The Mughal Empire

Indian history and culture are rich and dynamic. The country has been home to some of the worlds greatest empires, including the legendary Mughal Empire. Today let’s take a trip to the past, about 500 years ago, when the founder of the empire came to India and defeated Ibrahim Lodi to form the legendary Mughal Empire.

In 1524 the descendant of Genghis Khan and Timur, Babur came to India on the invitation of Daulat Khan, a rebel of the Lodhi dynasty, to overthrow the king of the dynasty, Ibrahim Lodhi. Many thought that he would leave the country after defeating Lodhi. Little did they know that he had no intention of doing so. Babur defeated Lodhi at the famous First Battle of Panipat in 1526 and established the Mughal Empire. He was opposed by Rana Sanga of Mewar, but the Rana was defeated in the Battle of Khanwa. Thus began the rule of the empire. 

Babur died in 1530 in Agra, where he was buried. Later, his remains were moved to Kabul as per his wishes. He was succeeded by his eldest son, Humayun. Babur had decided to divide the territories his empire between his sons, with Humayun succeeding his father to the throne of Delhi, and his half-brother Kamran Mirza inheriting the northernmost parts of his father’s empire. This was not a common practice in India at the time, but was a common Central Asian practice from the time of Genghis Khan. Many believed that Humayun was an unqualified king as he was only 22, and several of his brothers revolted against him when he came to the throne. 

In 1539, Humayun faced the founder of the Suri empire in India, Sher Shah Suri at the battle of Chausa. Humayun had to escape the battlefield to save his own life, and Suri was crowned the winner.He fled to the refuge of the Safavid Empire in Persia, and with their aid successfully won back his empire. The death of Sher Shah Suri and his successor Islam Shah rendered the Suri empire weak, and Humayun defeated the armies of Sikandar Shah Suri in 1555, re-establishing the Mughal Empire in India. Unfortunately, Humayun died due to an unfortunate accident. During his short time as a ruler, he managed to further expand the empire and was succeeded by his son Akbar.

Akbar was popularly known as Akbar The Great because of the many accomplishments he achieved during his successful rule. He defeated the Hindu king Hemu at the Second Battle of Panipat, which wasn’t far from the site where his grandfather had defeated the Lodhi’s, and occupied Delhi and Agra. After conquering most of Northern India, he sought to take over the Rajputana, and did so by defeating Pratap Singh who was the descendant of Rana Sanga at the legendary battle of Haldighati in 1576. Akbar introduced many social reforms during his time as ruler. He left a rich legacy for the Mughal empire was praised by many. He died in 1605, and was succeeded by his son Jahangir, a lover of literature, architecture and the fine arts. His successor, Shah Jahan is considered one of the greatest Mughal Emperors, and many believe that under his reign, the Mughal Empire reached its peak.Shah Jahan was imprisoned by his son Aurangzeb, who is considered one of India’s most controversial king. After his son Bahadur Shah Zafar died, the Mughal Empire declined significantly. The last ruler of the empire was exiled by the British East India Company in 1868.

The Mughals made several contributions to the culture of India, including the development of the Mughlai cuisine, large scale urbanisation, and the magnificent Taj Mahal. The Empire is considered to be one of the greatest ones in India

POTHOLES-crib dam instance

here you see what may be the remains of an old crib dam.   A crib dam is a man made structure of interlocking timbers (much like a log home) which is laid across a creek bed and filled with stones.  The intention of this crib dam may have been to regulate water flow and redirect water to a trench for use elsewhere.  As you can see, the crib dam continues to sufficiently regulate water flow.  But when water levels are high, the excess water begins to spill over the edges and create new pathways. 

The spillage on each side of the crib dam exhibits much more force on the underlying rock than the water that flows as intended through the dam.  Evidence for the amount of energy created by the water is found at the bottom tier, on the left side.  Looking closely, you may see a portion of a pothole.   A pothole is a circular or cylindrical hole in the riverbed which is produced by force of water and abrasion.  A pothole is formed when a circular current of water carrying small pebbles and sediment begins to wear away a rock surface. The force of water and the sediment it carries is greater than the resistance of the rock. Once the process has begun, it continues and the rock in that location continues to erode away.

Geologists associate potholes with large volumes of very turbulent water.  Most often they are thought to be associated with the melt water of a glacier.   This is likely the case here at Hungarian Falls, as we can point to additional evidence to demonstrate that glacial activity in this area was prominent in the last 1-2 million years.  As glaciers advanced, they scoured out the softer sediment, essentially wiping this area clean of any loose rock, and carrying it along.  The sediment being moved by the glacier, along with the structure of the underlying bedrock, together created the potential for potholes.  As glaciers retreated, and melting waters turned to phenomenal rivers, the sediment that they carried along with them did the work of carving out the hole in the creek bed.


Holidays provide a great change to students. They have a great significance for students. During the holidays, students are free from the burden of books. Students can devote time to their favorite pursuits.

Holidays are fun. These are the days of feasting and merry-making. Some teachers burden the students with holiday homework. This is not good. Students can be encouraged to do some kind of social work during holidays.

All work and no holiday make a student’s life dull and boring. For some students, holidays mean more work. They overburden themselves with work. This is not a good idea of spending holidays. A holiday is a free time and it should be spent in this spirit only. A holiday can bring great joy, if it is spent as a holiday.


Artificial intelligence (AI) makes it possible for machines to learn from experience, adjust to new inputs and perform human-like tasks. Most AI examples that you hear about today – from chess-playing computers to self-driving cars – rely heavily on deep learning and natural language processing. Using these technologies, computers can be trained to accomplish specific tasks by processing large amounts of data and recognizing patterns in the data.


The term artificial intelligence was coined in 1956, but AI has become more popular today thanks to increased data volumes, advanced algorithms, and improvements in computing power and storage. Early AI research in the 1950s explored topics like problem solving and symbolic methods. In the 1960s, the US Department of Defense took interest in this type of work and began training computers to mimic basic human reasoning. For example, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) completed street mapping projects in the 1970s. And DARPA produced intelligent personal assistants in 2003, long before Siri, Alexa or Cortana were household names. This early work paved the way for the automation and formal reasoning that we see in computers today, including decision support systems and smart search systems that can be designed to complement and augment human abilities.


  • AI automates repetitive learning and discovery through data. But AI is different from hardware-driven, robotic automation. Instead of automating manual tasks, AI performs frequent, high-volume, computerized tasks reliably and without fatigue. For this type of automation, human inquiry is still essential to set up the system and ask the right questions.
  • AI adds intelligence to existing products. In most cases, AI will not be sold as an individual application. Rather, products you already use will be improved with AI capabilities, much like Siri was added as a feature to a new generation of Apple products. Automation, conversational platforms, bots and smart machines can be combined with large amounts of data to improve many technologies at home and in the workplace, from security intelligence to investment analysis.
  • AI adapts through progressive learning algorithms to let the data do the programming. AI finds structure and regularities in data so that the algorithm acquires a skill: The algorithm becomes a classifier or a predictor. So, just as the algorithm can teach itself how to play chess, it can teach itself what product to recommend next online. And the models adapt when given new data. Back propagation is an AI technique that allows the model to adjust, through training and added data, when the first answer is not quite right.
  • AI analyzes more and deeper data using neural networks that have many hidden layers. Building a fraud detection system with five hidden layers was almost impossible a few years ago. All that has changed with incredible computer power and big data. You need lots of data to train deep learning models because they learn directly from the data. The more data you can feed them, the more accurate they become.
  • AI achieves incredible accuracy through deep neural networks – which was previously impossible. For example, your interactions with Alexa, Google Search and Google Photos are all based on deep learning – and they keep getting more accurate the more we use them. In the medical field, AI techniques from deep learning, image classification and object recognition can now be used to find cancer on MRIs with the same accuracy as highly trained radiologists.
  • AI gets the most out of data. When algorithms are self-learning, the data itself can become intellectual property. The answers are in the data; you just have to apply AI to get them out. Since the role of the data is now more important than ever before, it can create a competitive advantage. If you have the best data in a competitive industry, even if everyone is applying similar techniques, the best data will win.


Artificial intelligence is going to change every industry, but we have to understand its limits. The principle limitation of AI is that it learns from the data. There is no other way in which knowledge can be incorporated. That means any inaccuracies in the data will be reflected in the results. And any additional layers of prediction or analysis have to be added separately. Today’s AI systems are trained to do a clearly defined task. The system that plays poker cannot play solitaire or chess. The system that detects fraud cannot drive a car or give you legal advice. In fact, an AI system that detects health care fraud cannot accurately detect tax fraud or warranty claims fraud. In other words, these systems are very, very specialized. They are focused on a single task and are far from behaving like humans.


As we all know rape is considered as a heinous crime in our society. Section 375 of Indian Penal Code defines the offence of rape and its essentials, while section 376 prescribes punishment with death or life imprisonment.

Under section 375 a man commits rape upon a woman under following circumstances:

  1. Against her will
  2. Without her consent
  3. When her consent is obtained by threat or fear of injury to person she is interested in.
  4. When consent is obtained by fraud or misconception of fact person representing to her as husband.
  5. With her consent when obtained by reason of unsoundness of mind or state of intoxication
  6. With or without consent when the age of woman is under 18.
  7. When she is not able to communicate her interest

After the Nirbhaya Gang Rape case: there have been demand from jurists, social workers to amend the existing laws the old laws did not provide any stringent punishment to the rapist. So the law commission decided to amend existing procedural and substantive rape laws of the country.

Section 376A was added and onus to prove innocence was shifted on the accused and identity of the victim was said to be kept confidential by the courts. Custodial and rape during the judicial separation were also included in the other words the whole rape law was changed.

The Supreme Court in many cases interpreted the section 375 one of the landmark case Dileep Kumar v/s.; State Of Bihar demarcated Against her will means sexual intercourse despite resistance whereas Without her consent means absence of proper deliberation and intelligent case.

The court also held that a false promise to rape does not amount to work if the accused is able to show that his intention was not dishonest from the beginning. Also section 90 cannot be clothed in language to convict the accused section 90 deals with consent given under misconception.

Uday vs. State of Karnataka:

It was the first time Supreme Court held that consent given on false promise to marry cannot come under section 375. It would depend on facts and circumstances of each case like the age, social and educational background of that victim, her status in the society would also be taken in to consideration.

Whereas in State of Uttar Pradesh vs. Naushad held that from the beginning accused did not have intention to marry the victim so the prima facie evidence is against the accused. In my opinion there is a difference between mere breach of promise and false promise to marry the intention will be inferred from the conduct of accused
In Gurmit Singh vs. State of Punjab while holding the accused liable under section 376 consent and submission are not of same meaning. A consent given under force or duress vitiate a valid consent.

It should be noted that penetration is sufficient to constitute the offence of rape
Some landmark cases are Raghubir Singh vs. State of Himachal Pradesh, Mohan Singh vs. National territory of Delhi

After reviewing the landmark cases I have reached the conclusion that sections 375 is a complete rode and section 90 holds no application in the offence of rape. Therefore the law makers have rightly amended the existing rape laws which were repugnant with the social conditions. There have been major developments in the field of law like the minimum punishment for the rape is not less than 7 years. We can only hope from the society that they will be bound by the rules .

little women

“I’ve got the key to my castle in the air, but whether I can unlock the door remains to be seen.” 

-Louisa May Alcott, Little Women

In 1868, Louisa May Alcott was asked by her publisher to write a novel about girls that would be appealing to the masses. This was something new and challenging to her as she had spent all her life writing short stories. Also, she didn’t want to write a story from the female perspective as the only story she knew of was of her sisters. She was initially hesitant but chose to write the novel. Little did she know that her book would be an instant success and would still be read and admired by people centuries after her death.

Little Women was published in 1868 and recounts the story of four sisters: Meg, Jo, Beth, and Amy March. The book is loosely based off of Alcott’s own life, and many believe that she is the Jo March of her family. It is set in Massachusetts at the time of the American Civil War. On their first Christmas without their father, the March sisters and their mother, Marmee March, decided to give their Christmas breakfast away to an impoverished and starving family. When they returned, they found out that their neighbour, Mr Laurence had sent over a surprise breakfast. This leads to the two families getting closer to each other, and the March Sisters getting acquainted with Theodore “Laurie” Laurence, Mr Laurence’s nephew. 

One of the reasons why Little Women was an immediate success and remains relevant years after the author’s death is because of its realism and a perfect portrayal of sisterhood. The sisters are not particularly glamorous characters and lead ordinary lives, yet one likes them as they can relate to them. For example, when Jo refused to take young Amy to the theatre with Meg and Laurie, Amy burned down Jo’s manuscript, on which she had been working for ages. While this is not pretty to read, it is accurate as Amy was 12, and this is an accurate response from someone of her age. Her burning down of the manuscript led to Jo being extremely angry at her, and she vowed never to talk to her again. Yet, when Amy chased after Jo after feeling remorse, and almost died by falling through the thin ice at the river, Jo saved her and even made up with her. This shows that no matter how angry one is with their sibling, they still love them and would do anything for them.

Alcott also manages to perfectly capture the feeling of growing up and leaving your childhood innocence behind. Meg gets married and moves out, Jo rejects Laurie’s proposal and moves to New York to write, Beth becomes sick and eventually passes away, and Amy goes to Europe with her aunt where Laurie proposes to her after being rejected by Jo. Slowly they all leave their comfort zone behind and face the tribulations one faces when they become distant from family as they grow up. Yet, all the sisters reunite and show that their bond is stronger than ever.

Alcott gave her characters distinct and bold personalities and the women who read it at that time related to the March Sisters and felt the need to have more “public” identities and follow their ambitions. Alcott even planned to let Jo remain unmarried, but she eventually decided to get her married which lead to Jo abandoning her writing career, though Alcott remained unmarried all her life. This book has stayed relevant to date and is still beloved by the people. Generations of readers have fallen in love with this masterpiece. It is an extremely captivating story, one you won’t be able to put down.


Winning a game or being the best in the class gives children a good feeling about themselves and makes them proud. It shows them that they are good at something which builds their self-confidence.

A confident child is more likely to develop a ‘can-do-attitude’. This is because the experience of winning helps children get motivated to take the next steps to achieve even bigger goals, such as jumping even further. Competition is also helpful to inspire children to do more than is required. This is an ability that prepares children for a variety of situations in their future lives, when it is up to them to make the decision whether they want to be part of the crowd or to be recognized for going a step further. In that sense, winning competitions helps children to succeed.

The feeling of winning prepares children to think more strategically. In board games, children know that they can only win by being more clever than their opponents and children who know that they need to follow the rules will start thinking more strategically in order to win the game. Placing emphasis on thinking more strategically to win games also helps children win by learning to follow the rules. By winning and following the rules, children learn that they can win without cheating, but by accepting the same set of rules that the opponent has to follow.

Separation of Powers

As the title of the article itself suggests that it describe the separation of the powers, the division of the power between different organs like the human body, the work is distributed among different organs not centralized in the particular, brain is the central organ as it regulates control coordination in the whole body. The separation of the power is like it is, the power is distributed and not centralized in the single organ.

As we know, democracy has three organs – executive, judiciary, legislature and the power distributed them accordingly. When we talk the executive organ, we have the union and state. The separation of power is given by the Montesquieu. According to this theorem, the separation of the power is defined as the power is distributed among different organs it is not centralized on the single body. It’s just to avoid the arbitrariness of the central organ, and to keep check and balance between different organ, a famous line the power corrupts and absolute power corrupts absolutely. Which in simple words that the, if power is absolute to a single organ it corrupts that source. When we dealing with this topic many questions just stuck in our mind, but we all know that if the whole power is given to the union then it creates arbitrary in the nation. It likes patriarchy, monarchy rather than democracy. As democracy have the ideology of the republic, so it maintains the checks and balance between the different organs. For example, the decentralization between the state and the union gives many matters to deal independently. The State has the power to make its own regulations regarding the policy. Like in COVID states have the authority related to unlocking policy accordingly the cases of their state. So with this example, we can understand, the decentralization concept. This also helps in the development of the local government as the state government can take look on the local self -government like panchayat. Now when we talk about the separation of the power it is given that legislative, executive, judiciary works independently but there are certain checks and balance imposed on them with the different organs. Like in the constitution it is given article 123 president is the executive head of the state but at a certain condition, it works as the legislative power. At the same time as in article 121, 211 talks about the state legislature and union legislature cannot talk about the High court and the Supreme Court proceedings and the conduct of the judges. Like there is a concept of Judicial review that the judiciary can strike down any law passes by the legislature if it has the unconstitutional in nature. If the law is against the supreme law, then the judiciary has the power to called that particular law as unconstitutional. In this manner, we can say that the judiciary has the check and balance over the legislative and executive, in the same manner, the legislative and executive have check balance over the judiciary but it doesn’t mean they have complete control over the organ but it is just to avoid the arbitrariness of the one organ. In this manner, the democracy gives the rights to an individual to express ones but at the same time there is a certain provision in the constitution just to avoid arbitrariness of the organ and the power is not centralized in the ingle organ but it is distributed among different organ accordingly.

Rule of Law
Rule of Law

archimedes-the unseen mathematician and scientist

Archimedes of Syracuse was a Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer, inventor, and astronomer. Although few details of his life are known, he is regarded as one of the leading scientists in classical antiquity.
BCE, Syracuse), the most-famous mathematician and inventor in ancient Greece. Archimedes is especially important for his discovery of the relation between the surface and volume of a sphere and its circumscribing cylinder. He is known for his formulation of a hydrostatic principle (known as Archimedes’ principle) and a device for raising water, still used in developing countries, known as the Archimedes screw.
Archimedes probably spent some time in Egypt early in his career, but he resided for most of his life in Syracuse, the principal Greek city-state in Sicily, where he was on intimate terms with its king, Hieron II. Archimedes published his works in the form of correspondence with the principal mathematicians of his time, including the Alexandrian scholars Conon of Samos and Eratosthenes of Cyrene. He played an important role in the defense of Syracuse against the siege laid by the Romans in 213 BCE by constructing war machines so effective that they long delayed the capture of the city. When Syracuse eventually fell to the Roman general Marcus Claudius Marcellus in the autumn of 212 or spring of 211 BCE, Archimedes was killed in the sack of the city.
Far more details survive about the life of Archimedes than about any other ancient scientist, but they are largely anecdotal, reflecting the impression that his mechanical genius made on the popular imagination. Thus, he is credited with inventing the Archimedes screw, and he is supposed to have made two “spheres” that Marcellus took back to Rome—one a star globe and the other a device (the details of which are uncertain) for mechanically representing the motions of the Sun, the Moon, and the planets. The story that he determined the proportion of gold and silver in a wreath made for Hieron by weighing it in water is probably true, but the version that has him leaping from the bath in which he supposedly got the idea and running naked through the streets shouting “Heurēka!” (“I have found it!”) is popular embellishment.
According to Plutarch (c. 46–119 CE), Archimedes had so low an opinion of the kind of practical invention at which he excelled and to which he owed his contemporary fame that he left no written work on such subjects. While it is true that—apart from a dubious reference to a treatise, “On Sphere-Making”—all of his known works were of a theoretical character, his interest in mechanics nevertheless deeply influenced his mathematical thinking. Not only did he write works on theoretical mechanics and hydrostatics, but his treatise Method Concerning Mechanical Theorems shows that he used mechanical reasoning as a heuristic device for the discovery of new mathematical theorems.
There are nine extant treatises by Archimedes in Greek. The principal results in On the Sphere and Cylinder (in two books) are that the surface area of any sphere of radius r is four times that of its greatest circle (in modern notation, S = 4πr2) and that the volume of a sphere is two-thirds that of the cylinder in which it is inscribed (leading immediately to the formula for the volume, V = 4/3πr3). Archimedes was proud enough of the latter discovery to leave instructions for his tomb to be marked with a sphere inscribed in a cylinder. Marcus Tullius Cicero (106–43 BCE) found the tomb, overgrown with vegetation, a century and a half after Archimedes’ death.
The Sand-Reckoner is a small treatise that is a jeu d’esprit written for the layman—it is addressed to Gelon, son of Hieron—that nevertheless contains some profoundly original mathematics. Its object is to remedy the inadequacies of the Greek numerical notation system by showing how to express a huge number—the number of grains of sand that it would take to fill the whole of the universe. What Archimedes does, in effect, is to create a place-value system of notation, with a base of 100,000,000. (That was apparently a completely original idea, since he had no knowledge of the contemporary Babylonian place-value system with base 60.) The work is also of interest because it gives the most detailed surviving description of the heliocentric system of Aristarchus of Samos (c. 310–230 BCE) and because it contains an account of an ingenious procedure that Archimedes used to determine the Sun’s apparent diameter by observation with an instrument
so these are the some of the proposals.


 The act of intentionally causing one’s own death is called suicide. Suicidal behavior refers to talking about or taking actions related to ending one’s own life. Suicidal thoughts and behaviors should be considered a psychiatric emergency.

Warning signs that a person may commit suicide include:

  • talking about feeling hopeless, trapped, or alone
  • saying they have no reason to go on living
  • making a will or giving away personal possessions
  • searching for a means of doing personal harm, such as buying a gun
  • sleeping too much or too little
  • eating too little or eating too much, resulting in significant weight gain or loss
  • engaging in reckless behaviors, including excessive alcohol or drug consumption
  • avoiding social interactions with others
  • expressing rage or intentions to seek revenge
  • showing signs of extreme anxiousness or agitation
  • having dramatic mood swings
  • talking about suicide as a way out

Talk to someone who is feeling suicidal in the following manner:

  • stay calm and speak in a reassuring tone
  • acknowledge that their feelings are legitimate
  • offer support and encouragement
  • tell them that help is available and that they can feel better with treatment

Danger alarm:

  • putting their affairs in order or giving away their possessions
  • saying goodbyes to friends and family
  • having a mood shift from despair to calm
  • planning, looking to buy, steal, or borrow the tools to complete a suicide, such as a firearm or medication

Help the person by:

  • Call 911 or your local emergency number.
  • Stay with the person until help arrives.
  • Remove any guns, knives, medications, or other things that may cause harm.
  • Listen, but don’t judge, argue, threaten, or yell.

Factors that increase the risk of suicide:

  • incarceration
  • mental illness
  • previous attempts and self-harm
  • psychoocial factors
  • poor job security or low levels of job satisfaction
  • history of being abused or witnessing continuous abuse
  • being diagnosed with a serious medical condition, such as cancer or HIV
  • being socially isolated or a victim of bullying or harassment
  • substance use disorder
  • childhood abuse or trauma
  • family history of suicide
  • previous suicide attempts
  • having a chronic disease
  • social loss, such as the loss of a significant relationship
  • loss of a job
  • access to lethal means, including firearms and drugs
  • being exposed to suicide
  • difficulty seeking help or support
  • lack of access to mental health or substance use treatment
  • following belief systems that accept suicide as a solution to personal problems

People are at risk because of the following:

  • medications
  • mental health
  • substance abuse

Treatment of people at risk:

  • talk therapy
  • medications ( antidepressants, antipsychotic medications, anti-anxiety medications)
  • avoiding alcohol and drugs
  • sleeping well
  • exercising regularly

Ways to prevent suicidal thoughts:

  • talk to someone
  • take medications as directed
  • never skip an appointment
  • pay attention to warning signs
  • eliminate access to lethal methods of suicide

WHO recommends four key interventions which have proven to be effective:

  • restricting access to means
  • working with the media to ensure responsible reporting of suicide.
  • helping young people develop skills to cope with life’s pressures
  • early identification and management of people who are thinking about suicide or who have made a suicide attempt, keeping follow-up contact in the short and longer-term

IJR Journal is Multidisciplinary, high impact and indexed journal for research publication. IJR is a monthly journal for research publication.

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