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Assessing the Prospects of Green Marketing in India

Dr. Rouf Ahmad Rather

Lecturer

Department of Commerce and Management

Gandhi Memorial College  Srinagar , J & K

Abstract 

The word “eco-friendly” has become a slogan of today’s marketing practices of different companies throughout the world. Green marketing is gaining noteworthy attention from both marketers and consumers. Given that a cautiously crafted green marketing strategy can earn trustworthiness with customers and provide a stage for revenue growth, it’s an area worthy of additional reflection. This paper is an effort to present a picture of green marketing prospects in India.

Key words: Green marketing, Environmentally friendly product, Awareness, India

 

Introduction

Green marketing generally aims to promote eco-friendly products and a safe environment where people could stay. Right now green marketing is widely becoming a phenomenon throughout the world as concerns on our environment have begun to escalate in the past few decades. Every year, the population of people who are turning towards green brands or environmental friendly products are increasing, so, magnifying the phenomenon exponentially. Thus, businesses in almost every industry nowadays are flaunting the “green” features of their products and services in every chance they get. The success, however, of any green marketing strategy is heavily reliant on the consumers it would like to target.

 According to the American Marketing Association, green marketing is the marketing of products that are presumed to be environmentally safe. Thus green marketing incorporates a wide range of activities, including product modification, changes to the production process, packaging modifications, as well as changing advertising. Still defining green marketing is not a simple task where several meanings intersect and contradict each other; an example of this will be the existence of varying social, environmental and retail definitions attached to this term. Other similar terms used are Environmental Marketing and Ecological Marketing.

 According  to Polonsky (1995)’s definition, “Green or Environmental Marketing consists of all activities designed to generate and facilitate any exchanges intended to satisfy human needs or wants, such that the satisfaction of these needs and wants occur, with minimal detrimental impact on the natural environment”. Thus “Green Marketing” refers to holistic marketing concept wherein the production, marketing consumption an disposal of products and services happen in a manner that is less detrimental to the environment with growing awareness about the implications of global warming, non-biodegradable solid waste, harmful impact of pollutants etc., both marketers and consumers are becoming increasingly sensitive to the need for switch in to green products and services. While the shift to “green” may appear to be expensive in the short term, it will definitely prove to be indispensable and advantageous, cost-wise too, in the long run.

Green Marketing Practices in India

Nike is the first among the shoe companies to market itself as green. It is marketing its Air Jordan shoes as environment-friendly, as it has significantly reduced the usage of harmful glue adhesives. Kansai Nerolac Paints has been at the forefront of paint manufacturing for more than 88 years pioneering a wide spectrum of quality paints. Kansai Nerolac has worked on removing hazardous heavy metals from their paints – among this lead being the most prominent metal. Kansai Nerolac does not add any lead or other such heavy metals in its manufacturing process.

Dell has been one of the vendors who focus on producing green IT products. They have a strategy called “Go green with Dell” to sell these products in the market. It also comes in an eco-friendly packaging with a system recycling kit bundled along. Talking about the green commitments of the company, Sameer Garde, Country GM, Dell India, says, “Dell is also actively pursuing green innovations that will be of value in 2009 from data-center efficiency to the use of eco-friendly materials for everything from chassis design to product packaging.

Eco Hotels (Ecotels) is a certification system promoted by Hospitality Valuation Services (HVS) International. This system is based on 5 main criteria: environmental commitment, solid waste management, energy efficiency, water conservation, and employee education/community involvement. In India we have Eco-hotels like Orchid, Rodas, Raintree etc. believing and practicing green marketing. According to Harish Tiwari of Infinity Infomatic Pvt Ltd, a well known distributor, who says, “We don’t find any difficulty in selling green products because the knowledge for these products has increased in us as well in customer. They are ready to pay higher for these products once they convinced.” In May 2007, IBM launched Project Big Green to help clients around the world improve the efficiency of IT and better optimize their data center resources. IBM has software and services technologies to help businesses reduce data center energy consumption and cut energy costs by more than 40 percent.

The Introduction of CNG in New Delhi, the Capital of India, as it was being polluted at a very fast pace until Supreme Court of India forced a change to alternative fuels. In 2002, a directive was issued to completely adopt CNG in all public transport systems to curb pollution. The Gas Tech Electronic Products (Pvt) Ltd. has invented LPG Kit for motorcycles/scooters (4 stroke and 2 stroke).Can be fitted in 50 cc to 375 cc air cooled , single cylinder 2 stroke as well 4 stroke vehicles with cent % fuel efficiency, with clean exhaust and zero pollution.

Significance of Awareness in purchasing of green products

Generally speaking awareness comprises a human’s perception and cognitive reaction to a condition or event. Awareness does not necessarily imply understanding, just an ability to be conscious of, feel or perceive. To create more awareness for the consumers, many companies can be involved in programmes that support the environmentally friendly products. The consumers with respect to high to average level of green product awareness show high to medium level of green buying behavior and consumers having awareness to small degree and not at all show low green buying behavior. Hence there is an urgent need to make consumers aware about green products in order to speed up the green buying behavior among all consumers. (Rouf & Rajendran 2014)

The media are playing a significant role in creating awareness and educating people about the benefits of environment conservation to the society (Lalit & Kanokthip, 1998). In developing awareness of a green product, companies attempt to augment consumer knowledge of the product and its environmental attributes in the hope of bringing about purchase behaviour. But still now the exact nature of the relationship between environmental knowledge and environmentally sensitive behaviour is still to be established (Arbuthnott & Lingg, 1975). Consumer awareness might be useful when the manufacturer’s objective is to overcome resistance to new environmentally safe packages. Advertising of the new advantages and benefits of such products helps its consumers become more aware of the damage to the environment and they tend to change their buying habits. Unless consumers are aware of the advantages of green products, manufacturers‟ effort to introduce this product to the market will be wasted efforts (Kassaye & Dharmeda 1992).

Challenges in adopting Green Marketing 

Implementing Green marketing is not going to be an easy job. The firm has to face many problems while treading the way of Green marketing. Challenges which have to be faced are listed as under:

  • Green marketing encourages green products/services, green technology, green power/energy; a lot of money has to be spent on R&D programmes. So practicing green marketing initially will be a difficult and costly affair.
  • The customers may not believe in the firm’s strategy of Green marketing, the firm therefore should ensure that they convince the customer about their green product, this can be done by implementing Eco-labeling schemes. Eco-labeling schemes offer its “approval” to “environmentally less harmless” products have been very popular in Japan and Europe. In fact the first eco-label programme was initiated by Germany in 1978.
    • in the beginning the profits will be very low since renewable and recyclable products and green technologies are more expensive. So Green marketing will prosperous only in long run.
    • Many customers may not be willing to pay a higher price for green products which may affect the sales of the company.
    • The firms practicing Green marketing have to strive hard in convincing the stakeholders and many a times there may be some who simply may not believe and co-operate.

The Future of Green Marketing

There are many things to be learned to avoid green marketing myopia, the short version of all this is that effective green marketing requires applying good marketing principles to make green products desirable for consumers. The question that remains, however, is, what is green marketing’s future? Business scholars have viewed it as a “fringe” topic, given that environmentalism’s acceptance of limits and conservation does not mesh well with marketing’s traditional axioms of “give customer what they want” and “sell as much as you can”.  Evidence indicates that successful green products have avoided green marketing myopia by following three important principles:

Consumer Value Positioning

  • Design environmental products to perform as well as (or better than) alternatives.
  • Promote and deliver the consumer desired value of environmental products and target relevant consumer market segments.
  • Broaden mainstream appeal by bundling consumer desired value into environmental products.

Calibration of Consumer Knowledge

  • Educate consumers with marketing messages that connect environmental attributes with desired consumer value.
  • Frame environmental product attributes as “solutions” for consumer needs.
  • Create engaging and educational internet sites about environmental products desired consumer value.

Credibility of Product Claim

  • Employ environmental product and consumer benefit claims that are specific and meaningful.
  • Procure product endorsements or eco-certifications from trustworthy third parties and educate consumers about the meaning behind those endorsements and eco-certifications.
  • Encourage consumer evangelism via consumers social and internet communication network with compelling, interesting and entertaining information about environmental products.

Conclusion

 Green marketing covers more than a firm’s marketing claims. While firms must bear much of the responsibility for environmental degradation, the responsibility should not be theirs single-handedly.  Green marketing requires that consumers want a cleaner environment and are willing to “pay” for it, possibly through higher priced goods, modified individual lifestyles, or even governmental involvement. Until this occurs it will be difficult for firms alone to lead the green marketing revolution. It must not be forgotten that the industrial buyer also has the ability to pressure suppliers to modify their activities. Thus an environmental committed organization may not only produce goods that have reduced their harmful impact on the environment, they may also be able to pressure their suppliers to behave in a more environmentally “responsible” fashion.

Green marketing should not be considered as just one more approach to marketing, but has to be pursued with much greater vigour, as it has an environmental and social dimension to it.  And thus green marketing assumes even more prospects and relevance in developing countries like India.

References

Arbuthnott, J. and Lingg, S. (1975). A comparison of French and American environmental behaviours, knowledge and attitudes. International Journal of Psychology, 4(10), 275-

Kassaye. W. Wassen and Dharmeda V.(1992). Balancing Traditional Packaging Functions with the New Green Packaging Concerns. Advanced Management Journal, 57 (4), 15.

Polonsky, M.J. (1995). A stakeholder theory approach to designing environmental marketing

strategy. Journal of Business and Industrial Marketing.10 (3), 29‐46.

Lalit M. Johri and Kanokthip S. (1998). Green marketing of cosmetics and toiletries in       Thailand. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 15(3), 265 – 281.

Rouf Ahmad Rather and R Rajendran (2014). A Study on Consumer Awareness of green products and its Impact on Green Buying Behavior, International Journal of Research (IJR), 1 (8), 1483-1493

 

 

How to Write a Brilliant Summary of an Essay

If you are looking for the best tips for the write a good Essay. The mostly to young people face the essential not only to read and memorize some in order but also to summarize several articles varying from short essays to giant papers which should be represented in more than a few lines of the text. Because of that, I wouldn’t think twice over looking for someone to write my paper for cheap and order it at https://dissertationhelp.com/write-my-dissertation.html However, the main problem which students have to manage with is writing a brief summary of the learnt matter. Maybe, you are the one who undervalue such college tasks and choose a creative approach to writing. Take into account that abbreviation is not that simple. According to information, students drop into the same take again and again. Thus, there are some well-organized tips for this type of work below.

Essay writing

Highlighting

The primary step in abbreviation the material is certainly reading. However, only a small part of students know that it is not enough to simply read the essay in order to create a perfect to the point summarization. It happens that youthful people waste hours on reading but do not get the main idea of the bits and pieces or miss essential information.

The quick and easy solution to this problem is highlighting the most significant facts. Take a pen and underline the essential concepts presented in the text. Thus, there will be no need to reread it thousands of times. The interior of your abbreviation will be ready thanks to this simple step. It is a pretty good idea to place behind the main concepts of the essay you have just read. In this way, you will be able to remember these things even weeks later without misplaced anything important.

Generalize

The usual fault which students make in summarizing the piece of writing are adding too many unimportant details which may be misplaced, so the common sense will remain unchanged and clear. It is a huge mistake to create the summarization full of pointless words and sentences which do not carry the essential meaning and cannot help the reader to understand the wording. Keep in mind that overview is an important stage in summarizing any type of writing. You should be able to cut the text and ease all minor things. It happens that some pages may be summed up in a few sentences if you find the crucial ideas which the writer tries to deliver in his or her essay.

Be Careful with Quotes

There are no fears that quotes are important for most of the types of papers. At the similar time, it is important to be careful while quote no matter which from the original source in the summarization. The main purpose of such kind of work is there a paraphrased and edited version of the material you read but not writing a new dissertation with references to this information. Sometimes many references make the summarization look long-winded and meaningless. The reader will not be able to find out the main message of a exacting article while reading such summarizing. It is better to avoid the direct references of the text and put back them with brief paraphrasing.

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Role of RTI in SBI

NEELAM TRIPATHI

Faculty, Department of Management

Mewar Institute of Management, Ghaziabad

 

Role of RTI in SBI
Role of RTI in SBI

ABSTRACT

India is a democratic nation. Here government and financial institutions work framed by the people, of the people and for the people. Even in our preamble of constitution it is clearly mentioned that here all citizens are totally secure and they must receive equality of status and opportunity, justice, having liberty of thought and expression and the dignity of the every individual is assures. So every citizen is legally having right of transparency and accountability of government overall system including banking sector also. These research papers contain analysis of the implementation status of RTI in Indian banking sector with special reference in State Bank of India. Bank is a financial institution which works for the general public. Its functioning is to accept deposits and saving of a common man and also allow them lending or credit facilities. The basic resource of banking sector is collected from the Indian citizen, it is the duty of banking sector to handle this resources very carefully and ensure their proper utilization. Even bank must create transparency and proper accountability in their process, for getting less chances for corruption. Even a lot of people do not know that  any bank may public sector or private sector come under RTI and if customer  have any issues with them, they can file a RTI against them and get any kind of information. Till now there is a need of awareness in Indian citizens to understand RTI and  file RTI to get any information they need. Information which is available in any form material in banking sector comes under RTI. It includes records, documents, memos, e-mails, opinions, advices, press releases, circulars, orders, logbooks, contracts, reports, papers, samples, models, data material held in any electronic form. It also includes information relating to any private body which can be accessed by the public authority under any law for the time being in force. The present era of globalization and highly competativeness, public bodies are also spreading  their wings speedly to become global brands rather in corporate field or banking industry in which State Bank of India possess good reputation in all over the world basically it covers maximum developed countries . Due to heavy involvement of public functions in banking sector, it is vital to fix their accountability and responsibility towards their customers.

Keywords: Right to information, State Bank of India, financial institute, globalization.

Introduction

The Right to Information Act was introduced in the year 2005, it replaced the Freedom of Information Act, 2002. The motive behind the introduction of this act was to set up a government system to provide information to the citizen of the country. It was for the betterment of the right to information. Under this any citizen can ask for information from any public authority, and the public authority is oblige to provide the information within thirty days. It makes compulsive to public authority for maintaining  a computerized record, so it is easier to provide information to anyone who is seeking it. But the earlier times, the information disclosure was restricted in India under the Official Secrets Act, 1923 and some other laws. But by the introduction of the RTI Act these restrictions were loosened up. This Act was passed by the Parliament in June 2005 and came into force from October 2005. it was a central Act. One thing is very interesting about this act was that before its lawfully act by the central government it was already in forced at the state level some of the well known examples are in 1997 Tamil Nadu and Goa, Karnataka and Rajasthan in 2001, Delhi in 2001, Maharashtra and Assam in 2002, MP in 2003, Jammu and Kashmir in 2004, and Haryana in 2005.

Under the RTI act Indian Legislature did not include private bodies directly. But due to public demand or under various different type of circumstances they bound to put certain part of this private regulatory bodies under their authority one of the landmark judicial pronouncement of Sarabjit Roy v. Delhi Electricity Regulatory Commission (1) it was reaffirmed by the Central Information Commission that privatized utility companies are also included under the umbrella of the RTI Act, regardless of their privatization. After studying various blogs and news article one of the finding came out that till now a general public have misunderstanding that those entities which are getting subsidies or are funded by the government are comes under the purview of the RTI Act. But the hidden fact is that any private bodies can falls under the RTI whether or not they are substantially funded or aided by the government. Private entities are fall under the range of the RTI Act by their registration under any public authority through which it comes. An individual can gain any information from a private body, just by identifying the concern Public Authority with whom the private entity is registered. As banks are register themselves through the Reserve Bank of India whether private or public bank and their regulatory functions are comes under RBI and Co-operative Societies register themselves through Deputy Registrar of Co-operative Societies.

Objective of Research:

  • To select the India’s no.1 bank and find out its course of action and responses towards public under RTI.
  • To focus the essential feature of RTI in India’s renowned and must trustable bank i.e, SBI.
  • To find out the relationship of banking sectors with RTI.
  • To create attention of customer towards their right and duties in public sector bank with special reference of SBI

Data Collection:

All the study has been based on secondary data from the website, published news paper articles, court orders related with banking and financial institutions and blogs of renowned authors.

Structure of RTI in the State Bank of India

  • Central Assistant Public Information Officer (CAPIO) These officers send the application or appeal to the Central Public Information Officer or the concerned Appellate Authority for disposal. An Assistant Public Information Officer is not responsible for supply of any information.
  • Central Public Information Officer (CPIO)Central Public Information Officers are responsible for giving information to a person who seeks information under the RTI Act.
  • Appellate Authority (A A)If an applicant is not supplied information within the prescribed time of thirty days or 48 hours, as the case may be, or is not satisfied with the information furnished to him, he may prefer an appeal to the First Appellate Authority who is an officer senior in rank to the Central Public Information Officer.

 

RTI Applicability in SBI

  • Application format :There is no prescribed format of application  is given in RTI Act. The applicant  can use plain paper which  should contain the name and complete postal address of the applicant. However  in cases  information is sought electronically, the application should contain the name and postal address of the applicant. The mode of  application should be  English or Hindi or in the official language of the area in which the application is being made, accompanied by the prescribed fee and specifying the particulars of the information sought.
  • RTI Fee : The RTI fee is to be paid by Demand Draft or Bankers Cheque or IPO in the name of ‘State Bank of India’ and payable at the centre where CPIO is located. Or in other condition  applicant may deposit the prescribed fee in the ‘P & T Charges Recovered Account’ at any branch of the State Bank of India and will attach counterfoil thereof in original with the application / request while forwarding it to the CPIO / CAPIO. A specially designed voucher has been rescribed by the Bank for depositing the RTI fee / additional fee.

Format for the voucher is:

Application Fee
Application fees ……………………. Rs. 10/-
Additional fee – as cost of information
a. Rupees two for each page (in A-4 or A-3 size paper) created or copied.
b. Actual charge or cost price of a copy in large size paper
c. Actual cost or price for samples or models
d. Information provided in diskette or floppy rupees fifty per diskette or floppy
e. Information provided in printed form at the price fixed for such publication or rupees two per page of photocopy for extracts from the publication.

sources: www.sbi.co.in

Types of   information can be taken  from the SBI under RTI

Section 4(1)(b) of the Right to Information Act, 2005

Section 4(1)(b) Information to be published under the Act
(i) The particulars of the organisation, functions and duties
(ii) The powers and duties of its officers and employees
(iii) The procedure followed in the decision making process, including channels of supervision and accountability
(iv) Norms set by the Bank for the discharge of its functions
(v) Rules, regulations, instructions, manuals and records, held by the Bank or under its control or used by its employees for discharging its functions
(vi) Statement of Categories of Documents that are held by the Reserve Bank or under its Control
(vii) Particulars of any arrangement that exists for consultation with, or representation by, the members of the public in relation to the formulation of its policy or implementation thereof
(viii) List of Boards, Councils, Committees and other bodies consisting of two or more persons constituted as its part or for the purpose of its advice, and as to whether meetings of those boards, councils, committees and other bodies are open to the public, or the minutes of such meetings are accessible for public
(ix) A directory of its officers and employees
(x) Monthly remuneration received by its officers and employees, including the system of compensation as provided in its regulations
(xi) The budget allocated to each of its agency, indicating the particulars of all plans, proposed expenditures and reports on disbursements made
(xii) Not applicable
(xiii) Particulars of recipients of concessions, permits or authorisations granted
(xiv) Details in respect of the information, available to or held by it, reduced in an electronic form
(xv) The particulars of facilities available to citizens for obtaining information, including the working hours of a library or reading room, if maintained for public use
(xvi) Names, designations and other particulars of Public Information Officers

                                                  Sources: www.rbi.org.in

Any citizen of country has a right to seek information from any public authority which works for the benefit of public and under its control. This right includes work inspection, any documents and records; taking notes, certified copies of documents and records also consider any certified samples of material held by or under control the public authority. One thing  is important about the seeking information  under the Act  is that  it allow only those information , which already exists and is held by the public authority or held under the control of the public authority. The Central Public Information Officer has no right to create information; or to interpret information; or to solve the problems raised by the applicants; or to furnish replies to hypothetical questions. Even any citizen has a right to obtain information from a public authority which already stored in computer or other device or in e-mail  in the form of diskettes, floppies, tapes, video cassettes or in any other electronic mode or through print-outs provided. An applicant can received information ordinarily in the form in which it is sought. However, if the supply of information would disproportionately or divert the resources of the public authority or may cause harm to the safety or preservation of the records, that form of information may be denied by the public authority. The CPIO should not re-shape the information.

Information which is not to be Disclose under RTI (Exempted information)

The Act provides under Sections 8 and 9, certain categories of information that are exempt from disclosure to the citizens. The following categories of information are exempt from disclosure under Section 8(1)

a. information, disclosure of which would prejudicially affect the sovereignty and integrity of India, the security, strategic, scientific or economic interests of the State, relation with foreign State or lead to incitement of an offence.
b. information which has been expressly forbidden to be published by any court of law or tribunal or the disclosure of which may constitute contempt of court;
c. information, the disclosure of which would cause a breach of privilege of Parliament or the State Legislature;
d. information including commercial confidence, trade secrets or intellectual property, the disclosure of which would harm the competitive position of a third party, unless the competent authority is satisfied that larger public interest warrants the disclosure of such information;
e. information available to a person in his fiduciary relationship, unless the competent authority is satisfied that the larger public interest warrants the disclosure of such information;
f. information received in confidence from foreign Government;
g. information, the disclosure of which would endanger the life or physical safety of any person or identify the source of information or assistance given in confidence for law enforcement or security purposes;
h. information which would impede the process of investigation or apprehension or prosecution of offenders;
i. cabinet papers including records of deliberations of the Council of Ministers, Secretaries and other officers;
j. information which relates to personal information the disclosure of which has no relationship to any public activity or interest, or which would cause unwarranted invasion of the privacy of the individual;

                                                                              Sources: www.sbi.co.in

Rules for the prescribed time limit or disposal  and Appeals Requests:

S.No Situation Time limit for disposing off applications
1. Supply of information in normal course 30 days
2. Supply of information if it concerns the life or liberty of a person 48 hours
3. Supply of information if the application is received through CAPIO 05 days shall be added to the time period indicated at Sr. NO.1 and 2.
4. Supply of information if application / request is received after transfer from another public authority:

(a) In normal course

(a) Within 30 days of the receipt of the application by the concerned public Authority.
(b) In case the information concerns the life or liberty of a person. (b) Within 48 hours of receipt of the application by the concerned public authority
5. Supply of information if it relates to third party and the third party has treated it as confidential. Should be provided after following the procedure given in Section 11 of the RTI Act.
6. Supply of information where the applicant is asked to pay additional fee. The period intervening between informing the applicant about additional fee and the payment of fee by the applicant shall be excluded for calculating the period of reply.

                                                                                       Sources: www.sbi.co.in

Prescribed rules for Appeals :

  • In the normal case the appeal should be disposed off within 30 days of receipt of the appeal.
  • In exceptional cases, the Appellate Authority has a power to take 45 days for its disposal with considering reasons for which it recorded.

Acceptance and rejection of RTI applications in SBI and other Banks

There were data taken from the RTI foundation of India website which the present analysis of RTI application in Banking sector and it gives last data updated up to 2012-13. It present that Only three Banks, Bank of Maharashtra, State Bank of India and Bank of India, showing  a trend of increasing  number of RTI applications  in 2012-13 in comparison to 2011-12. In which Bank of Maharashtra recorded the highest increase in no. of application received it was more than 25%. On the other hand data of 17 other Banks has shows decreased data of RTI requests in 2012-13 in comparison of previous year. On the other hand, both State Bank of India  which having top NPA grosser amongst the 20 Banks and Bank of India which is the 3rd largest bank  witnessed a slight growth in the number of RTI applications received and  they also shown slight declining  in the percentage rejected  RTI applications in 2012-13 as compared to 2011-12. But the trends of rejection rate studied more than doubled in Allahabad Bank, United Bank, UCO Bank and the Bank of Baroda in 2012-13.  Even a Corporation Bank which did not reject any RTI application in 2011-12, had rejected more than one third of its RTI applications received in 2012-13. This study focused that Rejection rates trends were showing decreased rate in 2012-13 in the Bank of India, Indian Bank and Vijaya Bank as compared to the previous year. The latest NPA figures for Banks as in March 2014 on the RBI website despite are not available.

There was article presented by Chetan Chauhan in Hindustan Times, New Delhi, has presented an analysis which is presented by one of the Delhi based advocacy group containing over 80,000 applications who filed under the Right To Information Act against 24 major public sector undertaking (PSU) banks it shows huge percentage of rate of rejection increased in 2015-16 as compared to the previous 3 years. It shows approximate 50% rejection rates of the public sector banks. Which is strongly a sign of indication that the banks are more reluctant for providing the information sought. These 24 banks, were blamed for the transparency related to governance constraint enacted law in 2005, reportedly about 40% of the RTI applications filed with the finance ministry. A Reserve Bank of India appointed PJ Nayak committee had cited RTI as one of the “constraints” on the governance in the banks.

This committee has also find out that on the total number of application received by the bank, most of the applications are related with the information of non-performing assets and others are related with the discrepancies of applicants regarding bank account and reasons for not opening an account. According to Nayak committee review related to the RTI load on public sector banks, it was presented that each bank is receiving the average applications in its branch is not more than 2. This committee has projected the debunking constraint theory of banking sector. He supported this theory with  a argument basis  that most banks have sufficient staff to deal with rising RTI applications received and taking suitable action on that  but banks are  reluctant to provide information citing constraint on resources. Even this committee has cleared in its report that there is no any co-relation between non-performing assets of the banking industries and the volume of the RTI applications filed. The banks had opposed RTI applications seeking information about loan defaults citing privacy provisions but the Supreme Court in 2016 directed them to provide information citing larger public interest. Among the banks, the State Bank of India received one-third of the total information requests followed by the Punjab National Bank and Bank of Baroda.

One of the most adorable article was  Written by Utkarsh Anand | Amitabh Sinha & Ravish Tiwari New Delhi | Published: December 17, 2015,  As On 16th December 2015 the supreme court of India strictly bounded the apex body of banking sector i.e., RBI regarding giving up the information by private and public sector banks under the RTI should be taken as the action of trying to covering up the banking action of underhand from the public gaze . A bench of Justices M Y Eqbal and C Nagappan has mentioned that “RBI is supposed to uphold public interest and not the interest of individual banks. We have summarized that many financial institutions have resorted to such acts which are neither clean nor transparent. The RBI in association with them has been trying to cover up their acts from public scrutiny”. Even this committee has given very strong verdict about the RBI attitude toward ignorance of various orders of Central Information Commission and high courts over suspicious disclosure of information relating to banks.

Even court has totally rejected RBI’s arguments for fiduciary relationship with other bank and withholding them to disclose various such informations those will be exempted under the RTI Act and it is also clearly mentioned by the court that RBI is not legally authorize to create fiduciary relationship with any bank or to maximize the benefits of any public or private sector banks. It is the statutory duty of RBI is to uphold the public interest priority basis. It must be act with transparency without hiding any information and give full disclosure all the informations seek by any applicant.

Conclusion:

After reading various articles I came on this conclusion that RTI is a powerful tool in the hand of every citizen and it would deliver significant social benefits. It gives a strong support to the national democracy, provide good governance by empowering the rights of citizens to participate effectively and hold the government officials accountable. This act is not made for just providing the  information only, as in most of the countries it act as an effective watchdog  which ensure that everyone is coming in purview of the Act to work in accordance with rules and regulations, without any irregularities. However, it should be strictly require to implement not only political or government authorities but also on active civil societies and private authorities .Currently, the RTI Act is implemented in India and accepted by the peoples but it is passing through a decisive phase, it strongly require very much more efforts to increase its growth and development. Only doing protest against the lack of implementation of this law alone is not sufficient, even it requires encouragement for the intiatator for its full implementataion, growth  and better result. As currently as per court verdict RBI must be fully support the common people, national economy and government by accepting the full norms of RTI and to create transparency and quick response towards applicants.

Limitations:

  • Unavailability of any previous study which has been conducted to find out the role of RTI and its effective functioning in banking sector.
  • As in this research availability of published data from State bank of India is not available. All data has been taken from the website of well known authors of renowned newspapers.
  • Relevancy of data has not be supported by any authorized published data. Insufficient  availability of current data related to RTI applications  position in SBI.

Suggestions:

Some of the recommendations regarding the role of RTI in banking sector are mentioned below:

  • This act needs more clarification for implementation of specific provisions .As it require step by step action detail for each specific provision.
  • As India is well technofied and having good strength of educated people but till now there is a huge requirement of Mass awareness campaign at Central and state levels. The main objective behind this awareness program is to increase public interest and knowledge about their right to informantion from any public authority, to encourage citizen involvement; and also to increase transparency within the government system.
  • To compulsion all public authorities and training institutions for the incorporation and implementation of training module based on RTI in all training programs related with public awareness.
  • To Develop a consensus on a common set of rules and norms that would enable and encourage public to  apply for information from residing in one state from any other state, rather than going firstly to  study and understand the rules of each state and competent authority separately.

Reference:

  1. Application No: CIC/WB/A/2006/00011 (Right to Information Act – Section 19). 2006
  2. http://asiafoundation.org/2011/09/28/right-to-information-in-india-an-effective-tool-to-tackle-corruption/
  3. http://www.rtifoundationofindia.com/analysis-rti-applications-filed-banking-sector#.WSaQ92ecHIV
  4. https://www.sbi.co.in/portal/web/corporate-governance/right-to-information-act-2005
  5. https://blog.ipleaders.in/right-information-applicable-private-sector/
  6. https://www.rbi.org.in/Scripts/Righttoinfoact.aspx
  7. http://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/rti-rejection-rate-in-most-public-sector-banks-increased-in-2015-16/story-baIUPbM9DfwGXLnSCzo51M.html
  8. http://indianexpress.com/article/business/business-others/rbi-must-disclose-all-info-about-banks-under-rti-supreme-court/

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Best Boosts For Education That Work For Everyone

Every parent wants to know how they can help their child get the most out of their education. Your role is more than just helping out with homework, though. If you want to find ways that will help you and your child with their learning, then you’re in the right place. Here’s how you can assist in your child’s education.

ed

Read every day

Read with your child every day. Set aside the time to really explore a story with them, and give them the chance to ask questions. This helps set them up for regular reading in school, and helps them see it as a pleasurable activity.

Look for learning opportunities every day

Your child’s education doesn’t just happen in the classroom. Look for opportunities to learn and reinforce their skills every day. For example, let them count out the money for a purchase, or read the signs in the supermarket.

Be aware of what’s happening in class

Your child’s teacher will be communicating to parents what they’re doing in the classroom. Pay attention to what’s going on. You can then reinforce the lessons the children are getting at home.

Don’t always look for A grades

We’re taught that an A grade is the best result from learning. However, that’s not the case for every child. Instead of focusing on grades, look for improvement. If they can handle a mathematical concept that they couldn’t last week, then that’s something to be celebrated.

Keep in touch with the teacher

Your child’s teacher will want to schedule conferences with you, so take advantage of this. Really pay attention to what they say, and don’t be afraid to ask questions. Look for ways you can both help your child in their education.

Allow your child to work it out on their own

It’s tempting to hover over your child, and sweep in and help when it all goes wrong. However, your child won’t benefit from this. Teach them that you’re here to help, but you trust them to have a go at it on their own. They’ll learn to be independent, but also that you’ll be there if you need them.

Practice discipline and respect

Many parents expect discipline to be taught in schools, but in actual fact the message sinks in better when taught in the home. Teach your child to respect their elders when appropriate, and they’ll get much more out of their schooling.

Take care of the basics

Make sure your child is getting enough to eat and sleep. It’s simple, but without the basics they’ll find it harder to learn.

Useful tools

There’s plenty of tools online, and you should make full use of them with your child. Here’s a few you can use with them.

Canva: This tool is free to use, and helps your child put together all kinds of visual projects. Try presentations, leaflets, and posters, just to get started.

Notability: This note taking app is highly useful when your child wants to take notes on their learning. The app means your notes are always in reach.

Best Australian Writers: If your child’s struggling with certain writing issues, hire a writer from this service. They can go through the work with your child, and help them understand where they’re going wrong.

Weebly: If your child has an interest in writing, let them express it through a blog made on this site.

There’s plenty you can do to help your child learn. Follow these tips, and you’ll both get the most out of learning. Show your child that learning is fun!

by –

Jennifer Scott

Relevance of ESP in the Present Educational Scenario

SAVITA

Assistant Professor in English

T.R.P.G.  Girls College, Sonipat

ABSTRACT

           English Language Teaching (ELT) can be broadly divided into English for General Purpose (EGP) and English for Specific Purposes (ESP).  The teaching of English language at schools, colleges and Universities comes under English for General Purposes.  ESP is meant for Occupational Purpose (EOP), English for Academic Purposes (EAP) and English for Science and technology (EST). In the rapidly changing present world when teaching English for Specific Purposes (ESP) has grown to become one of the most prominent areas of teaching English as a Foreign Language (EFL), ESP practitioners face new opportunities and challenges.  For non-English speakers the ability to speak more than one language (English along with the Mother Tongue) become imperative to assess the language abilities of second language learners.  In the classroom, assessment can be seen as an ongoing process, in which the teacher uses various tools to measure the progress of the learners. Among those tools are portfolios, self-assessment, and, of course, tests. If assessment can be seen as a movie, since it is a continuous process, then a test is a still photographs; it gives a picture of the learner’s language at a particular point in time.  If used properly, these tools can help the teacher develop a full picture of the learner’s progress.  It is important to note that all type of testing and assessment are important in gathering information about student’s abilities.

KEY WORDS:

Rhetorical, pedagogically, methodology, disseminate, restricted, and sophisticated.

INTRODUCTION

            Tom Hutchinson and Alan Waters (1987: 53) have pointed out the differences between English for Specific Purposes (ESP) and English for General Purposes (EGP) in their book, English for Specific Purposes: A Learning Centred Approach.

            On the face of it, ESP differs from EGP in the sense that the vocabulary, structures and the subject matter relate to a particular field or discipline in the former.  For example, a lawyer writing a brief, or a diplomat preparing a policy paper needs his jargon, ESP courses make use of vocabulary and tasks related to the specific field that one belongs to.  So a course in ESP is designed to meet the specific professional or academic needs of the learner, creating a balance between educational theory and practical considerations. English for Specific Purposes (ESP) course, however, has instruction that builds on EGP and is designed to prepare the students for the English used in specific disciplines, vocations or professions to accomplish some specific purposes.   ESP makes use of the methodology and activities of the discipline it serves, and is centered on the language appropriate to these activities. As Tom Hutchinson and Alan Waters rightly put it. “ESP is an approach to language teaching in which all decisions as to content and method are based on the learner’s reason for learning “(1987:19).

            In this connection, it is interesting to note Tony Dudley-Evans (1987: 1-9) explanation that ESP may not always focus on the language of one specific discipline or occupation, such as English for Law or English for Physics.  University instruction that introduces students to common features of academic discourse in Sciences or Humanities, is frequently called English for Academic Purposes. (EAP) is also ESP.

DEFINITION OF ESP

            Peter Strevens (1988-1-13) definition makes a distinction between four absolute and two variables characteristics.

  1. Absolute Characteristic

ESP consists of English language teaching which is:

  • Designed to meet specified needs of the learner:
  • Related in content (i.e. in its themes and topics) to particular disciplines, occupation and activities.
  • Centered on the language appropriate to those activities in syntax, lexis , discourse semantics, etc and analysis of this discourse;
  • In contrast with General English.
  1. Variable Characteristics:

ESP may be, but is not necessarily.

  • Restricted as to the language skills to be learned )e.g. reading only);
  • Not taught according to any pre-ordained methodology.

THE MEANING OF THE WORD “SPECIFIC “  IN ESP.

THE MEANING OF THE WORD “SPECIFIC’ IN ESP

            The word “specific” in ESP refers to “specific in language” and “specific in aim”.   A simple clarification that can be made here is “specific in language” and “specific in aim” are viewed as similar concepts although they are two entirely different notions. George Perren (1974) noted that confusion arises over these two notions. Ronald Mackay, and Alan Mountford (1978: 4) have stated that the only practical way in which we can understand the notion of specific language is as a restricted repertoire of words and expressions selected from the whole language because that restricted repertoire covers every requirement within a well defined context, task or vocation. On the other hand “specific in aim” refers to the purpose for which the learners learn a language, not the nature of the language they learn.  Consequently, the focus of the word “specific” is ESP is on the purpose for which the learners learn and not on the specific jargon or registers they learn.  As such, all instances of language learning might be considered ESP.

ORIGIN OF ESP

            Tom Hutchinson and Alan Waters (1987: 6-8) succinctly identified three key reasons that are common , to the emergence of all ESP; the demands of a Brave New World,  a revolution in linguistics and the focus on the learner.  They noted that two key historical periods breathed life into ESP.  First, the end of the Second World War brought with it an age of enormous and unprecedented expansion in scientific, technical and economic activity on an international scale.  For various reasons, most notably the economic power and technological advancement of the United States in the Post-War World Scenario, English has become an important language for global affairs.   Secondly, the oil crisis of the early 1970s resulted in Western money and knowledge flowing into the oil-rich countries.  The medium of this knowledge has been English.  The general effect of all this development is to exert pressure on the language teaching profession to deliver the required goods.

TYPE OF ESP

            David Carver (1983:  131-137) identified three types of ESP, English as a Restricted Language (ERL). English for Academic and Occupational Purpose (EAOP), and English with Specific Topics (EST).  The language used by air traffic controllers or waiters are example of English as a restricted language.

            Ronal Mackay and Alan Mountford clearly illustrate the difference between the restricted language and the language with this statement (1978:   4-5).

The language of international air-traffic control could be regarded as ‘special’ in the sense  that the repertoire required by the controller is strictly limited and can be accurately determined situationally, as might be the linguistic needs of a Dining-room waiter or air-hostess.  However, such restricted repertoires are not language just as tourist phrase book is not grammar.  Knowing a restricted ‘language’ would not allow the speaker to communicate effectively in a novel situation, or in contexts outside the vocational environment (1978: 4-5).

            The second type of ESP is English for Academic and Occupational Purposes. David Carver 1983: 131-137) indicates that this English should be at the heart of ESP although he refrains from developing it any further. Tom Hutchinson and Alan Waters (1987: 16-18) on the other hand have developed a “Tree of ELT” in which the subdivisions of ESP are clearly illustrated.  ESP is broken down into three branches.  English for Science and Technology (EST), English for Business and Economics (EBE), and English for Social Studies (ESS).  Each of these subject areas is further divided into two branches.  English for Academic Purpose (EAP) and English for Occupational Purpose (EOP). An Example of EOP for the EST branch is “English for Technicians” whereas an example of EAP for the EST branch is “English for Engineering Studies.”

CHARACTERISTICS OF ESP COURSES

            The characteristics of ESP courses identified by David G. Carter (1981: 167) and discussed here.  He states that there are three features common to ESP courses.

(a)        Authentic Materials;

(b)        Purpose-Related Orientation; and

(c)        Self-Direction.

These features of ESP courses are indeed useful in attempting to formulate one’s own understanding of ESP. If one revisits Tony Dudley-Evams (1998: 8-29) ) claim that ESP should be offered at an intermediate or advanced level, the use of Authentic Learning Materials is entirely feasible.  The use of authentic content materials, modified or unmodified inform, is indeed a feature of ESP, particularly in self-directed study and research task. For Language Preparation, For Employment in Science and Technology, a large component of the student evaluation is based on an independent study of assignment in which the learners are required to investigate and present an area of interest. The students are encouraged to conduct research using a variety of different resources, including the Internet.

FORMULATION OF APPROACHES TO ESP

            The approaches in ESP are formulated on the basis of five conceptions in ESP, John Malcolm Swakes (1990) uses the term “enduring conceptions” to refer to the following:

  1. Authenticity
  2. Research –Base
  3. Text
  4. Need
  5. Learning Methodology

            The main consideration in ESP according to Bernard Coffey (1984) is that of authenticity. It includes authentic texts and authentic tasks. Swales, in explaining what is meant by the research-base of ESP , reviews the ESP literature and observes a trends towards papers that they rely on some kind of data-based (textual or otherwise). In addition, Peter Strevens () 1980: 105-121) alludes to the importance of the “specific language” of ESP in Functional English’s’.  That is, only those items of vocabulary, pattern of grammar, and functions of language which are required by the learner’s purposes are included in ESP. Peter Strevens also alludes to the importance of learner in discussions of ESP.  Finally, ESP draws on the methodology or learning theories which are appropriate to the learning teaching situation.   In other words, Specific Purpose Language Teaching (SPLT) is not in itself a methodology.  According to Peter Strevens (1988: 39-44) this characteristic of  ESP makes the materials both more relevant and  more interesting to the student due to the varied and ingenious exploitation of opportunities provided by ESP Settings.  These five conceptions have dual and potentially origins in both the real world (the “target situation” of the ESP pedagogy. It is therefore crucial to discuss each of them in an attempt to survey the development and directions of ESP as it has evolved. Such a survey will identify five major approaches to ESP, each of which has focused on one of the major conceptions and thus contributed to the growth of ESP itself.  However, it is also evident that as each approach to ESP has evolved:  its particular enduring conception has also evolved, bring ESP practitioners towards their current thinking in each of the five areas.

The five major approaches to ESP are:

  1. Skills-Based Approach
  2. Register Analysis Approach
  3. Discourse Analysis Approach.
  4. Learning – Centered Approach
  5. Communicative Approach

            Sill-Based Approach to ESP has enlarged the conception of authority in two principal ways.  First, authenticity of text is both broadened to include texts other than written texts and narrowed to differentiate between different types of texts generated by each skill.

            The second conception is that of the Register Analysis Approach. It has developed out of the need for a research based for ESP, Michael A.K. Halliday, Amos McIntosh and Peter Strevens (1964: 266) are the first scholars who have pointed out the importance of, and the need for, a research base for ESP, set out in one of the earliest discussion of ESP.

            The reaction against Register Analysis is the early 1970s concentrated on the concept of text rather than thus the lexical and grammatical properties of register.  The approach is clearly set out by two of its principal advocates. Allen and Widdowson as follows:

            One might usefully distinguish two kinds of ability which an English course of ESP level should aim at developing.  The first is the ability to recognize how sentences are used in the performance of acts of communication, or the ability to understand the rhetorical functioning of language in use.  The second is the ability to recognize and manipulate the formal devices which are used to combine sentences to create continuous passage of prose.  One might say that the first has to do with rhetorical coherence of discourse, the second with the grammatical cohesion of text (1974.

The attention to strategy analysis give rise to new generation of ESP materials which is founded as much on conceptions of learning as one conceptions of language or conceptions of need. As Tom Hutchinson and Alan Waters (1987: 14) have rightly put it.

            Our concern in ESP was no longer with language use although this would help to define the course of objectives.  The concern was rather with language learning. We cannot simply assume that describing and exemplifying what people do with language would enable someone to learn it…… A truly valid approach to ESP would be based on an understanding of the processes of language learning (1987: 14).

            Tom Hutchinson and Alan Waters called this approach the Learning-Centered Approach and stressed the importance of a lively, interesting and relevant learning teach style in ESP materials.  The first ESP materials to adopt a conscious model of learning were probably those of the Malaysian UMEPP Project in the late 1970s.  The approach has received its widest publicity in the papers and materials of Hutchinson and Waters, and more recently, Mary Waters and Alan Waters (1992: 264-273)

            The recent approach that emerges from the concept of authenticity in the development of ESP is that of Communicative Approach. The first generation of ESP materials that appeared in the mid-1960s took skills as their principal means of selection, arguing that ESP teaching materials.  The definition of skill is somewhat broad, establishing little more than the ranking of the four usual language skills of Reading, Writing, Listening and Speaking (LSRW). Almost all materials course of collection of specialist texts with accompanying comprehension and language exercises. As R.A. Close (1972) rightly argues that the conception of authenticity is central to the approach taken to develop language skills.

In the rapidly changing present world when teaching English for Specific Purposes (ESP) has grown to become one of most prominent areas of teaching English as a Foreign Language (EFL), ESP practitioners face new opportunities and new challenges. For non-English speakers the ability to speak more than one language (English along with the Mother tongue) become imperative to assess the language abilities of second language learners. In the classroom, assessment can be seen as an ongoing process, in which the teacher uses various tools to measure the progress of the learners.  Among those tools are portfolios, self-assessment, and, of course tests. If assessment can be seen as a movie, since it is a continuous process, then a test is a still photographs; it gives a picture of learner’s language at a particular point in time.  If used properly, these tools can help the teacher develop a full picture of the learner’s progress.  It is important to note that all types of testing and assessment are important in gathering information about student’s abilities.

 THE NEED FOR RESEARCH ESP TESTING

            The rapid expansion in ESP teaching is not accompanied by a similar increase in EST testing.  Perhaps, the earliest attempts at testing ESP date back to the time when the ELTS were launched.  At that time, in 1980, there had been little or no research into the validity of giving academic English proficiency tests based on different subject areas.  John Charles Alderson (1981) in a discussion on ESP testing questioned many of the principles behind this approach.  He agreed that since different University Departments placed different demands on their students, there are some good arguments for including ESP tests in an ESP test battery.  He felt that a comparison between performance on academically specific tests and the communicative needs of the relevant area might provide useful diagnostic information.  He also accepted that ESP tests would have really high face validity for both content-area students and University Lecturers.  However, he questioned whether it was possible to produce a test which would be equally suitable for students in all branches of a discipline.  For example, he wondered whether it would be possible to have a test for Engineers and whether they would have the same level of appropriacy for all Engineers, regardless of their specialization.  This highlights one of the main difficulties with English for Specific Academic Purposes (ESAP) testing.

Another difficulty with ESP tests is delineated in Alderson’s question “How specific is specific?” (1981). Since at that time it is usually impossible to give each student a test which is tailor-made for  unique set of circumstances,  any ESP test has to be a compromise; and, in case of EAP , where many disciplines would be considered less than one broad subject area.  These areas would cover so wide a field that some students would not fit into any of the groupings.  John Charles Alderson (1981: 133) cited the example of a student in urban studies who would not know whether to choose a test in science or in social studies.

Over the past two decades, there have been several studies on the testing approval to be employed to test English proficiency.  Three articles by John Charles Alderson and Alexander Hugh Urquhart (1983) aroused considerable interest and led to several follow-up studies.  These articles described three studies carried out with students attending English classes in Britain in preparation for British Universities.

In each. John Charles Alderson and Alexander Hugh Urquhart (1982: 192-204) compared students scores on reading texts related to their own field of study with those on texts in other subject areas.  The student’s scores on the modules were found to be somewhat contradictory.  On one hand, for example, science and Engineering students taking the technology module of IELTS were found to be facing better than the Business and Economics students as well as the Humanities students, who took the same test.  On the other hand, the Business and Economics Students fared no better than the Science and Engineering group on the Social Studies module. Alderson and Urquhart conclude that background knowledge has some effect on test scores, but that is not always consistent, and that their future studies should take into account linguistic proficiency and other factors as well.

RESEARCH QUESTIONS AND HYPOTHESES.

T          he present study is an attempt at answering a few question that pertain to the student’s performance on LSRW skills in ESP (English Language for Specific Purpose) contexts.  The objective of the investigation can be expressed in the following research question:

  1. What are the student’s needs to learn Technical English keeping inn view the global context.
  2. Is there a correlation existing between the learner’s need and the syllabus which is being used to teach Technical English?
  3. What is the significance of the existing syllabus and is there is there a need for significant change?
  4. What is the role of ESP course designer and materials producer in this context?

All these questions can be answered in terms of the following hypotheses.

H1        Majority of the students will have stronger needs for learning Technical English given to the global context.

H2        There has been a negative correlation between the syllabus and the learner’s needs.

H3        The change required in the existing syllabus are hence utmost significance.

H4        The role of the curriculum developer in an age of enormous and unprecedented expansion in scientific and technical knowledge is crucial to language – learning.

            Education at present has recognized the need for making use of the latest technology for better results. This could be seen for making use of the latest technology for better results.  This could be seen in the introduction of the language labs in the Engineering Colleges to impart various language and allied skills to the prospective profession also.  Still, it is the textbook which is supposed to carry on the aims and objectives of the syllabi.  Hence a critical appraisal of the textbooks used in different Universities becomes imperative.

THE ROLE OF TEXTBOOK IN THE ENGLISH CLASSROOM

            English language instruction has many important components but the essential constituents in many English classrooms and programmers are the textbooks and instruction materials that are often used by language instructors.

            As Tom Hutchinson and Ennice Torrers suggest;

            The textbook is an almost universal element of (English Language) teaching.  Millions of copies are sold every year, and numerous aids projects have been set up to produce them in various countries.  No teaching-learning situation, it seems, is complete until it has its relevant textbook (1994: 315)

IMPORTANCE OF TEXT ANALYSIS

            Although handling the text in the classroom is time-consuming, text responses complement the data, providing more varied and detailed information about what respondents think, feel, and do.  Text analysis for Surveys is that it gives the ability to analyses respondent’s attitude and opinions.  As a result, one gains a clearer understanding of what the pupils likes or doesn’t like and why. When one understands what people think and feel in their own words, one can draw more reliable conclusions about their future behavior and use that predictive insight to meet needs more successfully.

            Text analysis is an interactive process enabling the teacher to know the major themes grasped by respondents, and also know how many respondents could mention at least one theme, whereby an insight into respondent’s belief, attitudes, or behaviors can be obtained.  When one works with the survey responses, one is likely to re-extract concepts and re-categorize responses using different category definitions or coding schemes, different terms or synonym definitions or different grouping of responses.  One may repeat this process several times before one is satisfied with the results

PURPOSE OF A TEXTBOOK

            A textbook is defined as a book used as a standard work for the students of a particular subject.  It is usually written specifically for a particular purpose, as a manual of instruction in any branch of study, especially as a work organized by scholars who usually have taught courses on the subject/s dealt with in a particular textbook.

TOOL USED FOR TEXT ANALYSIS OF SCHOOL SCIENCES.

            Researcher usually use two types of investigation processes. First is quantitative research, which employs numerical indicators to ascertain the relative size of a particular communication phenomenon. The second type of investigation process is qualitative research, which employs symbols and words to indicate the presence or absence of phenomena or top categorize them into different types.  Quantitative and qualitative observations provide researchers with different ways of operationalizing and measuring theoretical constructs and practical concepts.  While quantitative methods can provide a high level of measurement precision and statistical power, qualitative methods can supply a greater depth of information about the nature of communication processes in a particular research setting.

FEATURE OF QUANTITATIVE METHOD

            As Gareth Margon and Linda Simircich (1994: 315) state, the functional or positivist paradigm that guides the quantitative mode of inquiry is based on the assumption that social reality has an objective ontological structure and that individuals are responding agents to this objective environment.  As Catherine Cassell and Gillian Symon (1988: 237) have rightly put it in their article, the assumption behind the positivist paradigm is that there is an objective truth existing in the world that can be measured and explained scientifically.  The main concern of the quantitative paradigm are that measurement is reliable, valid and generalizable in its clear prediction of cause and effect.  In this connection, Mary John Smith (1998) in his book Contemporary Communication Research Method mentions quantitative research involves counting and measuring of events and performing the statistical analysis of a body of numerical data.

            The strengths of the quantitative method can be enumerates as follows:

  • According to Chava Frankfort-Nachmais and David Nachimias, the main strength of the quantitative method is stating the research problem is very specific and set terms;
  • Clear and precise specification of both the independent and the dependent variables under investigation;
  • Can follow firmly the original set of research goals, arrive at more objective conclusions,  test hypothesis and determine the issues of causality:
  • In the words of Howard Llord Balsley, achieving high levels of reliability of gathered data through controlled observations, laboratory experiments,  mass surveys,  or other form of research manipulations are possible in this method;
  • Eliminating or minimizing subjectivity of judgment is another important strength, as mentioned by Daniel Kealey and David Protheroe;
  • Allow for longitudinal measures of subsequent performance of research subjects.

WEAKNESSES OF QUANTITATIVE METHOD

            The weaknesses of the quantitative method are also noteworthy:

  • Fails to provide the researcher with in depth information on the context of the situation where the studied phenomenon occurs;
  • Lack of much control the environment where the respondents provide the answers to the questions in the survey;
  • Outcomes are limited to only those outlined in the original research proposal due to closed type questions and the structured format;
  • Does not encourage the evolving and continuous investigation of a research phenomenon.

The present research, however, has employed both the methods; hence it has benefitted from the strength both these methods and tried to overcome for limitations.

FEATURES OF QUALITATIVE METHOD

            As Gareth Morgan (1980 491-500) states, qualitative research shares the theoretical assumption of the interpretative paradigm, which is based on the notion that social reality is created and sustained through the subjective experience of people involved in communication.  In this connection David Fryer throws more light on qualitative research.  They are concerned in their research with attempting to accurately describe, decode and interpret the meaning of phenomena occurring in their normal social contexts.  Further he extends his statement to say that the researchers operating within the frame work of the interpretative paradigm are focused in investigating the complexity, authenticity, contextualization, shared subjectively of the researcher and the researched, and minimization of assumption (1991: 3-6)

STRENGTH OF QUALITATIVEW METHOD

The strengths of the qualitative method are as follows:

  • Obtain a more realistic feel of the world that cannot be experienced in the numerical data and statistical analysis used in quantitative research;
  • Possess flexible ways to perform data collection, subsequent analysis and interpretation of collected information.
  • Robert Bogdan and Steven J Taylor provide a holistic view of the phenomena under investigation in their book Introduction to Qualitative Research Methods (1975);
  • Able to interact with the research subjects in their own language and on their own terms as stated by Jerome Kirk and Mare Miller;
  • Has descriptive capability based on primary and unstructured data.

WEAKNESSES OF QUALITATIVE METHOD

  • Departs from the original objectives of the research in response to the changing nature of the context, as stated by Catherine Cassal and Gillian symon;
  • Arrives at different conclusions based on the same information depending on the personal characteristics of the researcher;
  • Not up to the work in investing causality between different  research phenomena;
  • Has difficulty in explaining the difference in the quality and quantity of information obtained from different respondents and arrives at different , non consistent conclusions;
  • Requires a high level of experience from the researcher to obtain the targeted information from the respondents;
  • Lacks consistency and reliability because the researcher can employ different probing techniques and the respondent can choose to answer only a few queries and ignore others.

QUANTITAIVE VERSUS QUALITATIVE TEXT ANALYSIS

                        As William Paul Vogt (1993: 1993 183-184) has opined there are two ways in which the social scientists distinguish quantitative from qualitative analyses.  On the one hand, qualitative analyses can be differentiated from quantitative analyses according to the level of measurement of the variables being analyzed.  Gilbert Shapiro and John Mark off (1977)argue, for example ,  that indiscriminate use of this quantitative – qualitative distinction has often resulted in the label,  qualitative content analysis ,  being not only aptly applied to rigorous analyses of categorical data but also inappropriately applied to haphazard   ( and thus unscientific) analyses of such data.  On the other hand, social scientist also distinguish their methods of quantitative or qualitative.  In this connection, it is interesting to note Berg’s explanation on quantitative methods, which is more deductive, statistical, and confirmatory, qualitative methods are more inductive, non statistical and exploratory.  It i9s only according to this latter distinction that quantitative text analysis has been applied to this study (1995: 2-4)

CONCLUSION

            The present study has employed both quantitative and qualitative methods, endeavoring to use the strengths of each method.  While the quantitative method helped the research to involve a good number of subjects and the various aspects of English Teaching in the Universities selected for study, the qualitative method has allowed the researcher to make an in-depth analysis of the responses of the subjects.  I has also been observed that the targets group turned out to be a suitable subject for qualitative analysis as they hail from professional colleges. They displayed a keen perception on the strengths and weaknesses of their system and provided the researcher a sharp analysis of various aspects of the teaching of English in their colleges.

            Keeping in view, the strengths and weaknesses of the quantitative and qualitative methods, a questionnaire was prepared, and the opinion of the students was obtained. The questionnaire contains questions related to their parental background, the Board of Examination through which they had taken their school leaving certificates, etc.  Students were asked to express their views on textbooks prescribed for study in terms of content, form, presentation and other aspects such as grammar and the four skills important they need.

Therefore, any thesis does not stop at the point of being mere critique of the status quo; in addition to critiquing the existing scenario of teaching Technical English at Professional level, the thesis also makes a modest attempt at suggesting measures in the last chapter to better the status quo.  The suggested measures are based not on the theoretical speculation but on practical experience and the prolonged experiments and evaluation conducted for the technical students at Acharya Nagarjuna University College of Engineering and Technology, Jawaharlal Nehru  Technological University (Kakinada), Koneru Lakshmaiah University and Vignan University, Guntur.

References:

  1. Carson , J.E 1994. Reading –Writing connections: Towards a Description for Second Language Learners in ‘Second Language Writing’. Edited by Barbara Kroll.cup.pp. 88-107.
  2. Stotsky .S.1983. Research on Reading –Writing Relationships: A synthesis and suggested directions. In ‘Language Arts’, 60, 627-642.
  3. Anthony, Laurence, 1997. ESP. What does it mean? Retrieved from http://interserver.miyazaki-med ac.JP/-cue/PC/anthony.htm on April 6, 2000.
  4. ‘The sociolinguistic context of English language teaching in India’ in Shirin, Kudchedkar (Ed.) reading in English language teaching in India, Chennai: Orient Longman, PP. 37-66.
  5. Foreigners and Foreign languages in India: A sociolinguistic history. New Delhi : Foundation Books (Cambridge University, press, )
  6. Daniel, S.P.2012, An Indian Experiment of English for specific Purposes (ESP), English language teaching in India: the shifting Paradigm. New Delhi Tata MC-Grow Hills, PP. 119-125.
  7. Dudley Evans, T. and Jo St. John M.1998. Developments in English for specific purposes. Cup.
  8. Kavaliaus kiene, G. Role of Self-correction in learning ESP ‘English for Specific purposes world’, Web-based Journal, Issue 2(5), Volume 2, 2003, 8 Pages.

Dr. Savita, W/o Shakti Singh, Mobile No. 9416811500

 House No. 217/26,

West Ram Nagar, Sonipat.

 

Internal and External Threats to the National Security of Pakistan

Professor Han Zhongyi 1 Zain ul Abiden Malik2

  1. School of World History, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi, an China
  2. School of World History, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi, an China

Abstract:

 Pakistan individual a helpful supporter of the US has to look more pessimistic security implications than optimistic. Day by day the security condition of Pakistan is going worse. In this dangerous situation, it was complicated to describe the social protection of Pakistan. Here is a require to get rid of the fear of terrorism and extremism. Pakistan can enhance its security through adopting different way.

Keywords: Terrorism, Security, Instability

 

 

Introduction:

 

 

After 9/11 incident the terrorism become big challenge for whole world security. In new era these terrorist attacks cleared the picture of USA and whole the globe. The US blamed Osama bin Landan was involved in this terrorist activities. The Taliban had given shelter to Osama bin Landan. The USA demanded to Taliban to give him Osama bin landan if they not hand over Osama bin Landan mentally they are ready for war (Yusafzai, 2011).The Taliban refused to hand over Osama bin Landan to USA they accepted their challenge for war. USA received negative reply from Taliban so US did attack on Afghanistan on October 7, 2001. The main objective of this attack on Afghanistan was to arrest Osama bin Landan after few months of this attack, the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) occupied big cities of Afghanistan (Farooq, 2005).The US efforts to conquer Taliban and Al –Qaeda with help of Alliance force, but they are not hundred percent successful. The Taliban did proper guerilla war against Allied forces. They conducted surprise attacks on Allied forces number of forces died in these attacks. The US did  not get great victory in afghan it was hug shocked for US leadership (Moonis,2005).The Global War on Terror (GWOT) belongings to  Pakistan’s defense atmosphere more than any additional situation in the globe. The Incident of 9/11 had brought noticeable changing in Pakistan foreign policy but also relate to Pakistan security situation. General Musharraf was supported to USA war against terrorism. This favor created by friendly relationship between two nations. Pakistan was played  major role in war against terrorism. Pakistan has worn this condition to better dealings toward follow a large sequence of issues.

 

 

 

Literature Review:

 

The attacks on World Trade Center and Pentagon separated the globe into two parts’ supportive and non-supportive follower of USA. Pakistan individual a accommodating helper of the USA has to look other pessimistic security implications than optimistic. The defense condition of Pakistan is warped as well as is still declined day by day. it was difficult to define the national defense of Pakistan. There is a require to get rid of threats of terrorism and extremism. By adopting various way from side to side, Pakistan can get better its security (Samia et al… 2012). The country security plan is a multi-faced job to provide safety and security to our cities and continue its development. The fundamental principles of the corporation, convenience, distribution network, transparency and summarize. Pakistan is in a bad need to select such strategies of safety and security to maintain its economic development and its citizens’ security (Khalid & Kamal, 2015). The state of internal security in Pakistan emerged as a confront to the state due to the community disintegration and increase in extremism and terrorism. Incidents of terrorism connected to TTP developed as the main internal security threat in Pakistan. The collapse of PML – (N)’s government in bringing the TTP to the dialogue table tied with a frightening rise in some terror attacks on security personnel. Furthermore, soft targets led to the hard posture culminating in a complete joint military operation ‘Zarb-e-Azb’ in North Waziristan (FATA) next to TTP’s hideouts and their foreign supporters(Javaid,2016). In 2010 more than 100 drone strikes were conducted in Pakistan unaccompanied and are predictable to kill one-third to ninety-five percent civilians (Jone et al…2011).

METHODOLOGY OF STUDY:

 

The data has collected from various articles and books. This study consists of a qualitative type of research.

DISCUSSIONS:

 

Historical perspective:

 Pakistan was open the control of extremism and terrorism and was restricted to chance and precise acts of religious and sectarian nature. Though, the Iranian revolution and its contradicting revolutionary forces, Afghan Jihad culture and the Taliban government have negatively exaggerated Pakistan society. In the late 1970s and 1980s, General Zia’s Islamization procedure gave Pakistan a new ideology (Saima et al. 2012). During his government, a lot of Madrassas were recognized which were later on used as centers for Afghan Jihad. Jihadi culture thus understood its roots in our society and gained an active support of politico-religious parties (Sultan, 2006). In the 1970s and 1980s, Islamization became an essential tool of Pakistan’s internal foreign policy. It became a supporter of the US against the Soviets in 1979 to boundary the rising power of communism (Malik 2009, 17). After the Soviet defeat in Afghanistan and along with a large effort between the Afghan Mujahidin, a new authority came to the front in Afghanistan in the form of Taliban. Pakistan was the principal source of Taliban to be in a call with the outside globe. Then the 9/11 event occurred, and Pakistan twisted her back on Taliban and appeared as a forefront state to support the US in its policy to war terrorism and to pursue the remnants of Taliban and Al-Qaeda network (Hamid 2011).

Factors to responsible for national security:

There are three factors primarily contributing to her customary domestic insecurities

  1. a narrow and weakly defined purpose of Pakistan regarding the concept of Islamic states; the

Ideological base of Pakistan is vulnerable by the ethnic, cultural and lingual dominance of the four provinces. The successful Islamic ideology following Pakistan movement cannot be continued among the various nature of people of Pakistan.

2.The absence of harmony on the development of national institutions, the breakdown of leadership and the political institutions in raising a common strategy to address all the security concerns.

 3) The different nature of the state that conquered its area with the weak federal connection.(Khalid& Kamal,2015)

But, today it can be possibly asserted that the critical threat to national security in Pakistan emanates additional from internal sources quite than external”(Javaid, n.d.: 1). General Ashfaq Pervez Kayani, Pakistan’s Chief of Army Staff, admitted in his policy speech in 2012 that internal threat is larger than that of an external threat (Ahmed, 2014). Fahmida Mirza, Speaker National Assembly is of the view that ‘terrorism and extremism are the major threats to the security, calm and solidity in the region and poverty, illiteracy and unemployment are the major causes’ (Mirza 2009).

Serious security issues in Pakistan:

 

Pakistan suffered a lot being an associate of US in the war against terrorism .9/11 was only single terrorist incident the US country but in Pakistan numbers of such incidents have been experimental, which deteriorated the law and order condition in the country. No part of the country is secure owing to bombing and suicide attacks of terrorism. Pakistan’s anxious economic situation, fluid political setting, and dangerous security situation here serious challenges to Pakistan’s security. Islamabad faces crises that wear down their options. Investors are scared of investing in Pakistan due to insecurity. Even Pakistan’s investors, traders, and industrialists are unwilling to spend here and prefer to make an investment in such countries where they get handful profit. This directly increases our public anger. Pakistan’s economic appearance does not come out to be clear in the wake of the real havoc, rising terrorist hostility, political suspicions and rising Talibanization of the society.

Weak governance and over-reliance on military solutions have contributed to political disorder and an increase of extremism. Al Qaeda forces and their associates stay active on Pakistani region (Hathway 2010). This connectivity between Al Qaeda and Pakistani Taliban is one of the principal sources of insecurity in Pakistan. This connectivity leads to suicide attacks and bomb blasts all over in Pakistan. Pakistan witnessed extra than dozen attacks next to its military, security forces, government officials and civilians. On September 3, 2008, for the first time in 60 years of freedom, Pakistan faced a direct military attack by outside armed forces, other than India (Malik,2009). It was a shocking condition for Pakistan’s security and independence.

The Lahore attack on the Sri Lankan cricket team on March 3, 2009, in which six police guards were killed and seven Sri Lankan players wounded highlighted extremism and terrorism in Punjab (Firdous, 2009). The Islamabad Marriott Hotel bombing occurred on September 20, 2008, when an abandoned truck filled with explosives detonated in front of the Hotel inside which at least 54 people killed and at least 266 got wounded ( Masood 2008). On October 28, 2010, two suicide bombers under fire the new campus of the International Islamic University Islamabad (IIUI) murder at least six students and staff members and additional than 29 got wounded (Dawn 2010, 1). On January 4, 2011, Punjab Governor Salmaan Taseer was assassinated by his guard in Islamabad (Daily Times 2011).

Pak –Afghan border operations:

 

The beginning of transactions on the Pak-Afghan border for eliminating supposed terrorists has enlarged suicide bombing in Pakistan, and no leave had leftovers safe from these attacks and made Pakistan anxious and weak. While the first decade of war on terrorism has completed, it made Pakistan more unbalanced than eternally before. Five hundred bomb blasts have been witnessed in which more than 35,000 people have died, and it has cleaned out the security of Pakistan (Rehman, 2011). In the present circumstances, it is essential to resolve the growing security threats that had engrossed the national security of Pakistan. These are declining the roots of Pakistan and also vanishing away from the image of Pakistan both at home and internationally as well.

Conclusion:

The external insecurity covered the way for Pakistan’s participation in Afghanistan-Soviet War and the War on Terror, which laid down grave suggestion on Pakistan’s internal security construction. It introduced terrorism, Kalashank of culture; it destroyed the economic sector and raised the hopes of the separates’ actions. But, Pakistan’s security initiatives paperwork is significant, but the real standoff is the political insecurity, and the conflict between the civil-military leadership that has no national consonance led the substance of internal security. Secondly, the other destructive factor is short of the implant, in spite of being advised, and no real information distribution occurs, no management is set up among the Law Enforcement Agencies.

Reference:

Afzal, S., Iqbal, H., & Inayay, M. (2012). Terrorism and extremism as a non-traditional security threat post 9/11: implications for Pakistan’s security. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 3(24).

Khalid, I., & Kamal, M. (2015). The Homeland Security Initiatives for Pakistan: A Grand Strategy. South Asian Studies, 30(1), 15.

Javaid, U. Zarb-e-Azb and the State of Security in Pakistan.

Jones, T., Sheets, P., & Rowling, C. (2011). Differential news framing of unmanned aerial drones: efficient and effective or illegal and inhumane?.

Yusafzai, Hamid Iqbal. 2011. The US Factor in Pak-Afghan Relation post 9/11 Lambert Academic Publishing (LAP) gMB &Co.KG Germany (June).

Moonis, A. (2005). The Challenge of Rebuilding Afghanistan.

Ahmed, N. (2014). Pakistan’s Counter-terrorism Strategy and its Implications for domestic, regional and international security.

Javaid, U. Terrorism: Major Threat to Pakistan’s National Security. Lahore: pu. edu. pk/images/journal/pols/current issue-pdf/umbreen. pdf.

Hasnat, S. F. (2005). Afghan Crisis; a Dilemma for Pakistan’s Security and International Response. Perceptions (Spring 2005)45.

 

Afzal, S., Iqbal, H., & Inayay, M. (2012). Terrorism and extremism as a non-traditional security threat post 9/11: implications for Pakistan’s security. International Journal of Business and Social Science3(24).

Murphy, E., & Malik, A. R. (2009). Pakistan Jihad: the making of religious terrorism. IPRI Journal1(2), 23.

Firdous, Kiran. 2009. Militancy in Pakistan. Strategic Studies 30(2) summer & autumn: 50-59.

Salman, Masood. 2008. More Bodies Pulled from Hotel Rubble in Pakistan. New York Times (September 21).

 

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