5 Productive Brainstorming Techniques for Collaboration

The unrivaled process for exploring ideas and developing new strategies is only made possible through brainstorming. Knowing how to reach your creative energy’s potential is a lot more extensive than the conventional idea of sitting in front of a whiteboard with an expo marker in hand while scratching off ideas. There are tons of revitalized and new brainstorming methods to meet your needs for whatever project or idea you have in mind. Listed below are some of the most effective strategies when it comes to finding new ideas. Through these, it can help change your perspective and help you or a group come to a solid conclusion. It is important to note that these ideas are not linear and can be adapted to fit every individual. 

            Brainwriting

            This is a nonverbal method of brainstorming where everyone sits down and writes their first three ideas that come to mind. This process will take around seven minutes or so, because it is suggested that everyone really digs deep. After the group has finished, they will then pass their list to the person on their right. Each person will then build off the ideas on their group mates’ card, adding bullet points or new strategies. Once about three or so minutes, the group passing along their cards once again. This process will continue until everyone’s list has made it around the table. Afterwards the members in the group discuss and decide which ideas were the most solid. The brainwriting method technique prevents some of the biggest pitfalls in the brainstorming process. Brainwriting ensures that all members of the group have been heard and understood, eliminating any bias towards the beginning ideas. 

            Brain Netting 

            For this group technique, all you will be required to do is write down your ideas with your peers. This open discussion usually has a Google doc where everyone can put ideas in as it comes whenever the creativity hits. By doing this, it gives all parties involved the freedom to come and go depending on their schedules. Once everyone has contributed, it is highly important to follow up so that a particular idea can be decided upon. After jotting down some thoughts, you can host a real-time meeting with everyone involved. If your team happens to be spread apart, you can unite everyone over a video chatting service. This idea puts everyone in the same ball field by participating as they please. The online brainstorming and outlining tool Braincat provides an excellent method to use the brain netting, by offering a wide variety of thought provoking questions. 

            Rapid Ideation

            In this technique, everyone takes a few minutes to write down as many ideas as possible before the time is up. This is incredibly helpful for the groups that tend to shoot each other’s ideas down before they have time to develop, evolve, and transform into something fruitful. Everyone will have the space to truly capture the essence of their ideas before they are critiqued. Rapid ideation avoids premature deconstruction of potentially great ideas. If a time constraint is imposed it prevents individuals from talking themselves down before ever sharing their idea, which is a common brainstorming mistake. 

            Figure Storming

            With figure storming, the group will select a prominent figure who is not currently in the working space. It could be the company CEO, a superhero, or a well-known person among your peers. After selecting the figure, the group will try and put themselves in their shoes by discussing the problem or idea form their point of view. By seeing things from this person’s perspective, it can offer a new way to approach the problem or project at hand. This method can be embarrassing for some teammates because they would be attaching their idea to someone other than themselves.  Make sure to be open and honest during this discussion so everyone is unaffected from the shame of dissociation their idea. This method also dissolves barriers that limit the creative thinking process like time or budget. 

            Star Charting 

            This is a brainstorming technique that comes in the later stages of the process. Once the group has already decided on the idea, they will elaborate and then potentially decide on how it is executed. After the decision is made, the team will put the idea at the center of a whiteboard (chalkboard, posterboard etc.) and then make a six-point star around it. Each point on the star represents the key questions: who, what, when, where, why, and how. Other questions which may be of fruitful discussion; What is our target audience? When will it be a good time or timeframefor this project? What is motivating us? Proposing an ideain this way allows the person who created it to be freed from defending their point of view or trying to figure it out on their own. 

            Once you have finally decided on the technique, it is time to get to work. Some say the most important part of brainstorming is quantity over quality. The best way to guide your team to new approaches is by being as encouraging as possible, which can often lead to powerful insights. 

Social Media: Connect or Distract?

Social media is an issue that should be considered most because it is a platform that is being used worldwide by the people and mostly by the youth. Now, the question comes up that does social media connect or distract us from the real world? So the answer to this can be yes or can be no. A few feel like social media is a part of a new era or generation that thinks social media connects with the people or provides effective and truthful information to them though a few believe that it distracts people from reality. Else makes them addicted to using it. Social media is making an unobserved entrench among the people. Therefore, it is needed to make a note of the usage of social media.

Social media platforms are connecting to the real people yet besides diverting the real people from reality. For instance, an individual living in India and the rest of his/her companions lives in other nation then social media is a boon to them whereas an individual having a get together with his/her friends and they all are using social media instead of interacting with each other then social media is a bane to them. Even though technology is growing faster and through technology, we are also progressing for our benefit. Earlier, social means spending time with family or gatherings with friends, etc. However, presently it’s simply changed absolutely on account of developments and innovation. People are considering social as a means of spending time on social media without interacting with friends in real.

Let’s take a look at some comparative facts:

  1. People are easily able to connect anywhere or anytime but leaving some alone with themselves and their musings.
  2. People are engaging socially rather than engaging with those people who physically present with us.
  3. People maintain a good relation socially but enable us to maintain it in real life.
  4. People will save moments on social media rather than remembering them in reality.
  5. People obsess themselves with social media rather than obsessing with real people or reality.

Similarly, social media is a platform where people are unable to decide whether they connect or distract from the real world. Social media contains both negative as well as positive effects. However, it is very often we spend time with our friends or relatives like dinner or gatherings. This precisely looks like online media enslavement. As in if we are eating ,however, checking our smartphones or social media for the latest updates.  Although keeping on updates is not off-base but it will be better rather in your spare time. For me, it connects to real people but also disconnects from the real world. Hence, it’s typically paradoxical. Taking everything into account, social media can give a lot to us but at the same time can distance us from reality. All is needed to understand how to prioritize social media and the time.

“In a world of algorithms, hashtags, and followers, know the true importance of human connection.”- By an influencer

Yogasana gets formal recognition as a competitive sport

The Sports Ministry of India formally recognised Yogasana as a competitive sport which will soon be introduced in Khelo India, University level and National Games. This was declared in a conference held by the Union Minister of State for AYUSH Shri ShripadNaik, and the Union Minister of State for Youth Affairs and Sports Shri Kiren Rijjiju in New Delhi on 17 Dec ’20.

While addressing ,Shri Naik traced the origins of Yogasana competitions to the Indian Yoga tradition,where such competitions have been held for centuries. So this is an important attempt to bring the legacy of ancient games in a more organised and sustainable way.

Top 5 Positive Effects You’ll Receive by Donating to Charity

“I slept and dreamt that life was a joy. I awoke and saw that life was service. I acted and behold, service was a joy.”― Rabindranath Tagore. These great lines by Rabindranath Tagore who was a Bengali poet, writer, composer, philosopher and painter Who reshaped Bengali literature and music, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Emphasized on the true meaning and joy of life and charity.

Throughout the lifetime everyone is behind something or another, where their ultimate aim is to earn happiness and satisfaction. To discover the true joy of life. People work all their lives with this vision in mind, that making tons of money or becoming very successful will bring joy in their lives.

But after attainment of position and status still, they feel a void in their lives. When talking of satisfaction and joy in lives, a simple act of kindness can go a long way in ensuring such happiness and complacency. This is but only one such positive benefit of donating to charity.

Experience More Happiness:

According to a study conducted by National Institutes of Health, it was observed that participants who chose to donate a portion of $100 they were provided enjoyed activated pleasure centres in the brain. Even though this experiment was conducted in a controlled environment and had a scientific approach, it proved that by donating money one can immediately feel better and can bring about a positive change in life, which is something anyone can get benefit from. As it can enhance their productivity and help them in many ways. There are dedicated websites like CAF which make it easier to give, so if someone wants to give they can when and how they want.

Bring More Meaning to Your Life:

While donating can bring about happiness and satisfaction in life, it can also bring about various opportunities. As one gets to meet new people and form new connections with the person who believes in the same cause that inspires and motivates the people around. Along with this it can make a profound impact on those causes as well as can influence and infuse more meaning in one’s life by donating and connecting with various non-profit organizations.

It all comes back to you:

Be it a business person or an employee of some company, donating to charities and giving back to the society has its own perks of coming back to donors as well as the society as a whole. When someone donates a particular amount to a charity they are most likely to work on issues such as education and health care. These two make up for the most important resources among all that human resources. When human resources of a community or even a country are improved by investing in it, which naturally many charities do. It ultimately boosts the GDP and economy of the country, from which everyone benefits in terms of a better lifestyle and per capita income.

Promote Generosity in Your Children:

It is a common tendency which is observed in the children that they learn from seeing others. If they observed their parents and the guardians around them making donations and working that cause. It will arouse in them a sense of generosity and compassion for the lesser blessed or for those who have been afflicted with some kind of misery. This will ensure that when they grow they will not only become good professionals but great human beings. 

Various charities can be approached such as ME to WE which is a social enterprise enabling people to do well through their everyday choices. Founded in 2009 by Craig Kielburger who is a social entrepreneur and the co-founder of a family of organizations to provide economic opportunity in WE Village communities and a sustainable source of funding for WE Charity, ME to WE has grown into a global force for good.

Friends and Family:

When the idea of someone going about donating around in charity goes on it commences a Dominos effect. With this notion that if everyone around is donating for that cause it must be some pressing issue and hence demands funds. This can be very helpful to motivate the masses around to partake in such a healthy social activity of donating. It does not require large scale advertisements or campaigns if everyone starts taking initiative on their own by looking and taking inspiration from the ones who are ardently working for some cause and making a donation to do justice with that issue.

How to Prepare for the GRE Based On Your Learning Style

There is only one GRE test administrator, but many different “types” of students who take the exam. Some people like to memorize as much as they can, while other people prefer to focus more on reviewing concepts or taking practice tests. Whatever your approach, adequate preparation is essential to hitting your target GRE score

Your preferred learning style plays a crucial role in studying for the GRE. Some people learn by doing, while others learn by reading or listening to a lecturer. The main different learning styles include visual, aural, verbal, physical (hands-on), logical, social, and solitary.

Every person interprets information differently, which impacts the time a person takes to complete a given course. No matter your learning style, there’s a path to success for the GRE.

Group Study

Studying in a group while preparing for the GRE is ideal for people who prefer social learning. It allows them to interact with other students one-on-one, share ideas, and discuss different topics. 

Being in a group also allows you to gauge your understanding of different topics by explaining them to others. Like all other learning styles, group study has its pros and cons: 

Pros:

  • Studying in a group motivates students, allowing them to cover more topics or disciplines in one session.
  • Sharing ideas and discussing topics as a group helps find the answers to difficult questions quickly.
  • Discussion improves understanding and retention of covered topics.

Cons:

  • Group study can be distracting at times. You may find you and your friends wandering off the topics you are supposed to be studying.
  • Determining areas or topics of focus can be difficult, as every group member has unique strengths and weaknesses. 

Solo Study With Books

Studying solo offers the flexibility of covering any topic you want when you want while prepping for your GRE. It provides you with the independence and control you want. 

Pros:

  • There are fewer distractions as your studying sessions are unlikely to turn into hangout sessions.
  • You have control over the study environment, and you can study anywhere you deem fit.
  • Studying by yourself provides control over the study plan, allowing you to create a schedule that suits you best. 

Cons:

  • It can be difficult to understand complex topics or concepts while alone.
  • You’re more likely to get bored during long sessions of studying solo.

In-person Test Prep Course

To prepare for the GRE, you can take a physical class to complete the prep course. This option provides you with a classroom environment, which can motivate you. You can ask teachers questions and get immediate responses. However, an in-person course requires you to study at the pace of all other students in the class.

Pros:

  • It allows you to interact one-on-one with teachers and other students.
  • It adds the human touch to learning.
  • Common distractions, such as phones, are eliminated.
  • In-person instructors can cater to different learning styles throughout the lesson.

Cons:

  • In-person courses tend to cost more than alternative forms of studying. 
  • Large classes can create more distractions.
  • Your success largely rests on the expertise and availability of the teacher.

Online Test Prep Course

If you want to prep for the test at your pace but still follow a structured course, you can sign up for an online test prep class. You can take the course from the comfort of your home or any place with internet access and worth through the course at your own pace. 

Since there are different online course providers, it helps to compare them to find the best option for your learning style. For example, you can read Kaplan GRE test prep reviews to know what other students feel about the course. 

Like the other GRE studying strategies, online courses come with both pros and cons. Before signing up for a course, consider the following:

Pros:

  • You can complete the course at your own pace, making it quite flexible.
  • It’s relatively inexpensive compared to in-person.
  • It’s ideal for students who like studying solo but still want assistance from an instructor when they need it.
  • It provides an individualized learning experience.

Cons:

  • Like solo book learning, taking an online course requires personal discipline and motivation.
  • While on your computer studying, you can easily get distracted by things like social media.

Study Your Way, But Study Hard

Regardless of how you learn and study best, the key to excelling on the GRE is having a study strategy and sticking to it. To keep yourself accountable, create a detailed schedule with both study sessions and full-length practice tests (which can help you simulate the day of the exam) plotted out. Whether you take a course, study with friends, or review on your own, you have to put in the work to reap the reward—a GRE score that impresses admissions boards at the schools of your choice. 

Teach Your Students the Importance of Content Authenticity

If you want to tell your students about the importance of content authenticity to your students, then you are probably in the right blog. In this three-minute article, we are going to tell you about the best tools that you and your students can use and also about the different tips and tricks that can teach you how to inform your students about the importance of content authenticity. So, without delay, let us kick off with the major details of today’s context!

Best plagiarism checker for students!

Plagiarism checker by SmallSeoTools is the best tool for everyone. You must know that all plagiarism checkers are not reliable and free for everyone as some of them are paid and not giving the best results. 

This plagiarism checker is free for students and teachers and can be used easily without any restrictions and formalities. This tool is very friendly to use and has a lot of amazing features that we have mentioned below!

  • This plagiarism checker is free and has a very clean layout!
  • The plagiarism tool provides different input options, and you can enter text or complete files for checking.
  • This tool can check plagiarism with artificial intelligence and has billions of webpages in its database, and so its results are 100% accurate and efficient!

Plagiarism and its adverse effects

Plagiarism is known as the copying of content without the permission of the original author. Now you must know that this copying of the content and reusing it in another source is not at all ethical neither is it legal. Especially when we talk about plagiarism in academic institutes, then you should know that this kind of duplication is not good for your reputation and future career. Now first we are going to tell you about the different types of plagiarism which would be followed by the consequences of it!

Types of plagiarism

Here are some of the types of plagiarism that you should know about:

  • The first type of plagiarism is known as deliberate. As the name tells us is done deliberately and thus has very negative effects, deliberate plagiarism is also known as complete plagiarism. Complete plagiarism means that you are duplicating content from the first to the last word as it is without rephrasing or changing it!
  • Now the second type of duplication which we want our readers to know about is known as accidental plagiarism which has become the most common type of plagiarism all across the globe. Now, this type of plagiarism is simply more in the case because there is a huge number of contents on the internet, which is also adding up every turning day. You should know that accidental plagiarism is unintentional but simply has the same negative effects.
  • Academic plagiarism is another type of plagiarism which specifically includes the content and the submissions that are related to academic nature. You should know that academic plagiarism can both be accidental and deliberate but has very negative consequences.
  • Self-plagiarism is also a common type of plagiarism, especially when it comes to the academic framework. You must know that if you are using your own work in your new content without citing or referencing it, then you will simply be accused of deliberate plagiarism. So, make sure you avoid and check your work for it!
  • Now the last type of plagiarism that you should know about today is known as mosaic plagiarism. This type of plagiarism refers to the content which is created by copying portions of different articles and combining them as one.

Consequences of plagiarism

Here are the consequences of plagiarism:

  • Plagiarism in academics can result in negative marking and rejection of your overall work, and this will simply waste all your time and money that you have spent in the preparation of the assignment of paper.
  • You can easily score an F grade in the subject if you are plagiarizing work without citing it. You should simply know that you can duplicate content to a certain percentage informed by your instructor. If you exceed the percentage of plagiarism, then you are simply going to get an F grade for academic dishonesty.
  • Now you should also know that plagiarism can waste a lot of your credit hours, this means that you will waste not only your time but also the money spent on the fee!
  • The last effect of plagiarism in academic writing is that it can get you expelled from your institute without any warning. You will not get admissions in any reputed institute after you are suspended. Furthermore, you should know that it can destroy your professional career for life!

Now that you know about the consequences of plagiarism you should use the best tool that you have to inform your students about!

The Journalistic Approach

Confidence and communication are the two significant abilities for any writer or individual who is in this field of learning. In reporting, an individual isn’t just a decent communicator, yet additionally, that individual is the source of data given to people in general. That’s why media is the fourth pillar of democracy. Nonetheless, general society is the recipient and the columnists are the medium through which a message is to be driven. Prior, the general population is only the audience members or the collectors yet now the general population is likewise restricting and reacting to a portion of the focuses they consider to discuss.

In reporting, if all of the data isn’t appropriately explored, at that point there is no reason for leading any examination or finding any data. At the point when discussed promoting, advertisers likewise need to do well research about their rivals, crowd, and commercial center or worth. This gave them an ideal comprehension of it. Comparable advantages are appreciated by utilizing a columnist’s methodology. Journalism is a course that builds up a person’s abilities as well as develops knowledge all through. Individuals being imaginative with each perspective to do things they are managing while at the same time finds out about this course. Such individuals with this specific course come up with the enormous duty of giving exact information to the general public. Additionally, columnists need to take meetings that required appropriately explored work about the person so that the questions that are to be asked couldn’t be a blunder. For this situation, the Journalistic Approach is the most ideal approach to manage such circumstances.

Discussing my course of Journalism and mass communication, I went over numerous inventive thoughts on how to connect with people or how to improve my writing abilities. This makes my abilities more viable. Not just this, this course makes you sufficiently confident to deal with people. This develops the character and numerous different aptitudes. Writers should be reasonable or unbiased with each part of data and should be clear with the wellsprings of data. This further helps in building the trust of general society for the writers. Moreover, a columnist’s function is to keep this trust and attempt to make individuals trustworthy and relatable with your data. It should be connecting with or imaginative so an ever-increasing number of individuals should check out your educational feeds.

A portion of the approaches under journalism are:

  1. Every piece of data should be very much checked.
  2. Use of legitimate realities and shreds of pieces while giving any information.
  3. It ought not to be founded on assessments or some other emotional appeals.
  4. The goal of any data ought to be cleared to the public.
  5. Journalists’ methodology simply relies upon exact data.

Journalism and mass communication clarifies or makes comprehension of this methodology. Henceforth, many people favored these methodologies in their expert life so they could manage their rivals and can prevail in their life moreover. This sort of approach makes individual thinking vastly and more effective. It is like narrating a story that is nonexistent rather depends on factual research. Finally, this is a methodology that will assist with characterizing the line of your way.

When Do US College Ranking Come Out

When Do US College Ranking Come Out

Learning is one of the most important things in our lives. Educated people know a lot about why different things happen and can understand them. Students learn a lot from the previous generations and add something new when they grow up. All the generations are linked to each other and steadily change the world. Accordingly, every stage of learning is of huge importance. After schoolers graduate from their schools, they commonly want to continue their education in a good college. However, the choice of a college is complicated. There are thousands of colleges throughout the USA and each offers definite opportunities. Which ones are better? Perhaps college ranking is the only reasonable solution. We’d like to review and discuss this interesting matter.

Reasons to Rank Colleges

Many people wonder – Why ranking colleges? As we have mentioned above, American students have a rich choice of colleges and it’s hard to define which one suits them best. Thus, learners and their parents may review the ranking of top colleges and understand which ones are valued high. Oftentimes, college ranking comes out and plays a decisive role for students. They instantly recognize the potential for learning and future employment. Besides, employers frequently look at your college before you are given a chance. They prefer more prestigious ones and you should know about it.

Is It Fair to Rank Colleges?

A high ranking tells a person that a concrete college is trustworthy and provides bright perspectives in the future. In the meanwhile, many people wonder whether any ranking is fair. Several institutions evaluate the work and efficiency of colleges in the USA. Nevertheless, their evaluation is rather subjective. No matter how honest they want to be, it’s impossible to remain 100% independent. Does it mean that college ranking is a lie?

Of course, it’s not so. Those institutions have developed an efficient system of evaluation. All educational institutions are supposed to match certain criteria and expectations. It likewise increases the competition between colleges. Everyone wants to be at the top of the best colleges and it stimulates everyone to modernize and improve learning conditions. Although ranking is subjective, the rankings are commonly fair and you can trust them.

Even if you get into the college of your dreams, it doesn’t mean your education will pass easily. You will surely face various challenges and some of them are hard to overcome. Thus, a highly rated writing website may become your best solution. We’ll discuss this option too.

Why Custom Writing Agencies Are Good for Students?

Oftentimes, definite assignments exceed the capabilities of students and they need professional help. They frequently ask – Who will write for me my homework assignment? They know about the resourcefulness of such platforms.

Custom writing services may become the only solution for youngsters. As there are many variants, it may be difficult to choose the right service. Fortunately, top services can be detected by definite features they propose. Mind that knowing those features, you’ll understand why they are good for students. Make allowances for the following advantages:

  • High quality. Firstly, highly reputed writing agencies have professional writing staff. All their writers are certified, skilled, and experienced. They know how to handle the most difficult challenges and they always match the highest standards of writing. They may write any essay type, as well as a dissertation, research proposal, term paper, etc. They will be accomplished in any discipline and topic.
  • Progressive deliveries. Secondly, professional agencies accomplish all the orders extremely fast. As they have skilled and experienced experts, students may count on urgent assistance. Their advanced skills help to manage very short deadlines. If your conditions are realistic, you’ll definitely receive your essays on time.
  • 100% authentic papers. Every highly reputed agency releases papers free of plagiarism. Every writer knows how to disclose any topic in a creative and captivating manner. They do not copy other authors but create original projects. Besides, a trustworthy plagiarism-checking application helps to detect the slightest traces of non-unique content.
  • Affordable prices. Any professional help has its price and students worry about this matter. They have limited budgets and cannot afford expensive help for sale. Fortunately, credible platforms set relatively cheap prices and you’re the one who decides how much money should be paid. You’ll customize every assignment according to your preferences and finances. Mention the type, quality, deadline, and other details. Check the total cost and pay if it suits your pocket.
  • Private data protection. A highly reputed agency means a confidential agency. Once you purchase its assistance, your online safety is ensured. It will never reveal any facts about you to somebody else. Your educators will never learn that you collaborate with your legit writing platform.
  • 24/7 accessibility. You can hire a personal helper whenever you want because custom writing platforms operate day and night. Moreover, you can count on an efficient team of support. Competent technicians will kindly answer all your questions if they are related to the policies and work of their writing agency.

These advantages are attractive, aren’t they? You can easily buy professional assistance if nothing else works. Of course, you should not overuse writing agencies. Otherwise, you’ll stop developing your skills and it will lead to poor knowledge and grades in the future. Use them only when the need presses and you have no time or possibility to handle some of your academic assignments.

This informative article was written by EXPERT’S NAME. He is a famous blogger and freelancer. His articles are always full of helpful and efficient prompts for students, as well as important information about different aspects of learning. He works at FastEssay.net where you can order a fast essay. It’s a highly reputed and trustworthy writing agency. It works for many years and always helps students to overcome the most complicated challenges. Perhaps you’ll require its assistance when you’ll study in a college. This trustworthy platform hires only certified experts and you can fully trust the facts highlighted by the expert.

POLICE ATROCITIES

Police are one of the most important organisations of the society. The policemen, therefore, happen to be the most visible representatives of the government. In an hour of need, danger, crisis and difficulty, when a citizen does not know what to do and whom to approach, the police station and a policeman happen to be the most appropriate and approachable unit and person for him.[1]The police are expected to be the most accessible, interactive and dynamic organisation of any society. Their roles, functions and duties in the society are natural to be varied on the one hand; and complicated on the other. Broadly speaking the twin roles of the police are maintenance of law and maintenance of order. However, the ramifications of these two duties are numerous, which result in making a large inventory of duties, functions, powers, roles and responsibilities of the police organisation. Vesting of varied powers in the hands of police, while necessary to perform their duties on the other hand leaves door to misuse and hence infringement of Human Rights. This article will deal with Powers of Police, incidents of misuse of power, legislative checks and judicial control of police activities.

Definition of Police

The term police have neither been defined in the Criminal Procedure Code nor in the Police Act 1881 nor in any State Police acts provides only the structure and organization of police force in the states.

Black’s law dictionary defines “police” As (1) “the governmental department charged with the perversion of public order, the promotion of public safety, and the perversion and detection of crime” And (2) “the officers or members of this department”.[2]

The police force as an organized body came into being in England in the 1820’s when Sir Robert Peel established London’s first municipal force.[3]Before that, policing had either been done by volunteers or by sliders in the military service.[4]

The UN Code of Conduct for law enforcement officials defines “law enforcement officials”[5]As including all officials whether they are elected or appointed who exercise police powers, especially the powers of arrest or detention[6]and also include military personnel who exercise police powers whether they are allotted with police uniform or not.[7]

The term “police” can simply be defined as any person or body of person created by the authority of the state, obligated and empowered to maintain law and order, prevention and investigation of crimes.[8]

International Commitments
one of the important purpose of the UN charter is to promote and encourage human rights and fundamental freedom which is also included in International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.

Article 3 of the UDHR provides:[9]
Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security.

Similarly, Article 6(1)of the ICCPR provides:[10]
Every human being has the inherent right to life. This right shall be protected by law. No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his life.

Article 5 of the UDHR provides: [11]
No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

Further right to equality before law and right to effective remedy for acts violating the fundamental right have been guaranteed Article 9 of the Declaration provides:[12]
No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile. Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal, in the determination of his rights and obligation and of any criminal charge against him. Everyone charged with a penal offence has the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law in public trial at which he has had all the guarantees necessary for his defence. No one shall be held guilty of any offence on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a penal offense under national or international law at e time when it was committed.

Article 7 of the ICCPR further provides:
No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. In particular, no one shall be subjected without his free consent to medical or scientific experimentation.
It has been further provided that everyone has the right to liberty and security of person. No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest or detention. No one shall be deprived of his liberty except on such grounds and in accordance with such procedure as are established by law. The right of fair hearing and equality before the courts has also been guaranteed.

In addition to this, there are standard minimum rules for the treatment of prisoners; declaration on the protection of all persons from being subjected to torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment; convention against torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment and code of conduct for law enforcement officials.[13]

Nature And Extent of Police Atrocities:

Due to continued police brutality and torture during the past two decades it seems that custodian of law have became the law-breakers. After the eighties the police seem to e more concerned with lathi- wielding attitude and its brutality and use of third degree methods by it has become the order of the day. The mounting police atrocities and other repressive measure are the instances of violations of human rights.

I. Police atrocities during emergency:
During the emergency period in march 1976, a satyagrahi was taken into custody by the police, but no case was registered against him. He was kept in illegal confinement for a few days during which he was subjected to various kinds of physical torture like stamping on the bare body with heeled boots, beating with cane on the bare soles of feet, beating on the spine, beating with rifle but inserting live electric wires into body crevices, burning with lighted cigarettes and candle flame, etc.[14]

In Kerala, police atrocities took ugly turn when all prisoners were stripped to their underwear and beaten by group of 10 to 12 constables. No food was provided while in custody. If physical signs of beating are too obvious they were not produced before a magistrate but moved from station to station. Madhya Pradesh was such a state where maximum number of prisoners were kept in jail during the operation of emergency. In Gwalior district jail, political prisoners were kept along with notorious dacoits and were allowed to be abused by them.[15]

II. Nature of police atrocities-after eighties:
After 1980, police has resorted to more repressive techniques as not to leave any scar of police atrocities on the body of victims. Even minors were not spared at the hands of police. Young boys were supplied to convicts for their delectation, some tortured into impotency, hanged upside down, ruthlessly beaten, given electric shocks etc. Brutal methods were adopted for forcing confessions.[16]

III. Death in police custody:
After the seventies death in police custody has became very common. These deaths are usually the result of torture to extort information or to teach the person concerned a lesson.

IV. Torture:
It is a common fact that police brutality and torture have long been widespread throughout India. Such methods are frequently used when people suspected of ordinary criminal offences are interrogated by the police. In order to extract confessions or for purpose of intimidations the police use extreme type of physical harm to the suspected persons. Torture is reported to have taken place in police stations although a few cases of beating in prisons have also been reported.[17]

V. Atrocities against women:
The Mathura rape case was an incident of custodial rape in India on 26 March 1972, wherein Mathura, a young tribal girl, was raped by two policemen on the compound of Desai Ganj Police Station in Chandrapur district of Maharashtra. The Supreme Court ruled in Tukaram Vs. State of Maharashtra,[18]that there were no injuries on the person of the girl, which meant that she did not put upresistance and that the incidence was a “peaceful affair”. After the Supreme Court acquitted the accused, there was public outcry and protests, which eventually led to amendments in theIndianrape lawviaThe Criminal Law (Second Amendment) Act 1983 .

Pakistan Monument: A Symbol of Unity

-By Shivam Pathak

The Pakistan Monument is one of the best example Pakistan’s sophistications in terms of beauty and architecture. The monument is situated in Islamabad,
Pakistan. It is a heritage museum come national monument. The construction of this monument was commenced in the
year of 2004. After three years the construction of this monument was completed in the year of 2007.

At present
the monument stands as one of the prime destinations for tourists in the country. The elevation of the monument makes it conspicuous from the far distance. The monument stands in the heart of Pakistan as an epitome of the unity of Pakistani people. The architecture of the monument outlines rich Mughal architecture elements of the Subcontinent in its appearance.

The shape of the monument is like a petal, which is an integral part of the traditional muqarnas (a form of ornamented vaulting in Islamic architecture) of Mughal architecture. Its seven petals symbolizes a particular proportion of the country of Pakistan, like- its four large petals delineate the nations’ major four cultures -Punjabi, Balochi, Sindhi and Pakhtun, and the other petals which are a bit smaller than the former represents the nations’ minorities- Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan. Thus together form the state of Pakistan.

As stated before, the monument also entails a museum, which narrates the history of the creation of Pakistan. Therefore it won’t be wrong to remark that the beauty of this monument is rather competent in enrapturing anyone,
who sees it.

IJR Journal is Multidisciplinary, high impact and indexed journal for research publication. IJR is a monthly journal for research publication.

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