Fish species like tuna,salmon, and mackerel etc. are composed of rich sources of Omega-3 fatty acids.This is very helpful and shows great effects in recovering dry eyes caused due to spending a lot of time on the computer system

: leafy green vegetables – 

Kale, spinach and collards are some of the leafy green vegetables highly composed of Zeaxanthin which is a crucial entity to protect eyes from long exposure to screen lights which are very hazardous to Retina and also helps in reducing risk of cataract.etc.

: Antioxidants and Citrus Containing Foods and-

Oranges, lemons and grapefruits are rich sources of Vitamin C which helps in protecting the capillaries of the retina and thus must be a part of daily dietary schedule

: carrots

Carrots are the most common available source of Beta carotene and vitamin A and believed traditionally in households for consumption and produce significant results to soothe eyes.

Alongwith Dietary plans We can introduce some crucial exercises in our daily domain to keep our eyes detected from any serious damage and problems. Subtle and habitual practices of some of exercises can exceptionally contribute to eye care. 


While working You must keep distance of 20-25 inches from screen and must keep eyes 4-6 inches above the centre.

:Light and Text Size

 While working on a system you must be aware regarding brightness and text size it may contract the cornea and can create eye contraction.You must keep font and brightness in Eye protecting mode.

:20-20 Rule-

After an interval of every 20 minutes while working you must take a gap for 20 sec and must look 20 feet around on surroundings to relax your eyes, etc.

pranab mukharjee-demise of a game changer of finance in india

Pranab Mukherjee is an Indian politician who served as the 13th President of India from 2012 until 2017. In a political career spanning five decades, Mukherjee has been a senior leader in the Indian National Congress and has occupied several ministerial portfolios in the Government of India

Former President Pranab Mukherjee passed away on Monday afternoon after he developed a lung infection at the Army’s Research and Referral hospital where he had been admitted for a brain surgery. This morning itself the hospital in a medical bulletin has said that Mr Mukherjee had gone into septic shock due to the lung infection. He had also tested COVID19 positive. 

Mr Mukhrejee’s son, former Lok Sabha MP Abhijit Mukherjee, announced his father’s death on twitter on Monday evening stating that despite the best efforts of doctors and prayers of ordinary Indians throughout the country, this had come to pass.

Former President Pranab Mukherjee. File

Mr Mukherjee, born in 1935 in Mirati in West Bengal first became an MP, in the Rajya Sabha in 1969 on a Congress nomination. Close to late prime minister Indira Gandhi, Mr Mukherjee held many ministerial positions in the government of India including defence, finance, and external affairs before he was elected President of India in 2012.

A Congressman all his life, Mr Mukherjee had a short break with the party in the Rajiv Gandhi years, over what was termed as his ambitions to be Prime Minister but which was subsequently explained as a misunderstanding in his memoirs. One of the few congressmen to have attended an annual function at the RSS headquarters in Nagpur, in 2018, Mr Mukherjee retained his friendships across party lines, despite heavy criticism from the Congress for his visit to Nagpur. 
He had went to each and every state to evaluate the budget needed for each and every state.He has been awarded with “BEST FINANCE MINISTER OF ASIA” In the year 2010.
His demise is a sudden shock and his service towards indian finance sector is irreplacable.

How Pranab Mukherjee used his Presidential campaign for the UPA's benefit

A teacher with a difference

What is life how can you define or determine it ? Life is an integral process of transformation that passes through inevitable circumstances with sometimes as camaraderie and amiable but sometime like oil of vitriol amid of this changing process the phase of transformation is very incumbent and accumulates and describes what you are and this process of change and transition does not ignites by itself it needs catalyst, changing agent and when I through back myself down the line about passing epoch I confronted with a portray of a person that produce so charismatic essence even today when I set alone and close my eyes and explore those reminiscing moments it seems like He just entered in the class with informal green T-shirt with blue jeans wearing slippers.

His entrance was not so grandiose and even his appearance did not reflect even the slightest count of what a NOBLE LAUREATE he was. But He had something so fervent like keen in a mustard that was clearly projecting from his bright charming and confident eyes with shining face full of enthusiasm and excitement. and here starts the story of my transformation and it was the beginning of a new phase a phase full of exploration, a phase of igniting inner conscious, a phase of Enlightment, a phase towards a journey to know unprecedented and unknown with a zeal to counter the every possible reason of every possible query.

Whenever I sat seriously and think profoundly an image struck within the fiction of my story who was the protagonist of my underlying story who was the Antony of my Drama. I used to be a simple serene and an unexperienced little boy like a juvenile sitting in the front bench of class and have nothing significant zeal to know or to grasp things but suddenly after the augmentation of that innovative guy the story starts spinning every time he Exhorted the class, and filled every single student with a perspective of enthusiasm and eagerness to know more. every time with every single class he came with a magic stick and produce tremendous effects that compel me to think seriously to change myself and pause a question before me. this is the time getup and join the inner conscious of this great legend pious and piety form of learning join this person.

Even today I have every single incident on my fingers about those classes, those channels and processes through which I gone through and stands today what am I? it is all happen because of that Great innovator a teacher with a difference. every time I came with hardest possible query but that great man great and grandiose person with magnanimous attitude respond with the best practical and innovative solution. Even today I had remembered those incidents, he always approach every single query and question with a different mindset, mindset composed of unique approach, multiple disciplinary methods, methods full of innovative solution with the best practice of practicality, and the most significant thing that was induced within me because of great Endeavour and efforts of that great guy was power to visualize the things, exceptional thinking to articulate the realm of subject with the domain of real world what a guy that was really remarkable and exceptionally wonderous hard to for tale and explain within the limits of words.

what is that within him that makes him so significant and inevitably masterful ? Do you like Football ! Do you like dance ! or whatever you like that person is classical to figure out within single stroke of a second, He just inject his inner spirit and soul and completely lost within the conscious of students with great amount of passion and zeal and act and respond as per the requirement. you are a science fellow He will just deal with you Science Demeanour, If you love solving mathematics equations, He will produces roots and solutions with multiple approach for you. he will shake you deeply with deep and profound words that have height as well composed desperate and deliberate essence to lift the inner zeal oaf an individual this is all made him dynamic with a separate mechanism and framing structure with equilibrium of great social traditional and cultural values. He had passed through many tough times lost his beloved peers but stand boldly and it was like every passing incident was building him rather depletion, but he never bend before the situations always remained inclined towards ‘NEVER GIVE UP’ and his famous quote and assertion that produce stimulus within the stagnant world of Any child That is ‘LETS US TRY’. So, iconic in himself that produced so deep impact on me and my life that I had build a dream to be his Best Student.

Thing That makes him Reminiscing and Audaciously the great Innovator and Tutor. whether it was play ground composed of his skills to make a goal within a short glimpse of eye or flick of the wrist while batting he was a great athlete he was a teacher who teaches us mathematical modelling inside the four walls of classroom, morality in the the interval session and great spirit of sports under the open roof on green carpet of DPS. I never saw him empty always found him whether preparing foundation for the future of students or exploring the innovative approach to satisfy the inner persona of not only himself but also to project the best outcomes about anything from history to philosophy to mathematics up-to the great horizon of sports. I had remembered one incident very well I never think about to dance on floor it was a terrible thinking even to whisper but look at the phase changing efforts of that great guy , he ignites the lamp of dance within me prepare only me but mentored a large group of students and within a month produce the best possible group dance, he was a choreographer, dancer a director a musician of his own and I will confess he was homogenous and omnipresent and that made to conclude about him and to articulate him with one great fictional personality plotted in English literature ‘A Man Who Knew TOO Much’.

Tremendously, I had walk through a great journey of learning with him He fortified my inner conscious he transformed me he changed me and built Who Am I today. He was An audacious personality Mr. Aadesh pundir.

So, To pay serious regards and Respect for such a NOBLE LAUREATE I have nothing to discharge and everything will be meager and negligible to showcase my gratitude for his generosity I have words, My respected god the pure and piety form of god My Gurudev Ji Accept my serious and bending regards for you.

For Honourable and respected Aadesh sir.


Motivation is a powerful, yet tricky beast. Sometimes it is really easy to get motivated, and you find yourself wrapped up in a whirlwind of excitement. Other times, it is nearly impossible to figure out how to motivate yourself and you’re trapped in a death spiral of procrastination. 

One of the most surprising things about motivation is that it often comes after starting a new behavior, not before. We have this common misconception that motivation arrives as a result of passively consuming a motivational video or reading an inspirational book. However, active inspiration can be a far more powerful motivator.

Motivation is often the result of action, not the cause of it. Getting started, even in very small ways, is a form of active inspiration that naturally produces momentum.

  • If your workout doesn’t have a time when it usually occurs, then each day you’ll wake up thinking, “I hope I feel motivated to exercise today.”
  • If your business doesn’t have a system for marketing, then you’ll show up at work crossing your fingers that you’ll find a way to get the word out (in addition to everything else you have to do).
  • If you don’t have a scheduled time when you write every week, then you’ll find yourself saying things like, “I just need to find the willpower to do it.”

Here are some examples of how you can apply ritual and routine to get motivated:

  • Exercise more consistently: Use the same warm up routine in the gym.
  • Become more creative: Follow a creative ritual before you start writing or painting or singing.
  • Start each day stress-free: Create a five-minute morning meditation ritual.
  • Sleep better: Follow a “power down” routine before bed.

Human beings love challenges, but only if they are within the optimal zone of difficulty. Tasks that are significantly below your current abilities are boring. Tasks that are significantly beyond your current abilities are discouraging. But tasks that are right on the border of success and failure are incredibly motivating to our human brains. We want nothing more than to master a skill just beyond our current horizon.

We can call this phenomenon The Goldilocks Rule. The Goldilocks Rule states that humans experience peak motivation when working on tasks that are right on the edge of their current abilities. Not too hard. Not too easy. Just right.

Working on tasks that adhere to the Goldilocks Rule is one of the keys to maintaining long-term motivation. If you find yourself feeling unmotivated to work on a task, it is often because it has drifted into an area of boredom or been shoved into an area of great difficulty. You need to find a way to pull your tasks back to the border of your abilities where you feel challenged, but capable.

Theodore Roosevelt famously said, “Far and away the best prize that life has to offer is the chance to work hard at work worth doing.” So often it seems that we want to work easily at work worth doing. We want our work to be helpful and respected, but we do not want to struggle through our work. We want our stomachs to be flat and our arms to be strong, but we do not want to grind through another workout. We want the final result, but not the failed attempts that precede it. We want the gold, but not the grind.

Lockdown and Mental Health

In March 2020, when the WHO declared the pneumonia-like virus as a pandemic, it overwhelmed countries all around the world. Educational institutions, workplaces, malls and airports were shut down, and we were all forced into a mandatory lockdown. This lockdown was tough for all of us, but we adopted some coping mechanisms to deal with the anxiety we felt. Slowly we adjusted to this new way of life. Now, about 5 months later, as countries ease their restrictions and we all step out of lockdown, we feel the same sort of anxieties we felt back then. 

We have to accept that the end of lockdown might be just as difficult as its start, and this transition can negatively impact our mental health. As workplaces and schools reopen, people fear being infected or passing on the virus to their loved ones. These fears are completely reasonable as the times are tough, and the virus is extremely contagious. However, we must find ways to cope with this fear and reduce our anxieties. This isn’t simple, but necessary. A few ways to make this transition easy on your mental health are:-

  1. Focus on the present 

The major fear most of us have is being infected with the virus. However, overthinking will do you no good, and only make you feel anxious. We have to stop thinking about the future, as it will only add to our suffering. Instead, one should try to live in the present and not let their imagination run amok. Realise the fact that the future is uncertain and no one can control it. Focus on what you have and do your best with it.

2. Limit your news consumption 

Although the news is extremely helpful and keeps us informed, sometimes news outlets tend to over exaggerate and dramatise the situation and portray it as much worse than it is. Nowadays, news fatigue has become very common. Absorbing all this negative content will do you no good. Limit the number of times you check the news and make sure your sources are trustworthy and evidence-based.

3. Talk it out

Bottling up one’s fears never does anyone any good. Talking to those you trust is helpful. The best thing you can do is consult a therapist, as it helps clear your mind and reduce your burden. Talking to your friends or family is also a good option, as familiarity can be a source of comfort. You can even try writing it down to ease the stress.

4. Go at your own pace

 Recognising that you need to go at the right pace for you is important. Don’t let others pressure you to change your pace or do something you don’t want to. At the same time, don’t let this be an excuse to not work hard. It can be difficult to see the world move on while you’re still stuck in the past, but don’t let this get you down and reassure yourself that one day and things will get back to normal for you too. 

Most importantly, don’t forget to stay safe and follow the proper guidelines for your country. Wear a mask, practise social distancing and wash your hands whenever you come back home. The times might be tough, but the human spirit remains undaunted.


About Breast Ironing

Breast ironing which is also known as the “breast flattening”, refers to the massaging and pounding of the girl’s breasts of the pubescent period, using the heated or the hard object, it is tried to either stop them from developing or to get disappear. It is carried out by the “misguided intention” of the close female of the victim, traditionally done by a grandmother, mother, aunt, or any female guardian. According to the United Nation, it is performed to protect the girl from the rape and sexual harassment and to prevent the early pregnancy which could corrode the family name and reputation. This allows females to pursue education instead of forcing them for early marriage.

Where Does It Happen

Breast ironing is common in West and Central Africa, including Guinea-Bissau, Chad, Togo, Benin, Guinea-Conakry, Côte d’Ivoire, Kenya and Zimbabwe and it’s particularly prevalent in Cameroon: there, the number of girls who have been subjected to breast, ironing is estimated to be as high as one in three (around 1.3 million)[1].

According to the United Nation’s worldwide data, 3.8 million teenagers have been affected by breast flattening. At least 1000 girls from the west African community of the UNITED KINGDOM have been subjected.

Health Consequence Of Breast Ironing

The use of hard objects and their force and lack of aftercare may develop some serious health conditions like:

  1. Itching
  2. Cysts
  3. Tissues damage
  4. Infection
  5. Abscesses
  6. Discharge of milk
  7. Severe fever
  8. Dissymmetry of breasts

Socialization Of Young Girls

Breast ironing has been an embedded part of the socialization of young girls from affected communities for quite some time.
The growth of a girl’s breasts during puberty is seen as linked to the emergence of her sexuality; if left unchecked, this will bring “problematic” and “destructive” implications for family and community status quo (patriarchy)

However, if we go by the research it suggests that the African mothers perform this to prevent the early marriages of their daughters and keep them longer for schooling. The mentality of the females shows the view that if the breasts were held back from the development then it cannot be viewed for the rapes and sexual harassment. However, their medical consequence is ignored.

Law Against Breast Ironing

There is no specific law regarding breast flattening within the UK and no one has even ever prosecuted for regulating such practice. Breast ironing is totally “illegal and child abuse”. The child is at risk of suffering physical and mental damage. This is a complex issue which is needed to be solved.

A Global Problem
A statement by the breast flattening survivor – “My mother took a pestle, she warmed it well in the fire and then she used it to pound my breasts while I was lying down then she took the back of a coconut, warmed it in the fire and used it to iron the breasts. I was crying and trembling to escape but there was no way.[3]”

Just a wonder such practice still get regulated somewhere in this world, where everyone is so educated and live such a modern lifestyle.

The breast ironing is situated with the ideology which looks the sexuality as shameful, which is denied and hidden. In the UK there runs a social movement called “The Girls Generation” for changing the social norms and social mindset. Still, this is a global problem. The focus needs to be put on the underlying inequalities which devalue the female body. Prohibition of such practices may hopefully bring new life and values to females.

It is a harmful cultural practice around the world that doesn’t get sufficient attention. Directly it’s a child abusive practice that ultimately reflects the female submissiveness and the complete control over female sexuality. There are still a million people in this world who don’t have a little thought about such harmful regulation. Such practice needs to get the awareness of the people and the government needs to take some action for its prohibition.

The female puberty is needed to be cherished but not to be held in the vulnerable hands. Ironing the breast is not the solution to prevent sexual harassment and rape against them.

Thousands of girls have been subjected to such practice which just causes cruelty towards them and this needed to get the stop. A female body is not a shame. The Female body is so beautiful in whichever manner it is formed by the almighty. No one should be given much power which could diminish its shine and beauty. Everybody is beautiful and needed to be protected.


What is happiness?

It seems like an odd question, but is it? Do you know how to define happiness? Do you think happiness is the same thing to you as it is to others?

What’s the point of it all? Does it even make a difference in our lives?

In fact, happiness does have a pretty important role in our lives, and it can have a huge impact on the way we live our lives. Although researchers have yet to pin down the definition or an agreed-upon framework for happiness, there’s a lot we have learned in the last few decades.

This article will dive into the science of happiness, what it actually is, and why it matters.

First, let’s take a look at the definition of happiness so we’re all on the same page. Oxford English Dictionary’s definition of “happiness” is a simple one: “The state of being happy.”

Not exactly what we were looking for, was it? Perhaps we need to dive a little deeper. Oxford English Dictionary’s definition of happy is a little more helpful: “Feeling or showing pleasure or contentment.”

That’s better! So, happiness is the state of feeling or showing pleasure or contentment. From this definition, we can glean a few important points about happiness:

  1. Happiness is a state, not a trait; in other words, it isn’t a long-lasting, permanent feature or personality trait, but a more fleeting, changeable state.
  2. Happiness is equated with feeling pleasure or contentment, meaning that happiness is not to be confused with joy, ecstasy, bliss, or other more intense feelings.
  3. Happiness can be either feeling or showing, meaning that happiness is not necessarily an internal or external experience, but can be both.

Now we have a better grasp on what happiness is—or at least, how the Oxford English Dictionary defines what happiness is. However, this definition is not the end-all, be-all definition of happiness. In fact, the definition of happiness is not a “settled” debate.

What Is the Meaning of Happiness in Positive Psychology?

The meaning of happiness in Positive Psychology really depends on who you ask.

Happiness is often known by another name in positive psychology research: subjective well-being, or SWB. Some believe happiness is one of the core components of SWB, while others believe happiness is SWB. Regardless, you’ll frequently find SWB used as a shorthand for happiness in the literature.

And speaking of the literature, you will find references to SWB everywhere. A quick Google search for the word “happiness” offers over 2 million results (as of January 6th, 2019). Further, a scan for the same term in two of psychology’s biggest online databases (PsycINFO and PsycARTICLES) returns 19,139 results from academic and other journals, books, dissertations, and more.

Is It Difficult to Define Scientifically?

With so many takes on happiness, it’s no wonder that happiness is a little difficult to define scientifically; there is certainly disagreement about what, exactly, happiness is.

According to researchers Chu Kim-Prieto, Ed Diener, and their colleagues (2005), there are three main ways that happiness has been approached in positive psychology:

  1. Happiness as a global assessment of life and all its facets;
  2. Happiness as a recollection of past emotional experiences;
  3. Happiness as an aggregation of multiple emotional reactions across time (Kim-Prieto, Diener, Tamir, Scollon, & Diener, 2005).

Although they generally all agree on what happiness feels like—being satisfied with life, in a good mood, feeling positive emotions, feeling enjoyment, etc.—researchers have found it difficult to agree on the scope of happiness.

However, for our purposes in this piece, it’s enough to work off of a basic definition that melds the OED‘s definition with that of positive psychologists: happiness is a state characterized by contentment and general satisfaction with one’s current situation.

Pleasure vs. Happiness

With the close ties between pleasure and happiness, you might be wondering how to differentiate between them. After all, the OED definition of happiness describes it as a state of feeling pleasure!

The association between the two makes sense, and it’s common to hear the two words used interchangeably outside of the literature; however, when it comes to the science of positive psychology, it is important to make a distinction between the two.

Happiness, as we described above, is a state characterized by feelings of contentment and satisfaction with one’s life or current situation. On the other hand, pleasure is a more visceral, in-the-moment experience. It often refers to the sensory-based feelings we get from experiences like eating good food, getting a massage, receiving a compliment, or having sex.

Happiness, while not a permanent state, is a more stable state than pleasure. Happiness generally sticks around for longer than a few moments at a time, whereas pleasure can come and go in seconds (Paul, 2015).

Pleasure can contribute to happiness, and happiness can enhance or deepen feelings of pleasure, but the two can also be completely mutually exclusive. For example, you can feel a sense of happiness based on meaning and engagement that has nothing to do with pleasure, or you could feel pleasure but also struggle with guilt because of it, keeping you from feeling happy at the same time.
VERDICT:-Happiness is the own wealth of us.

My last blog for WordPress

Hello my dear reader friends.

One months have passed since I started my content writing intersnship with WordPress under Hariyali NGO .

Shared 30 content here and got 125+ star likes on the post in this month and this internship helped me a lot to see if I am meant to be a content writer or not . This was a great start for me as a content writer eduindex platform has given a fresher a chance that’s pretty great of them.

Words can’t describe my feelings right now when I am confessing.

Last word I want to say is



In India, The Medical termination of pregnancy Act was passed almost five decades ago. But, Abortion is still considered a taboo and debatable topic for many. According to National study of the incidence of abortion and unattended pregnancies, Almost 15.6 million abortion was performed in 2015.

Currently, one out of four abortions are terminated in health facilities (Public sector) which is the main source of health care for paupers & almost 3 out of 4 abortions are careered by using MMA drugs from chemists and local vendors. After fifty years of legal legislation, most the women in India are still deprived of safe abortion care due to multiple reasons like lack of proper information, the difference in socio-cultural beliefs in different rural-urban areas. This article critically reviews the history of abortion law and highlights policies for Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act.

Life began from the womb of the mother and abortion is the destruction of life. Many people also raise questions on social, moral and legal aspects of abortion and according to them, women have a moral duty to give birth to a child and protect the fetus also. From this view, the obvious question arises whether the women have the right to abortion or not?

Abortion as a human right
Human rights are those rights which are available to all the human beings irrespective of caste, colour, creed, religion and nationality etc. Right to life is the most important human right. Article 6(1) of the International Covenant on Political and Civil rights prohibits the arbitrary deprivation of human rights.

Many controversies are related to this right and right to abortion is one of them. Every mother has a right to abortion but this right has to balance with the right of the unborn child. Earlier, abortion was opposed by society and considered as a murder of the embryo. In recent years, formal policies and laws are indicating the intent of government for promoting the reproductive rights and every woman has a complete right over her body

However, the validity of abortion laws has been questioned on the basis of the constitutionality of Right to life of an unborn child. This issue becomes a debatable topic in many countries especially The United States and Northern Ireland.

In the Leading Case: Roe v. Wade[1]
: Jane Roe challenged the constitutionality of Texas Criminal Abortion laws in the Supreme Court of The United States. The petitioner pleaded that these laws were vague, unconstitutional and encroaching her right to privacy. On the other hand, The The state of Texas argued that fetus is a Person within the meaning of the Due process clause of the fourteenth Amendment of the United States Constitution.

The Court held that the State cannot restrict the women’s right to abortion during the first trimester which try to balance the State’s interest with the individual’s interest. The State can regulate the procedure during the second trimester in a reasonable way related to maternal health and in third trimester, the State can restrict abortion in a way as it thinks fit.

Indian perspective on abortion

Abortion is strictly prohibited by the Smirtis, Vedas and Upanishads. But, it was still practised clandestinely because it was illegal. But, in 1971, after passing of the Medical termination of pregnancy Act, medical termination of pregnancy by registered medical practitioners becomes legal. The object of the Act was to eliminate the high incidence of illegal abortions and confer Right to Privacy to women which includes right to space and to limit pregnancy and the right to decide about her own body.

In the leading case of Suchita Srivastava v. Chandigarh Administration[2], The Supreme Court affirmed the women’s right to choose in respect of continuing pregnancy. The Supreme Court held that the state has an obligation to protect the reproductive rights of women as a part of Article 21 of the Indian constitution.

Section 3 of the MTP Act, 1971 Act lays down condition under which pregnancy can be terminated.
It can be terminated:

  1. Where the length of the pregnancy doesn’t exceed 12 weeks and medical practitioner is of opinion that,
  2. And if the length of pregnancy exceeds 12 weeks but doesn’t exceed 20 weeks and at least two registered medical practitioner has opinion that:
    1. Continuance of pregnancy involves a risk to life or grave injury to physical or mental the health of the women.
    2. There is a substantial risk involved that child would suffer from physical or mental abnormalities as to be seriously handicapped.
  3. If pregnancy is caused by rape.
  4. Failure of any device or method which is used by the married couple to limit the number of children.

Latest amendment in MTP act, 2020

  1. On 2nd March 2020, The MTP (Amendment) Bill was introduced by the Minister of Health and Family Welfare. The bill adds the definition of the termination of pregnancy to mean procedure to terminate by surgical methods.
  2. The bill amends the section 3 of the Act also. The termination of pregnancies up to 24 weeks only apply to the categories of women which may be prescribed by the central government. The central government also notify norms for the medical practitioners whose opinion are required for termination of pregnancies.
  3. Earlier, if the pregnancy occur as a result of the failure of any method or device used by married women or her husband to limit the number of children, it amounts to grave injury to the mental health of women. The Bill replace the married woman or her husband with women or her partner.
  4. The Bill also lays down the establishment of the Medical board for every state. The board will consist of the following members: 1. a gynaecologist, 2. a paediatrician, 3. a radiologist or sinologist and 4. Any other member who may be notified by the state government.
  5. The bill also promotes the Right to Privacy and states that no medical practitioner will reveal the name and other details of women whose pregnancy has been terminated, except to the person authorized by the law. Whoever violates this the rule shall be punishable with imprisonment which may extend to one year or fine or both.
  6. The Central Government will also notify the norms for a medical practitioner whose opinion is required for abortion.

Punishment for illegal abortion

Section 312 to 316 of the IPC deals with the penal abortion. It is covered under the offences against the human body.

  1. According to Section 312, Whoever voluntarily causes a woman with child to miscarry, shall, if such miscarriage be not caused in good faith for the purpose of saving the life of the woman, be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years, or with fine, or with both; and, if the woman be quick with child, shall be punished with imprison­ment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine. A woman who causes herself to miscarry, is within the meaning of this section.
  2. According to Section 313, Whoever com­mits the offence defined in the last preceding section without the consent of the woman, whether the woman is quick with child or not, shall be punished with 1[imprisonment for life], or with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.
  3. According to Section 314, Whoever, with intent to cause the miscarriage of a woman with child, does any act which causes the death of such woman shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine; If an act is done without woman’s consent.—And if the act is done without the consent of the woman shall be punished either with 1[imprisonment for life], or with the pun­ishment above mentioned.

View of supreme court on termination of pregnancy

  1. Case: Mrs X v. Union of India[3]: The Court held that women’s right to reproductive choice is also a dimension of her personal liberty under Article 21 of the Constitution and right to bodily integrity allows her to terminate her pregnancy and allowed the termination of 22 weeks old pregnancy.
  2. Case: Nikhil D. Dattar v. Union of India[4]: In this case, the validity of section 3 and 5 of MTP was challenged on the ground of non-inclusion of eventualities vires of the Act. The foetus was diagnosed with complete heart blockage. The petitioner sought to terminate the pregnancy after 26 weeks. The Petitioner also contended that section 5 should be read down to include eventualities In section 3 and directions should be issued to respondent to allow the petitioner to abort the child. The Court rejected the petition and held that since the period of 26 weeks has already passed, the court cannot pass any direction for exercise of any right under section 3nof MTP Act.
  3. Case: D. Rajeshwari v. State of Tamil Nadu & Ors[5]: In this case, The 18 years old unmarried girl prayed to terminate the pregnancy of child in her womb on the ground that bearing of the child for three months made her mentally ill and the continuance of pregnancy will cause a grave injury to her mental health. The Court granted the termination of pregnancy as it was a result of rape.
  4. Case: Murugan Nayakar vs. Union of India[6], The apex allowed the termination of pregnancy of 32 weeks old pregnancy of 13 years old victim after considering the age of victim, trauma she suffered due to sexual abuse and the report of the Medical board. The Court held that it is appropriate to allow the termination of pregnancy.

An evil practice can be curbed not by cutting the stems growing on the trunk above the ground, but by eliminating the roots standing beneath. Social awakening, equality, vigorous campaigning against female foeticide, honest and full enforcement of dowry prohibition, sexual harassment laws are the steps towards uprooting the practice of female foeticide[7]

The objective behind legislating the termination of pregnancy is to provide quality abortion care to all women by increasing accessibility and affordability to safe abortion. There is also a need to bring awareness regarding abortion and contraceptive methods among the youth especially. This requires political will, adequate facilities, infrastructure and training.


Cancer is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells anywhere in a body. These abnormal cells are termed cancer cells, malignant cells, or tumor cells. These cells can infiltrate normal body tissues.


  • Change in bowel or bladder habits
  • sore throat that does not heal
  • Unusual bleeding or discharge (for example, nipple secretions or a “sore” that will not heal that oozes material)
  • Thickening or lump in the breast, testicles, or elsewhere
  • Indigestion (usually chronic) or difficulty swallowing
  • Obvious change in the size, color, shape, or thickness of a wart or mole
  • Nagging cough or hoarseness
  • Unexplained loss of weight or loss of appetite
  • A new type of pain in the bones or other parts of the body that may be steadily worsening, or come and go, but is unlike previous pains one has had before
  • Persistent fatiguenausea, or vomiting
  • Unexplained low-grade fevers with may be either persistent or come and go
  • Recurring infections which will not clear with usual treatment


  • Carcinoma: Cancer that begins in the skin or in tissues that line or cover internal organs — “skin, lung, colon, pancreatic, ovarian cancers,” epithelial, squamous and basal cell carcinomas, melanomas, papillomas, and adenomas
  • Sarcoma: Cancer that begins in bone, cartilage, fat, muscle, blood vessels, or other connective or supportive tissue — “bone, soft tissue cancers,” osteosarcoma, synovial sarcoma, liposarcoma, angiosarcoma, rhabdosarcoma, and fibrosarcoma
  • Leukemia: Cancer that starts in blood-forming tissue such as the bone marrow and causes large numbers of abnormal blood cells to be produced and enter the blood — “leukemia,” lymphoblastic leukemias (ALL and CLL), myelogenous leukemias (AML and CML), T-cell leukemia, and hairy-cell leukemia
  • Lymphoma and myeloma: Cancers that begin in the cells of the immune system — “lymphoma,” T-cell lymphomas, B-cell lymphomas, Hodgkin lymphomas, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and lymphoproliferative lymphomas
  • Central nervous system cancers: Cancers that begin in the tissues of the brain and spinal cord — “brain and spinal cord tumors,” gliomas, meningiomas, pituitary adenomas, vestibular schwannomas, primary CNS lymphomas, and primitive neuroectodermal tumors


  • Site of the primary tumor
  • Tumor size and number of tumors
  • Lymph node involvement (spread of cancer into lymph nodes)
  • Cell type and tumor grade (how closely the cancer cells resemble normal tissue cells)
  • The presence or absence of metastasis


Cancer prevention, by avoiding its potential causes, is the simplest method. First on most clinicians and researchers list is to stop (or better, never start) smoking tobacco. Avoiding excess sunlight (by decreasing exposure or applying sunscreen) and many of the chemicals and toxins are excellent ways to avoid cancers. Avoiding contact with certain viruses and other pathogens also are likely to prevent some cancers. People who have to work close to cancer-causing agents (chemical workers, X-ray technicians, ionizing radiation researchers, asbestos workers) should follow all safety precautions and minimize any exposure to such compounds. Although the FDA and the CDC suggests that there is no scientific evidence that definitively says cell phones cause cancer, other agencies call for more research or indicate the risk is very low. Individuals who are concerned can limit exposure to cell phones by using an earpiece and simply make as few cell phone calls as possible.

IJR Journal is Multidisciplinary, high impact and indexed journal for research publication. IJR is a monthly journal for research publication.

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