From Russia With Love

NEW YORK: An unusual flashmob took place today in Times Square. Unidentified activists were gifting flowers to women.


Activists wearing jackets with “From Russia with Love” inscription on their backs were gifting flower bouquets to women in Times Square. At the same time one of the Times Square billboards was displaying a picture of Russia covered in flowers with a signature “From Russia with Love”. Women were pleased and were smiling, this unexpected flashmob flattered them.

The flashmob was devoted to the International Women’s Day which is celebrated every year on March 8. This holiday is originating from the Solidarity Day of working women in their struggle for emancipation and equal rights. Traditionally, this day is celebrated in the former USSR countries, in China and in some African countries.

– Rick Irwin

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Comparison of Self-Concept between Rural & Urban School Going Adolescent

Dr. Sukhbir Singh

Assistant Professor,

Deptt. of Physical Education, A.I. J.H.M. College, Rohtak (Haryana)


Abstract: The purpose of the study, 50 subjects (25 rural and 25urban) were selected randomly from rural and urban area school going adolescent in Rohtak  District (Haryana). The age level of the subjects ranged from 13 to 14 years. The Self-concept variable was selected for the present study. Self-concept was assessed with the help of Swatva Bodh Parikshan (SBP) Self-Concept Questionnaire constructed and standardized by Dr. G. P. Sherry, Dr. R. P. Verma and Dr. P.K. Goswami. Swatva-Bodh Parikshan, is a forty-eight item test, yielding scores in eight different dimensions of the self-concept and on the total. Thus, the present test provides eight separate measures of self-concept. The data thus collected were put to statistical treatment computing independent t test to find out the differences, if any between the rural and urban. Further the level of significance was set at 0.05. The experiment carried out on twenty five rural and twenty five urban school going adolescent students to find out the comparison on self-concept. After applying standard questionnaire to obtained response and statistical treatment, the results come out were shows significant difference between rural and urban school going adolescent students.

 Keywords :  Self-Concept, Rural & Urban School, Adolescent, Random Method.

Introduction : Self-concept is a multi-dimensional construct that refers to an individual’s perception of “self” in relation to any number of characteristics, such as behavior, intellectual and school status, physical appearance and attributes, anxiety, popularity, happiness and satisfaction and many others. While closely related with self-concept clarity, it presupposes but is distinguishable from self-awareness, which is simply an individual’s awareness of their self. The self-concept is undergoing something of a renaissance in contemporary social psychology. It has, of course, been a central concept within symbolic interactionism since the seminal writings of Mead (1934), Cooley (1902), and James (1890). However, even within this sociological tradition there has been a revitalization of interest in the self-concept: with developments in role theory (Turner 1978; Gordon 1976), with the increasing focus on the concept of identity (McCall & Simmons 1978; Stryker 1980; Gordon 1968; Guiot 1977; Burke 1980), with the reemergence of interest in social structure and personality (House 1981; Turner 1976; Kohn 1969, 1981; Rosenberg 1979), and with the reconceptualization of small group experimental situations (Alexander and colleagues 1971, 1981; Webster & Sobieszek 1974). The reemergence of the self-concept is even more dramatic within psycho- logical social psychology. Much of this revitalization of interest in self- phenomena (e.g. self-awareness, self-esteem, self-image, self-evaluation) is due to the “cognitive revolution” in psychology (December 1974; Manis 1977), generally at the expense of behaviorism. As a result, the self concept has become conspicuous in areas and traditions that were previously considered alien terrain: within behaviorism via Bem’s (1972) theory of self-attribution; within social learning theory via Bandura’s (1977) focus on self-efficacy; and within cognitive dissonance theory via Aronson’s (1968) and Bramel’s (1968) reformulations. It is also increasingly evident in theories of attitude and value formation and change (Rokeach 1973, 1979), in attribution theory (Epstein 1973; Bowerman 1978), and in various other recent theories of cognitive processes (see Wegner & Vallacher 1980). Perhaps as important as these “intentional” theoretical developments in social psychology for the refocus on self-concept is what one reviewer calls “the inadvertent rediscovery of self” in experimental social psychology (Hales 1981a). This refers to the observation that experimental results frequently could be explained as well or better by the operation of self-processes within these settings [such as Alexander’s “situated identity theory” (1981)] than by the theoretical variables under investigation. This “inadvertent” discovery of self may have contributed to the socalled “crisis” in social psychology (Boutilier et al. 1980; Hales 1981a). In this review I focus on developments and trends in self-concept theory and research within social psychology.’ However, as Stryker (1977) and House (1977) point out, there are several social psychologies. The major distinction is between social psychology developed within the sociological tradition and that emerging from the psychological tradition. The self-concept is increasingly important within both disciplines; developments within both are reviewed. The two social psychologies differ in their focus. Sociology tends to focus on the antecedents of self conceptions, and typically looks for these within patterns of social interaction. Psychology, on the other hand, tends to focus on the consequences of self-conceptions, especially as these relate to behavior. The latter focus is more likely than the former to lead to questions of motivation (e.g. the self-esteem motive, consistency motive, efficacy motive). In a sense, sociology and psychology have complementary biases regarding the self-concept. If the “fundamental attribution bias” of psychologists is an overly “internal” view of the causes of behavior (Ross 1977), the attribution bias of sociologists is a tendency to look for the causes of behavior outside the individual-i.e. in culture, social structure, or social situation. Several aspects of the self-concept literature are not reviewed: I do not delve into the extensive literature on specific social identities, such as sexual and gender identities, various occupational identities, and specific deviant identities (e.g. delinquent, criminal, mental patient). Here I treat the social- psychological literature on self-concept, largely ignoring the clinical, humanistic, and philosophical traditions. (Gecas, 1982) [8]. indicates that a mean and standard deviation values with regard to self-concept variable in rural were 30.64 and 3.52 whereas in urban the mean and standard deviation were recorded as 34.28 and 2.851 respectively. There was significant difference between rural and urban school going adolescent students found as the calculated t-value (4.016) was more than tabulation t-value (2.01) at 0.5 level. As the results indicate researcher hypothesis is accepted.

Self-concept  : The self-concept as an organizer of behavior is of great importance. Self-concept refers to the experience of one’s own being. It includes what people come to know about themselves through experience, reflection and feedback from others. It is an organized cognitive structure comprised of a set of attitudes, beliefs, values, variety of habits, abilities, out looks, ideas and feelings of a person. Consistency of behavior and continuity of identity are two of the chief properties of the self concept. Self-concept is positively related with their school achievement. Self-concept is a factor which helps to study the human behavior and personality. There are several different components of self-concept: physical, academic, social, and transpersonal. The physical aspect of self-concept relates to that which is concrete: what we look like, our sex, height, weight, etc.; what kind of clothes we wear; what kind of car we drive; what kind of home we live in; and so forth. Our academic self-concept relates to how well we do in school or how well we learn. There are two levels: a general academic self-concept of how good we are overall and a set of specific content-related self-concepts that describe how good we are in math, science, language arts, social science, etc. The social self-concept describes how we relate ourselves to other people and the transpersonal self-concept describes how we relate to the supernatural or unknown.

Research Methodology :

  • Selection of Subjects : For the purpose of the study, fifty subjects (twenty five rural and twenty five urban) were selected randomly from rural and urban area school going adolescent in Rohtak District(Haryana)The age level of the subjects ranged from 13 to 14 years.
  • Criterion Measures : The Self-concept variable was selected for the present study. Self-concept was assessed with the help of Swatva Bodh Parikshan (SBP) Self-Concept Questionnaire constructed and standardized by Dr. G. P. Sherry, Dr. R. P. Verma and Dr. P.K. Goswami.
  • Description of the Test : Swatva-Bodh Parikshan, is a forty-eight item test, yielding scores in eight different dimensions of the self-concept and on the total. Thus, the present test provides eight separate measures of self-concept. The statements of the test are simple and declarative about self, see-king responses in “Yes” or “No”. Responses are obtained on an answer-sheet and the test booklet can be used again and again. There is no time for completing the test, but the respondent is advised to complete the test as quickly as possible. Generally it takes a respondent about 20 minute to complete the test. A high score on this test indicates a bright self-concept while a low score shows a poor self-concept.

 Analysis of the Data:

  • Result and Discussion : The data thus collected were put to statistical treatment computing independent t test to find out the differences, if any between the rural and urban. Further the level of significance was set at 0.05. The findings of the study have been presented in table- I Table 1: Showing comparison of self-concept between rural and urban school going Adolescent Variable

Variable Group Mean SD SE MD Ot df Tt
Health and Physique Rural 3.68 1.52 0.38 1.20 3.176 48 2.01
Urban 2.48 1.12
Temperamental Qualities Rural 2.92 0.86 0.21 1.36 6.425 48 2.01
Urban 4.28 0.61
Academic Status Rural 4.76 1.48 0.39 1.12 2.905 48 2.01
Urban 5.88 1.24
Intellectual abilities Rural 4.68 1.22 0.32 0.64 2.009 48 2.01
Urban 5.32 1.03
Habits and Behaviour Rural 3.48 0.87 0.26 0.28 1.074 48 2.01
Urban 3.76 0.97
Emotional Tendencies Rural 2.64 1.08 0.26 0.96 3.639 48 2.01
Urban 3.60 0.76
Mental Health Rural 4.44 1.26 0.37 0.20 0.548 48 2.01
Urban 4.64 1.32
Socio-Economic Status Rural 4.04 0.68 0.19 0.28 1.449 48 2.01
Urban 4.34 0.69
Total Rural 30.64 3.52 0.91 3.64 4.016 48 2.01
Urban 34.28 2.85

*Significant at 0.05 level of confidence, t.05 (48) = 2.01.

Table-1 reveals that there is significant difference in health and physique of school going adolescent between pre and post test. The obtained t-value of 3.176 is more than the table value of 2.01. Table-1 shows that there is significant difference in temperamental qualities of school going adolescent between pre and post test. The obtained t-value of 6.425 is more than the table value of 2.01. Table-1 reveals that there is significant difference in academic status of school going adolescent between pre and post test. The obtained t-value of 2.905 is more than the table value of 2.01. Table-1 shows that there is insignificant difference in intellectual abilities of school going adolescent between pre and post test. The obtained t-value of 2.009 is less than the table value of 2.01. Table-1 reveals that there is insignificant difference in habits and behaviour of school going adolescent between pre and post test. The obtained t-value of 1.074 is less than the table value of 2.01. Table-1 shows that there is significant difference in emotional tendencies of school going adolescent between pre and post test. The obtained t-value of 3.639 is more than the table value of 2.01. Table-1 reveals that there is insignificant difference in mental health of school going adolescent between pre and post test. The obtained t-value of 0.548 is less than the table value of 2.01. Table-1 shows that there is insignificant difference in socioeconomic status of school going adolescent between pre and post test. The obtained t-value of 1.449 is less than the table value of 2.01. The table -1 indicates that a mean and standard deviation values with regard to self-concept variable in rural were 30.64 and 3.52 whereas in urban the mean and standard deviation were recorded as 34.28 and 2.851 respectively. There was significant difference between rural and urban school going adolescent students found as the calculated t-value (4.016) was more than tabulation t-value (2.01) at 0.5 level. As the results indicate researcher hypothesis is accepted. Graphical representation of above table is made in fig.1. Fig 1: Mean difference of self-concept between rural and urban school going Adolescent

Conclusion : The experiment carried out on twenty five rural and twenty five urban school going adolescent students to find out the comparison on self-concept. After applying standard questionnaire to obtained response and statistical treatment, the results come out were shows significant difference between rural and urban school going adolescent students.


References :

  1. 1. Uppal AK, Rajinder Singh. Changes in Self-Concept As A Result of Eight Mouth Regular Participation in Physical Education and Conditioning Programmes, SNIPES Journal. 1987; 8:2.
  2. Alderman RB. Psychological Behaviour in Sports, Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders, 1974.
  3. Best JW. Research in Education (New Delhi: Kalyani Publication, 2006.
  4. Bhalla SK. A comparative study of the self-concepts of disciplined and undisciplined students, Ph.D. Psy., Pan. U, 1970.
  5. Campbell Paul B. School and Self-Concept. Association for Supervision and Curriculum development, 1967.
  6. Cliffor Edward, Clifford Marrijum. Self –Concept Before and After Survival Training, British Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology. 1967, 241-48.
  7. Floyd Conic Sturkie. Relationship between Physical Performance and Self-Concept Dissertation Abstracts International 1973; 12:6712.
  8. Gecas V. The Self-Concept. Annual Review of Sociology 1982; 8:1-33.
  9. Goswami PK. A study of self-concept of adolescents and its relationship to scholastic achievement and adjustment, Ph.D. Edu., Agra U, 1978.
  10. Huitt W. Self-Concept and Self –Esteem, 1998. http: //
  11. Joseph Benjamin Johnson. A Comparison of Physical Fitness and Self-Concept between Junior High School Negro and White Male Students, Dissertation Abstracts International, 1971, 5180-A
  12. Kensal Devinder K. Applied Measurement Education and Sports Selection, New Delhi, Sports Publication, 2008.

Innovative Initiatives for Farmers Development and Issues of Crop Diversification

                                                                            Dr. Shankar Chatterjee[1]

crop diversity.JPG

                                                                            Professor & Head (CPME)

NIRD & PR, Rajendranagar,   Hyderabad-500 0030, Telangana, India



The paper was presented at the Expert Group Seminar on “Crop Insurance Policy for Madhya Pradesh” (16-17 May 2015) held at Dr. B. R. Ambedkar University of Social Sciences, Mhow, Madhya Pradesh. The article is the revised version of the paper. In this paper for the benefit of farmers some issues have been covered.  An analysis has been made how agricultural marketing has been carried out by the self-help group members in Telangana so that farmers get their due price and marginal and small farmers’ group as studied by the author in Karnataka has been presented here. A case of creation of water –bodies on individual agricultural land of marginal and small farmers’ land from Bankura district of West Bengal under MGNREGS which changed economic life of many farmers is presented here.  In addition, the author by observing crop like ‘teff’ in Eritrea, and vegetables like avocado, artichoke and asparagus grown in Peru has suggested that, attempt may be made to grow such vegetables and crop, in our country as these vegetables are having high price in international market and teff is good for health and also can sustain in semi-arid area.  

Key words: Farmers, Hapa, SHG, Teff and Vegetables.



    Mahatma Gandhiji once said, “India lives in her villages”. Still today it holds good as Indian culture, food, society, etc., can be observed only in rural India. But among these, most important is that the occupation of the villagers as the villagers in India is earning their livelihood mainly through agriculture and allied activities. According to 2011 Census, of the total population of India 121 crore, 83.3 crore live in rural areas while 37.7 crore people reside in urban areas which in relative term can be said 70 per cent of the country’s population lives in rural areas.  The state wise data reveal that Uttar Pradesh is much ahead while  maximum number of people living in rural areas is considered – 15.5 crore. Against the backdrop, Mumbai tops the list as five crore people live in urban areas.  Agriculture provides employment to 56 per cent of the Indian workforce where as its contribution to the gross Domestic Product is around 15 percent. Again, looking at the land holding data it is observed that as per 2010-11 of the total holdings of 137757 numbers, marginal holding constituted 92356 numbers (67%), smallholding-24705 (18%), Semi-medium-13840 (10%), medium -5856 (4%) and large holding-1000 (1%). The statistics further divulge that marginal holdings had increased substantially over a period of time i.e. from 64.8 percent (83694 nos.) in 2000-01 to 92356 numbers (67%) in 2010-11. Against the backdrop, in case of all other holdings, the same has declined (NIRD&PR, 2015).    The farmers’ problems in India mainly lie with marginal and small farmers. In this regard one important news item from    the Times of India (18 April 2014) may be referred which is mainly findings of a research study carried out by the British researchers.

 “British researchers have said they have found few of the main reasons behind India’s farmer suicides. Investigations by researchers from the Cambridge University’s Department of Sociology and University College London’s Department of Political Science has found that rates of suicide are highest in areas with the most debt-ridden farmers who are clinging to tiny smallholdings – less than one hectare – and are trying to grow cash crops such as cotton and coffee that are highly susceptible to global price fluctuations. Farmers at highest risk have three characteristics: those that grow cash crops such as coffee and cotton; those with ‘marginal’ farms of less than one hectare; and those with debts of Rs 300 or more. States in which these characteristics are most prevalent had the highest suicide rates. These characteristics accounted for almost 75% of the variability in state-level suicides”.

   The news item has further quoted one Sri Kennedy, a researcher, “Small scale farmers who cultivate capital-intensive cash crops – which are subject to massive price fluctuations – are particularly vulnerable to accruing debts they can’t repay. Many male farmers – who are traditionally responsible for a household’s economic well-being – resort to suicide because they can’t support their families”. According to the researchers, “In Gujarat, where cash crops are mainly cultivated on large-scale farms have low suicide rates”.

  This review discussion has shown the path that small holders experimenting with capital intensive cash crops have been suffering and finally many of them committed suicide. So to prevent suicide, I feel ‘prevention is better than cure’ which in details are discussed here.

     In the Twelve Plan Document issues related to agriculture has been explicitly analyzed. By quoting from the plan document it may be stated that “The average farm sector growth in the Eleventh Plan period may be a little over 3.0 per cent. This is a marked improvement from the average growth of about 2.0 per cent during the Tenth Plan period. ……Since agriculture is a State subject, the Centre will have to work hand in hand with the States to bring coherence in policies and strategies. Seeds and irrigation are the priority areas, which can be catalysts for raising productivity on the supply side. On the demand side, there is urgent need to remove most of the controls that have denied a unified and seamless all India market for most agri-products (12th Plan document).

    Another important point to be noted is that for development of agriculture judicious use of water is sine qua non. “Agriculture accounts for 80.0 per cent of water needs at present, and there is considerable scope for increasing efficiency of water use in this area. This requires better management of water in areas of large and medium irrigation projects. It also requires putting in place more holistic aquifer management strategies” (ibid).

 Price Support to Farmers: Innovative Initiative:

     For the minimum price support of the farmers, an innovative model developed in the undivided Andhra Pradesh is presented here as well as crop diversification is also suggested from the two countries, in addition a case of development of water conservation measure from West Bengal.  The based on feasibility as well as local situation, the Government of Madhya Pradesh may implement in the nook and corner of the villages of the State at least in distress districts like Annupur, Ashoknagar, Balaghat, Betul etc. It may be mentioned that according to the Report of the Expert Group on Agricultural Indebtedness (Banking division, Dept. of Economic Affairs, Ministry of Finance, Govt. Of India, July 2007), out of 100 agriculturally less developed and distressed districts in India, in Madhya Pradesh there are 18 districts .

   As the State is having the Madhya Pradesh State Co-operative Marketing Federation, popularly known as MP Markfed which is an APEX body of Marketing Co-operative Societies established in 1956, a registered body under the Madhya Pradesh State Cooperative Societies Act, 1960 so it can play a lead role for minimum price support to the farmers. MP Markfed was setup with the objective of purchase, sale and distribution of agriculture related commodities like fertilizer, seed, pesticide, agriculture machineries and procurement of food grains under minimum support price schemes from primary agriculture credit co-operative societies, marketing co-operative societies and farmers in the NeGP-Agriculture Mission Mode Project Software Requirement Specifications Madhya Pradesh State Agricultural Portal remote areas (NeGP, 12). Markfed has a vast marketing network comprising of 7 zonal offices, 41 district offices and 426 distribution centres at 244 different locations and supported by 280 Marketing Societies and 4526 Primary Agricultural Credit Co-operative Societies.

  In view of this it is suggested that MP Markfed should come forward and through self-help groups (SHGs) minimum price support to farmers as observed in Telangana may be initiated.

 Case from Telangana:

               To provide farmers with minimum price support for their produce, Andhra Pradesh Government (undivided, now a part is Telangana) under its organization viz., Society for Elimination of Rural Poverty (SERP) initiated innovative steps through self-help groups (SHGs) from 2000. Even after creation of Telangana, SERP has been crated separately both for Andhra Pradesh and Telangana. However, SERP worked on a comprehensive multi-dimensional poverty alleviation strategy by focusing equally on the ‘Livelihoods Value Chain and Human Development Indicators’.  Keeping this in mind, SERP of undivided Andhra Pradesh worked on a unique structure of community based organization by organizing 11.4 million rural women into 1.27 million SHGs, 38646 Village Organizations, 1098 Mandal Samakhyas (Mandal Federation i.e. cluster of villages)and 22 Zilla Samakhyas (District Federation   (

  Regarding price support to the farmers, the procurement and marketing of the agricultural goods were meticulously planned by establishing procurement centers through Village Organizations (VOs, federation of SHGs at village level) under the umbrella of SERP so that marginal and small farmers   get remunerative prices. It is pertinent to mention that maize and paddy were the two major crops which farmers used to sell as observed in the field by the author. Initially in 2004-05, procurement at village level was started with maize and observing its success, Andhra Pradesh Civil Supplies Corporation was entrusted the responsibility of procurement of paddy from 2005-06 through Village Organization. And every year specific dates (average 45 days duration each in Kharif and Rabi) were notified and willing famers can sell their goods through SHGs which is very transparent. The major objectives of marketing support through SHGs inter alia, were:

  • To enable the small & marginal farmers to obtain the best price for their Agricultural Commodities and forest produce.
  • To minimize the cost of inputs to the rural poor farmers.
  • To create Marketing facility at their door steps.

  Initially marketing efforts were initiated with the procurement of Neem fruit in one Mandal and red-gram dal in five Mandals in 2001 of Mahabubnagar district, (then Andhra Pradesh now Telangana) subsequently the process was spread over to 21 districts of undivided Andhra Pradesh involving 50 items purchased through Village Organizations (VOs). And later on maize and paddy were included. To get an idea about the benefits reached to the farmers following table may be seen at a glance.

Although table is self-explanatory but few important points as observed from the table are:

  1. Out of the 22 districts (undivided Andhra Pradesh), 21 districts were covered under the scheme and similarly out of 1098 mandals, 771 were covered. The variations in the number of mandals are observed because in sometimes there was no necessity of price support through SHGs. The farmers could sell their goods in the open market.
  2. Since inception of the scheme, crores of goods were transacted.
  3. The beneficiaries were in lakh indicating lakhs of families were benefitted.
  4. Not only farmers were benefitted even VO also earned as commission.

     Case: This study was carried out in last week of December 2012 at Eklaspur village, Manthani mandal, Karimnagar district of then Andhra Pradesh now Telangana.  In Eklaspur village, the marketing Centre was meant for procurement of paddy as in the village and nearby areas mainly paddy is cultivated.  During the time of visit, Meghna Village Organization (as there were two VOs and each year one VO is given the task) was assigned the task. As a part of marketing system the farmers had to bring paddy at their own cost at the Centre, in addition they have to pay at the rate of Rs. 20 per quintal, if the labourers upload/download paddy who are normally available at the site. Before coming to the Centre, each farmer was given a token mentioning the date for selling the paddy in order to avoid chaos. The Eklaspur village Centre started its operation from 7 November 2012 and closed on 4 January 2013, except Sundays all the days were open for operation.  For smooth functioning of the activities like other cases, 5-member committee from the members of VO was formed to oversee marketing process and each was assigned a specific task and in addition 2 more members – 1 as book-keeper and 1 Community Resource Person (CRP) – were also involved and thus 7 persons were involved in the process here. Except one male Community Resource Person (CRP), all were women indicating activities were carried out by the women. The job of CRP was to verify the paddy bags with their numbers while uploading to the trucks meant for rice mill vis-a-vis monitoring the movement of trucks till it reaches to the rice-mill. The functioning of the 5 members was- first member checked quality of paddy, confirmation of farmers’ name etc. Second member was maintaining records of gunny bags etc. Third member was supervising weight of paddy and its proper bagging etc. Fourth member was in-charge of loading in the trucks, transportation, truck-sheet maintenance, etc. Fifth member’s important assignment was issuing cheques to the farmers. Generally postdated cheques were given to the farmers for 4-5 days duration. It is pertinent to mention that two grades of paddy were procured – Grade-A variety, price of which was Rs. 1280 per quintal and another was Grade-B variety, price was Rs 1250 for one quintal.       For carrying out the activities, each one was paid at the rate of Rs. 200 per day and rough calculation shows each was earning minimum of Rs. 10000 in one season which was their additional income. Moreover some local labourers also were involved in the process and they were earning good amount for loading/uploading. After closing of the Centre on 4 January 2013, data were collected from DRDA and observed that altogether 555 farmers sold their paddy in the Centre and total quantity of paddy sold was 28542 quintals (Grade-A was 3179 quintals & Grade-B was 25363 quintals). In monetary term, total value was Rs. 3,57,72870 – for Grade-A the amount was Rs. 40,69120 and for Grade-B, the value was Rs. 3,170,3750. Total commission generated by the VO was to the tune of Rs. 894322.  Total expenditure incurred by the VO was to the tune of Rs. 2.20 lakh and thus the VO could earn a net profit of Rs. 7,74,322 (Chatterjee, 2014).

Case from Karnataka: Initiative by NGO:

Issues related to Marginal & Small farmers:    Sufferings of Indian farmers can be attributed to many factors inter alia, of which are non-availability of timely loan, marketing of products etc.  According to the All India Debt and Investment Survey (AIDIS), the share of total debt of cultivator-households taken from formal sources fell from 64 per cent in 1992 to 57 per cent in 2003.  In the same period, the share of total debt taken from money lenders almost doubled from 10.5 per cent to 19.6 per cent, (Agriculture Today 2012). By quoting from the Agriculture Today journal 2012 (March issue), it may be stated that “Money lenders continue to be the base of Indian agriculture”.

            In this paper, measures taken by an NGO viz. Shri Kshethra Dharmasthala Rural Development Project (SKDRDP) to improve economic condition of   marginal and small farmers is presented.  This study was carried out by the author in 2010 directly contacting the NGO and the farmers. The NGO, SKDRDP in Karnataka by forming 5-8 small/ marginal farmers in a self-help group has proved that their economic condition can be improved to a great extent. The experiment was started in 1991 with the change of concept from charity to self-help. The marginal and small farmers (5 to 8 farmers) by forming self-help group under the banner of ‘Pragathibandhu’ (meaning farmers’ friend) by SKDRDP work together for their agricultural development. Based on sustainability of the groups, the SKDRDP extends loan to them with easy rate of interest. In addition, farmers can borrow from bank also, if they desire. Important point under ‘Pragathibandhu’ is free sharing of labour which means each member in a group has to work in others  land one day in a week at free of cost and thus in rotation agricultural land of all the members are cultivated.

   Although the table is self-explanatory, but regarding value of labour sharing, it may be mentioned that an amount of Rs 733.70 crore of money could be saved by the marginal & small farmers by sharing the free labour under Pragathibandhu. Labour sharing not only helped small and marginal farmers to save some amount but it facilitated to develop fraternity among the group members. The filed study by the author divulged that marginal and small farmers were earlier surviving on hand to mouth by growing only paddy and vegetables and after forming SHG, their quality of life has been changed and almost all of them had TV, refrigerator, gobar gas plant, solar light etc. Regarding growing of crops it was observed that in addition to cultivating paddy and vegetables, other crops like are areca nut and coconut, black pepper, jasmine flower etc., were also grown. To get an idea about the Pragathibandhu,

     Sometimes in a dry area a single input can transform life of marginal farmers and this case is from a poor and backward district of West Bengal namely Bankura. The   district is spread over to an area of 6,882 square kilometers with a total population of around 36 lakh as per 2011 census. The district is drought prone and due to undulating, lateritic, & porous soil moisture content at subsoil level is low. Due to low irrigation facility cropping intensity on average was 147 percent.  Average size of land holding was 1.02 acre and 67 percent of the holding was around 0.53 acre. In view of this, district officials decided and designed under the guidance of an NGO viz., ‘Pradan’ construction of   hapa (water tank with average size of – 60x40x12 feet) on individual land belonging to below Poverty Line families (BPL) of marginal and small farmers.  These were constructed under Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS) through Gram Panchayat and hapas are mainly meant for water conservation approach as well as provide gainful employment MGNREGS workers. It is pertinent to mention that the length, width and depth of one hapa are 60 feet, 40 feet and 10-12 feet respectively and an amount of Rs 48,000 to Rs. 55,000 is required ( as per 2014-15 prices) where around 400 person-days of employment can be created.

  The author visited the district as a part of NIRD&PR’s ‘Village Adoption Study’   in three phases – 2012, 2013 and 2015 and observed, after constructing of hapas economic condition of the farmers has been improved. As an example case from one GP, is presented here. At Biradih village of Hirbandh block, Bankura district the data provided by MGNREGS Cell of West Bengal, Government reveal that for 35 households, mostly belonging to marginal farmers as well as marginalized community, were provided with one hapa each benefitting land area of 30 acres by doing irrigation. The marginal farmers’ income on an average in each season went up to Rs. 25000 as plenty of vegetables like tomato, brinjal etc., are cultivated in addition to paddy. Further, water harvesting structure also has facilitated to cultivate fish.  To get an idea one Akul Bawri (SC) having slight less than 2 hectares of land was contacted. He informed that before provided with the hapa in 2009-10, maintenance of his family was an issue as sequel he had to migrate to nearby districts for about 3 months. After getting hapa, his income not only scaled up but all the three children were extended good education as they were admitted in a hostel. He no longer was migrating in other districts for livelihood. With net yearly of around Rs. 80,000 he almost regularly consumed fish as fish and rice are favourate diet of the Bengalis.


This case is from a South American country namely Peru where uncommon crops like artichoke, asparagus, avocado etc., were grown and author while visited in May, 2013 observed marginal and  small farmers earning substantial amount by cultivating these crops.  Such crops on experiment basis may be taken up in the State for the benefit of small and marginal farmers.

        Peru is a country with 29 million people spread over to an area of    1,285,216 square kilometers is    situated on the Pacific coast of South America.  While coffee remains Peru’s most important agricultural export crop, however, more than 60 percent of all agricultural exports are fruits and vegetables in recent years of which asparagus is the largest fruit and vegetable exported from Peru.  According to the statistics, Peru’s fruit and vegetable exports were close to U.S. $1.2 billion in 2009, which scaled up from $60 million in 1990. Since 1990, exports have increased at an average annual rate of 16 percent. In the following table, some selected items which are exported in different countries are presented for the interest of readers.

   It is suggested here that Government of Madhya Pradesh may initiate to grow such crops if feasible, in the state.

Eritrea and crop ‘teff’:

 With the increase in population in India demand for food grains has been increasing. On the other hand, because of less rainfall, inelastic supply of agricultural land  etc. need of the hour is to experiment to cultivate new crops which require less rain and nutritious also. In this article, based on author’s experience cultivation of teff of which injera (looks like our Indian dosa but big in size) is prepared is discussed. This food is consumed by the people of Eritrea (even in Ethiopia) as staple food.  The author stayed two years in Eritrea during late 2000 and studied importance of this crop inter alia, with his teaching job. Eritrea is located in northeastern Africa and it has a land area of 125,000 square kilometers and an estimated population was 42 lakh.

      The crop teff is uncommon to Indians albeit, it is the staple food of the people of Eritrea. Recently farmers in Australia and the United States started to experiment with growing of teff as it is having high nutritional value. From teff, the dish which is cooked is known as injera and most of the time mixed with barley or wheat injera is prepared. Injera can be compared with a big size of our dosa prepared in India and it is commonly eaten with sauce, vegetables, meat etc. One injera is shared with 3-4 family members. Teff is a great source of protein and it is gluten free. I suggest Government of Madhya Pradesh should try to introduce the crop wherever feasible. It is pertinent to mention that in Madhya Pradesh only traditional crops are grown such as paddy, wheat, jowar, gram, soybean, sugarcane and cotton.

Conclusion and suggestions:

  Agriculture sustains the lives of millions in the world in terms of nutrition and income, but changing rainfall patterns and poor storage can severely cut productivity. Simple innovation can help farmers grow healthier crops and store their produce for longer. But for an invention to work, it has to be affordable and integrate smoothly into farmers’ existing workflow.

  To address the issues pertaining to the farmers’ in general and marginal and small farmers in particular State Government in collaboration with Central Government should work hand in hand. Even NGOs and CBOs should take initiative to help farmers whether technically, scientifically or extending knowledge or financially.   We have to remember the farmers are our ‘annadata’ (providers of food) so they must be taken care of by the society. Any case of suicide of the farmers because of crop failure or lack of minimum price support is a shocking incident for all the Indians. I suggest prevention is better than cure. So to prevent farmers for experimenting with new crops for earning more money at the initial stage should not be encouraged. And the following suggestions are made is this paper.

  1. MP Markfed should come forward and through self-help groups (SHGs) minimum price support to the farmers, as observed in undivided Andhra Pradesh, may be initiated as the system is transparent.
  2. For the benefit of marginal and small farmers, experiment basis growing of cash crop is not suggested particularly coffee and cotton. If at all they are interested then in addition to cultivate food crops as observed in Pragathibandhu SHG, in a small part of their land experiment basis cash crop may be cultivated.
  3. New type of crops like ‘teff’ as observed in Eritrea (as it also a food-crop which can be grown with minimum water) may be grown in Madhya Pradesh, if feasible.
  4. Other crops which are having high international value like artichoke, asparagus, avocado etc., may be taken up in the State at least on experiment basis as these in addition to fetching foreign currency can be consumed.
  5. The Pragathibandhu (PBG) model has proved that marginal and small farmers can earn substantially and also it helped to build national integration as well as brotherhood feeling. The concept, PBGs have been working successfully for about two decades indicating its sustainability of the groups. Earlier it started in one district of Karnataka subsequently spread over to other districts.
  6. For benefit of marginal and small farmers scope of developing hapa may be worked out as it was highly beneficial to them.


  1. Planning Commission, (October 2011) “Faster, Sustainable and More Inclusive Growth: An Approach to the Twelfth Five Year Plan (2012-17)” New Delhi.
  2.  ibid
  3.   Sinha Kounteya “UK researchers unravel reasons behind India’s farmer suicides”
  4.     Times of India, 18 April, 2014.
  5.  RangacharyuluV.  & G Rajani Kanth (2013-14) (ed.) “Rural development Statistics”, NIRD&PR, Hyderabad.
  6.  Mahendra Dev S. “Small Farmers in India: Challenges and Opportunities” Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai, June 2012
  7.   Department of Agriculture & Cooperation Ministry of Agriculture, (2012), “NeGP-Agriculture Empowering Farmers”, Government of India, New Delhi.
  8.  Chatterjee Shankar “Innovative Case of Minimum Support Price to Farmers
  9. Through Self-Help Groups: A Case From India” SAMZODHANA “Journal of Management Research” Vol. 2, Issue 1 March 2014.

[1] The paper was presented at the Expert Group Seminar on “Crop Insurance Policy for Madhya Pradesh” (16-17 May 2015) held at Dr. B. R. Ambedkar University of Social Sciences, Mhow, Madhya Pradesh. The article is the revised version of the paper.

The Role of Formal Education in the Rehabilitation and Reintegration of Prisoners in Nigeria: A Case Study of Jos Prison, Nigeria

Otodo Ifeanyichukwu



This study investigates the role of education in the rehabilitation and reformation of inmates of Jos prison. The rehabilitation of prisoners through formal education is necessary. The study adopted the descriptive research design. Therefore, a 23-item questionnaire was developed and administered to 250 respondents comprising of 150 inmates and 100 staff of Jos Prison who were chosen through stratified random sampling. The result showed that the respondents agreed that education for prisoners is very important in the rehabilitation and reformation of inmates. Also, some challenges militating against the smooth operation of formal education in Jos prison were highlighted. Based on the finding, some useful recommendations were made on how to better the education of inmates for effective rehabilitation and reformation.

Key words: Rehabilitation, reintegration, education, prison, prisoner.

1.0 Introduction

A prison can be sociologically defined as a confinement where socially and legally interned people who have wronged the society are kept for reformation, rehabilitation and possible reintegration into the society where they would contribute meaningfully to the development of the society. Ideally and as obtained in other developed climes, the prison is the last place for the transfiguration of those who the society dim unfit to cohabit with it owing to the fact that their stay in the society is inimical to the continued co-existence of the members of the society. Prisons are very important to the survival and continued existence of every society. Infact, the importance of prisons cannot be over-emphasised.

Prisons are designed to keep custody of the legally interned, and by doing so, it helps to keep the society safe from misdemeanants and lawbreakers who disturbs the peace of the society. Many are oblivious of this fact. When criminals and other dangerous elements are locked up in the prison, the society is insulated from their nefarious activities, thereby making the society safe for habitation and cohabitation. Hence, the prison is a vital part of the security set up of every society. Imagine what the society would look like if the content of the prisons in Nigeria are poured out.

According to Gumi (2014), people are sent to prison in order to protect the society from harm. Investing in the physical structures of prisons such as in buildings, protective bars, guards and guns alone may help to reduce crime in the short-term; ultimately it does nothing to make society safer. This is because almost everyone in prison will eventually return to society at the end of their term. If they remain idle during their time in prison, they are likely to become bitter and resentful (Gumi, 2014). If however prisoners are given meaningful things to do and are equipped with the skills and self-belief they need to support themselves upon release, society becomes safer because the rate of re-offending would decrease (African Prison Project, 2014).

 Reformation of Prison Inmates can only be achieved through education and skill acquisition training. Formal education becomes a panacea for effecting positive changes in the prison inmates before they are released. Formal education in prison aims at providing the awareness that will enable young as well as mature adults to improve or supplement their knowledge and skills in general subjects. The education of prisoners enhances their abilities to improve their future job and educational possibilities and potentials (Ewulum, Omeriyang and Mbara, 2015).

Education is thus one key aspect of the rehabilitative role in which prisoners can engage while in prison. It is not just a means of keeping the prisoner occupied, but has the capacity to form a stepping stone towards prisoner’s inclusion and reintegration into society. By providing positive learning environments, prisons can support the inmates to make good use of their sentence; to address gaps in their learning skills; to improve their employability; and to change their personal attitudes and perceptions. This in a long run helps them to understand the reasons for and consequences of their actions. All of these factors can reduce their chances of re-offending (Hawley, 2013).

Moreover, access to education is a fundamental human right and prisoners should not be denied the chance to exercise this right (Hawley, 2013). It can therefore be argued that imprisonment, even if it is viewed as justified punishment, should not bring with it the additional deprivation of civil rights, which include education (UNESCO, 1995).

Ogundipe (2008) posits that the Nigerian Prison Service has established practical programmes for reformation and rehabilitation of prison inmates. These programmes include: Vocational skills development Programme (SVDP) which aims at empowering the prisoners who have no formal education background with the practical skills in handworks like carpentry, metal-work, shoe-making, tailoring and others. This would help them to be self-reliant when they are released from prison. The second programme is the Adult Remedial Education Programme (AREP) which is designed to help prisoners who were pursuing one academic programme or the other before imprisonment. These programmes enable prison inmates to learn skills in such vocation as tailoring, plumbing, carpentry, woodwork, barbing, shoe making, and a host of others; and also to be grounded academically to become professionals like Doctors, Lawyers and graduates after discharge. Ogundipe (2008) also stated that through remedial programmes in the various Nigeria prisons, 1,306 candidates sat for the WAEC and GCE examinations as well as NECO in 2006 while in 2007, 1,198 candidates took the same examinations. For this success, the West African Examination Council made Ikoyi Prisons, Lagos one of its examinations centres.

Globally, education has had a consistent presence in correctional facilities over the past 200 years, though the form it has taken and the rationale behind its provision have changed over time. In 1798, education was introduced in the Americas first correctional facility—the Walnut Street Jail—in the context of religious instruction intended to help individuals repent for their crimes and develop spiritually and morally. The late 1800s marked the rise of the reformatory era, and educational offerings expanded beyond religious instruction to emphasize literacy and communication skills, as well as the inclusion of secular courses such as astronomy, geography, and history. Education was further entrenched within correctional institutions with the introduction of indeterminate sentences, which required evidence of self-improvement as a condition of release. Through the 1970s, often considered the “golden age” for rehabilitative programs, educational instruction proliferated, eventually including high school courses and general equivalency diploma (GED) preparation, vocational training in specific trades, life skills programs, academic higher education program, and study release (Gumi, 2014).

Prisoners can be indifferent to education in prison. Research from the United States of America, Ireland and the United Kingdom shows that prisoners are more likely to have literacy difficulties than the general population (Batchelder and Pippert, 2002; Cropsey, Wexler, Melnick, Taxman and Young, 2007; Hurry, Brazier, Snapes, and Wilson, 2005) and tend to have lower than average attainment and poor experiences of compulsory education (Morgan and Kett, 2003; Muth, 2006; Winn and Behizadeh, 2011). In prisons, particularly in the United Kingdom, the curriculum is often restricted so that prisoners are expected to engage in education that is focused on improving narrow literacy skills rather than broader, and potentially more attractive, educational areas (Hurry, Brazier and Wilson, 2009).

Many prisoners, and adults who have similar unhappy experiences of compulsory education, tend to have negative attitudes to learning and can be very resistant to education that is like school (Barton, Ivanic, Appleby, Hodge and Tusting, 2007; Belzer, 2004; Kilgore, 2001; Maclachlan, Hall, Tett, Crowther and Edwards, 2008). This is especially true of provision focused only on narrow literacy skills such as spelling and thus such courses tend to promote little learning and a great deal of resentment amongst prisoners. On the other hand, Hurry, Brazier and Wilson (2009) found in their study of English prisons that prisoners became engaged and participated in more effective learning when the programme was more contextualized and active. Research from across the UK also shows that creating an environment where learning operates from an individual’s ‘strengths’, rather than their ‘deficits’ is the most effective (Crowther, Maclachlan and Tett, 2010; Entwistle and Smith, 2002). This involves building on and extending the knowledge and skills that individual’s already have, an approach that has been found to be very uncommon in prisons in studies in the US and the UK (Batchelder and Pippert, 2002; Kilgore, 2001).

This research, therefore, seeks to assess the role of education in inmates’ reformation and rehabilitation in Jos Maximum prison; and to determine the extent to which prison inmates have been exposed to formal education with a view to improving their rehabilitation and reformation. The research also exposed the challenges faced by the prison adult school in Jos prison.

2.0 Methodology

The study employed the use of a descriptive research design. Descriptive research design was chosen because it enables the researcher to generalize the findings to other prisons across the country.  The population of the study is made up of all the prisons staff and inmates in Jos prison. Jos prison as at 1st July, 2015 has 243 staff and 721 inmates. Therefore, the total population for the study was 964. The sample used for this study consisted of 250 respondents: 150 inmates and 100 prisons staff who were selected through the purposive sampling method. The sample is made up of 204 males and 43 females. The age of the respondents ranged from 18-59 years, with a mean age of 34.5 years. Eighty-seven (87) of the inmates were Muslims, while one hundred and sixty three (163) inmates are Christians.  Only convicted inmates serving short and long term sentences were used for the study. Those awaiting trails were left out of the study because they are not qualified for rehabilitation and reformation programmes.

The research made use of a self structured questionnaire which was developed by the researchers. The questionnaire was subjected for validity by two experts in criminology from the University of Uyo; and other two senior prison officers working in the Plateau state headquarters of the Nigerian Prisons Service. Comments and recommendations of the experts were incorporated in the final construction of the instrument which ended up with 23 items. The instrument yielded a reliability coefficient of 0.76 using the test-retest reliability method and was considered high enough. The data collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics and percentages. While simple percentages was used to analyze research question one, mean score was used in Research question two. Decision rule for Research question two was based on 4-points numerical values assigned to the responses: Strongly Agree (SA) = 4-points, Agree (A) = 3 points, Disagree (D) = 2 points and Strongly Disagree (SD) = 1 point. Items which had mean rating of 2.50 and above were agreed on. Conversely, items which had less than 2.5 were considered to be disagreed on.

3.0 Results and findings

The results of the study were presented according to the research questions. Out of the 250 copies of the questionnaire distributed and returned, 3 were badly filled and discarded while the remaining 247 copies were presented and analyzed in tables using descriptive statistics and percentages.

3.3 Discussion of Results

Result of research question one show that education is very important in the rehabilitation and reformation of inmates’ of Jos prison. This is in tandem with Gumi (2014) who posits that formal education is cardinal to the rehabilitation of prison inmates. The result also agrees with Omoni and Ijeh (2009) that the issue of vocational and formal education cannot be overemphasized in the rehabilitation process of prisoners. The aim of imprisonment is not only for punishment, but to prevent offending and reoffending. In the society today, the leading cause of crime and criminal behaviours is lack of empowerment. Education in prison can reduce recidivism as inmates will be empowered with the academic knowledge that can make them stay off crime and lead law-abiding lives. Table 2 shows that 72.1 percent of the respondents strongly agreed that education in prison play a cardinal role in the rehabilitation and reformation of inmates. Also, 17.8 percent of respondents agree with the assertion. This shows that, about 89.9 percent of the respondents supports that education is paramount in the rehabilitation and reformation of inmates.

Table three showed that the respondents agreed that all the challenges listed therein militate against the smooth running of the prison adult school in Jos prison. These problems ranging from lack of enough teachers to time constraints are the major challenges bugging down education in the prison. This is in agreement with Ewelum, Omeriyang and Mbara (2015) who found out that the major challenges militating against the reformation of prison inmates in Anambra state include: lack of professional educators, lack of staff training, poor funding, among others. Nigeria prisons according to The Nation (2010) are “living hells.” Most prisons are bedeviled by poor facilities like classrooms, stationery and books, lack of qualified educators to teach in the prison schools, among others. This scene is reflected in all prisons structures in the country. This has led to the non-performance of the schools in our prisons. From table three, it is obvious that some of the maladies affecting the administration of formal education in Jos prison include; lack of enough teachers, frequent transfer of prisoners and teaching staff, lack of stationery and books, and poor funding. Other challenges as agreed by the respondents are lack of external assessment by examination bodies like WAEC/NECO/JAMB, poor library and time constraints.


4.0 Conclusion

It is obvious from the result of this study that the prison is a very important agent of rehabilitation and reformation of the social misfits. It is also a component of the criminal justice system charged with the responsibility of confirming, reforming and rehabilitating prison inmates so that they would become better citizens when released from the prison. This study reveals that education in prison is very cardinal in the rehabilitation of inmates. However, it was discovered that several challenges ranging from lack of enough teachers to time constraints hinder the smooth running of the prison adult school in Jos prison. These maladies have led to the non-performance of the school and explain why the rate of recidivism in Nigeria is at increase.  For this reason, recommendations were proffered on how to resuscitate education as a tool of rehabilitation in Nigerian prison thereby improving the service delivery of our prisons system.

5.0 Recommendation

After a careful analysis of the role of education in the rehabilitation and reformation of prison inmates, this study came up with the following recommendations:

  1. The federal government of Nigeria should float a Prison Development Trust Fund (PDTF) to fund the prisons in the area of vocational and formal education. In other words, the education of prison inmates should receive closer government attention financially and otherwise.
  2. The Nigerian Prisons Service should create public awareness programmes through the mass media on the role of prison and its rehabilitative roles. This in the long run will improve the image of our prisons and also provide a platform for more sensitization on prison education.
  3. The Nigerian Prisons Service should collaborate with the various state ministries of education in order to benefit from the various plans by these ministries.
  4. National and regional examination bodies like the WAEC, NECO, JAMB and NABTEB should be lobbied to establish examination centres in our prisons.
  5. The National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN) should be made to open a centre in at least one prison in all the geopolitical zones of Nigeria.
  6. The Nigerian Prisons Service should recruit more educators and teachers. Also, schools should be floated in prisons where such does not exist.


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learning.London: Routledge

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between participation in prison work and education programs. The Prison Journal, 82(2),269–280.

Belzer A. (2004) ‘“Not like normal school”: The role of prior learning contexts in adult

learning’,Adult Education Quarterly, 55, 41–59.

Cropsey, K. Wexler, H. Melnick, G. Taxman F. and Young, D. (2007) ‘Specialized prisons

and services: Results from a national survey’, The Prison Journal, 87(1), 58–85.

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practice’, International Journal of Lifelong Education, 29(6), 651–664.

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influences on the outcomes of learning’, British Journal of Educational Psychology, 72(3), 321–342.

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of Kamiti prison, Kenya. Unpublished thesis. University of Nairobi, Kenya.

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Current state-of-play and challenges. A summary report authored for the European Commission by GHK Consulting. Retrieved from the European Commissionwebsite: Accessed on September 6, 2014

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disaffected young people in custody and in the community. London: NRDC.

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to persist, progress and achieve: Literacies learners at risk of non-completion of learning targets. Edinburgh, Scottish Government.


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 This study focused on the effect of socio-economic status of parents on the academic performance of students in Technical Colleges in Delta State. Two research hypotheses were formulated. There is no significant difference between Academic Performance of Students from poor background compared to those from wealthy homes, there no significant correlation between students from intact homes and that of broken homes. Recommendations were made based on the findings.


Keywords: Profession/Vocation, Educational level, Socio-Economic Status and family type.


The role parents in the upbringing of the child cannot be overemphasized and as such it’s socioeconomic status is of vital importance. Students have shown that parental influence manifests itself in parental values and experience, education, vocation/profession of parents, religion and socio-economic background of parents. Parental socio-economic status and intelligence have either facilitating or inhibitory effect on the child depending on the traits inherited and the environment in which he is brought up. The self and work roles begin early in life and the home in conjunction with it’s related social system have great influence on them. The parents or family provides the initial social encounter through socialization process, also provides the 3models with which the child can identify, usually a child may consciously or unconsciously, learn from the parents by imitation. Parental set standard may greatly affect the life’s of adolescents and so motivate them to be achievement oriented. Thus a family where some particular careers are of great priority tend to orient it’s children in achieving that goal.

Therefore, the socio-economic status of a parent goes a long way to mould a child’s personality both morally, academically, economically, socially, spiritually or otherwise. Jacquelynm and Eccles and Pamela Daviskean (2005)

Statement of the Problem

The socio-economic status of parents can motivate or hamper the child’s academic performance in schools. For students to have excellent performance in schools, they should be reared in a home free quarreling and rancor, should have enough parental security and financial security, readiness to learn to the part of the student a good learning environment and learning materials. A lot of problems are faced by students in Technical Colleges in Delta State.

The Concept of Socio-economic status

This study focused on the effect of socio economic status of parents on students in Technical. Colleges in Delta State. The concept of socio economic status based on socio-economic factors represnts one of the major systems of stratification. Social stratification arises out of the recognition in all societies people are ranked or evaluated at a number of levels of social class is common to most societies ancient or modern. Infact almost every community has within it, groups which think of themselves being somewhat alike.

The member of these groups may exhibit similarities in choice of food, housing, dressing, language, occupation, income values, social behaviour and even colour or race. Farooq (2011) emphasized that the social class of parent is a dominant factor in the academic performance. The academic abilities and the socio-economic background of youth impose considerable constraints upon the performance of students and on the type of vocation they can make. He able boy from a middle class family has a wider range of possibilities open to him than a boy from a poor socio-economic class. Okoh, (1980) in his work say that students have shown that children from low income homes come to school with a two-fold handicap.

Their innate intelligence is under developed in certain aspects that are important for success in present day educational systems and their personality is structured that they are not likely to do well in school. The child from the low social class according these studies has not his spare time carefully organized for. He has a very notion and is incapable of planning and pursuing long term projects. To such a child, luck, rather than vigorously planned work appears to be reason for success.

According to Rothesetein (2004) the social class of parents are fundamental to the individual’s educational and vocational decisions. He went further to explain that social membership influence and is influenced by occupational membership. Other factors identified  which exert considerable influence on the individual include sex, family age, race, culture school and economy. Azhar Nadeem, Naz Perveen & Sameen (2015) testifies to the fact that much of the child’s educational development starts at home, before he actually starts the formal education, to him the middle class homes are always able to provide the necessary prerequisites success. For example, they can provide good environment, motivation, the necessary financial help and also hi1ighted some facts on the influence of socio economic status of either the parents, home or environment on the occupational preference of youths. They postulated that a child’s particular socio-economic inheritance may a direct and important effect on the occupation open or life attractive to him. The economic an occupational level of the home affects performance of the students, Farooq (2011).

The study was organized under the following headings

  1. Occupation of parents
  2. Parental background
  3. Type of family
  4. Wealth of the family
  5. Broken family

Occupation of Parents

This involves the type of work or job done by the parents of these student this go a long way to affect the performance of those students. There are parents whose work do not give time for their children as such the students are affected negatively Duke, (2000), Sewell, William and Robert, Hauser (1975). Most time you discover that most students or children are influenced by the occupation of their parents or stimulated by what they find their parents doing, parental or family set-standard may greatly affect performance of their children either positive or negatively even in the occupational choice of their children later in their lives and so motivate them to be achievement oriented. Thus a family where some particular careers are of great priority, tend to orient it’s children towards achieving that goal. In some families because the family head is a lawyers the children will want be lawyer or even doctors, nurse or teachers or accountants because their parents are one or have set such standard for them. Studies have shown that a child’ particular socio-economic inheritance may have a direct and important effect on the career open or attractive to him than does his physical inheritance. The economic and occupational level of home affects the vocational goals of the youth by influencing their aspirations to be similar to those held by their parents and by Halsey, Health and Ridge (1980) discouraging aspirations to levels much above or below the parental occupational. The child’s biological endowments in terms of personality traits are transmitted to him in form of genetic inheritance. If both parents possess high intellectual capabilities and transmit the traits for indigence to the child, that, child is very likely to be highly intelligent and benefit from education which will likely enhance his opportunity for occupations on the hand, a child of very low intellectual parents who inherited this trait may turn out to be an imbecile who may later find it difficult to be properly educated and be gainfully employed. So, the occupation of parents has a vital role to play in the lives students in Technical Colleges. Halsay, health and Ridge (1980).

Parental background

Parental socio-economic status and intelligence have either facilitating or inhibitory effect on the child depending on the traits inherited and environment in which he is brought up. The self and work roles begin early in the life and home in conjunction with its related socio system have great influence on the them. The family comprising of parents, siblings, relatives, friends and neighbours, providing the initial social encounter through socialization process, also provides the models with which the child can identify. Usually the child may consciously or unconsciously learn from the parents by role playing or imitation. Parental background with talk about whether parents of children is high socio-economic status, middle or low socio-economic status as a long way to play in the performance of students in technical Colleges. Azhar, Nadeem, Naz, Perveen and Sameen (2015).

A family could be classified as either of high or low socio-economic status. The question might be asked how do we dichromize between high and low socio-economic family background Owalabi (1988) criteria for classifying Nigerian parents could be adopted, here. For him parents who are professional senior civil servants, graduates and non-graduates teachers, clerks, traders and businessmen and women of appreciable income parent who have post primary and higher education are referred to as being of high socio-economic status while parent who are craftsman artisans and farmer and parents who have no schooling or have elementary education are referred to as being of low socio-economic status. Differential access to education theory is apparently true in Nigeria, thus, children of low socioeconomic families do not have as much access to education as children of high socio-economic family background are found mostly in good quality post primary institutions such as the Federal Government Controlled Colleges which are adequately provided with qualified teachers and materials to Ramey and Ramey (1994) the disadvantage of brilliant children from poor homes. One of the implications of such differential access to education could be that children from high socio-economic families especially in careers of greater social demands and status.

Also it was discovered that some students who failed the West African School Certificate (WASC) Examinations who would have preferred to go back to their schools or other schools to repeat the year were prevented from doing so because of the inability of their parents to meet up-financially the cost of their going back to school. He further revealed that consequently, such students went into the teacher training colleges which were free thereby choosing teaching as career circumstantially while others went into other unskilled jobs. Finally parental family background plays important or affects the child performance the school. Ramey and Ramey (1994).

Types of Family

Under types of family we are looking at whether, the children or child is born into a polygamous home, monogamous family and so on. The type of family which the students are born into can affect them either positively or negatively. A child born by polygamous parents will find it very difficult to meet up with the financial demands of his school. Since there are a lot of children and wives to take care and as such the financial responsibility on the family will be very high such child will be affected negatively except the family is buoyant. Femi Ogushola and Adewale (2014).

Also even in a monogamous homes if the number of children in the family is large there will be great financial responsibility on the parents. The child may be affected negatively but if the numbers of children are reduced the parents will able to meet their needs easily considering the family income. Also in families where the breadwinner of the house is late (either the men or women). There will high financial responsibility especially on our women if it was the man who died. So, the children will be affected negatively and it will hinder their academic performance in the school, Anderso and Sullivan (1998).

The wealth of family

The wealth of the family is of paramount importance, if the family is wealthy, children’s needs whether academic or otherwise will be met easily without much stress but where the family poor, the academic need of the children will not be met easily, this goes a long way to affect the child performance negatively. There are situations where the parents of students may not have money to pay their children’s school fees and children are sent of out of school for non-payment of school fee and other necessary fees, in such cases, the child or students may not be allowed take their examination. The wealth of the family talks about the family income whether it is high or low. Ramsey and Ramsey (1994), Memon, Joubish and Khurram (2015)


Broken Homes

A child from broken home is never happy or a child from a home where there quarreling and fighting is never happy because of the environment that he or she is coming from. Also a child whose mother left the house because the frequent fighting and quarrellings in home or immoral behaviours of their father, will never be happy in school and will not concentrate in his studies, his mind will easily go back to the occurrence of home or a child that is under care of his mother and not being accepted by his stepfather because he is not that man’s child will never be happy in the class and invariably, will not do well in his studies.

Furthermore, a child living with the father, where the mother is no longer in home may receive ill-treatment from the father’s wife or wives especially if is the wicked and bad type. Such child will never be happy in class and if a child not happy, there is every tendency that child or student’s performance will be affected negatively except for a determined child who Wants to excel through work undermining the situation at home.

Research Questions

  1. Is there any significant difference between the academic performance of students from poor background and those from wealthy home?
  2. Is there any correlation between the academic performance of students from broken homes and those from intact homes?

Purpose of the Study

  1. The main purpose of the study is to determine effect of socio-economic status of students in Technical Colleges.
  2. To determine the difference between the academic performance of students poor background and those from wealthy homes.
  3. To determine the relationship between the academic performance of student from broken homes and from those of intact homes.

Significance of the Study

There has been a general motion that increase, monetary rewards and academic ability are the major influences on the performance of students. The socio economic status of parents is hardly linked with these factors. The finding of this study will be beneficial to government, parents teachers and the society at large. It will serve as a guide to administrators and education planners when making decisions it will affect students.

It will serve as an eye opener on the effects social economics status of parent on their children and how the negative effects can be corrected. This study will help educational or guidance counselors to identify students whose parents are from the lower social class and profit solution to their problems. It will also help students in career choices and the available resources at their disposal.

Definition of important Terms

  1. Profession / Vocation: This is defined as definable work activity that occurs in many different setting.
  2. Education Level: The educational height of an individual whether is an individual is highly educated or not.
  3. Socio-economic status: This refers to ones social and economic standing within a social stratification or classes and are explained a follows:
  4. a) An upper class: These are wealthy individuals who frequently did not and constitute about 25% of the population.
  5. b) An upper middle class: These are mostly skilled workers whose sons were generally apprenticed to same or some other skilled trade frequently they become clerks but seldomly merely labourers.
  6. c) Low middle class: These are unskilled workers and domestic workers or servants. In this class children usually augment the family income by manual work at an early age.
  7. d) Lower Class: These are unskilled workers who are predominantly poor. Their standard of living is very low and their children worked from an early age and receive about ¼ of the pay of an unskilled workers.

Research Methodology

This is the description of the methods used in carrying out the study, which include, the following headings.

  1. Design of study
  2. Population of study
  3. Sample of selection
  4. Sample area
  5. Instrumentation
  6. Administration of question

Design of Study

This design of study employed is the survey method, survey study is a descriptive research method. It is aimed at discovering relative, incidence, distribution and inter-relationship of educational, sociological, physiological, political and economical variables. The researcher examined the opinion attitudes or feelings of individual about a particular problem.

Population of study

The population of this study comprises is all the Technical Colleges in the State (Delta), Sample of the study

The study was carried out in randomly selected Technical Colleges in the State. The randomly selected schools induce specific the no before history

  1. Issele-Uku Technical College, Issele-Uku
  2. Agbor Technical College, Agbor
  3. Sapele Technical College, Sapele
  4. Delta Career Warn


The instrument used for this study was questionnaire. It consists of two sets. That of teachers and the students. The teacher questionnaires consist of twenty items is divided into section A & B section A consists of personal data of the respondents while section B deals with the questions based on the hypothesis. The teacher questionnaire consists of two sets. That of teachers and students. The teacher questionnaire consist of twenty. It is divided into section A & B, section A consists of personal data of the respondents while section B deals with the questions just as in the teacher questionnaire.

Administration of Instrument

The entire questionnaire was administered by the researcher through a visit to the sampled schools. This enable the researchers to get responses from teacher and students. In each school were given questionnaires were collected by the researcher. About two hundred questionnaires were distributed.

Method of Data collection or Analysis

The data collected were tabulated and analysed using the chi-square test of contingency. It’s formula is given as

x2 =   ∑(O -E)2


Where X2               =                              Chi-square

∑                             =                              Summation sign

O                             =                             Observed data

E                             =                              Expected data

This test has a level of significance of 0.05 with degree of freedom as one (1) and two (2) where necessary.

Validation of Instrument

The questionnaire is the outcome of the intensive process of validation. The questionnaire is carefully designed to meet the targeted goal, the questionnaire was submitted to two lectures and it was properly scrutinized and deleted substandard questions (if any). Thus; this helped in selecting the needed basic objectives of study. The items were pruned appropriately and as such the questionnaire was described as valid in content and context.

Data Analysis, Presentation of Result

It deals with analysis of data in respect of the questionnaires already administered on the proposed sample. The analysis, presentation of result and discussion was pointed towards verifying the hypothesis earlier formulated.

Data Analysis

Testing of the hypothesis

Hypothesis One: Ho1 states that there is no significant difference between academic performance of students from poor background compared to those from wealthy homes. To test the above hypothesis the chi-square of test contingency was employed which was performed at 0.05 level of significance.

The test result is presented in the table below:

Table One: Distribution of the findings analysis on the response of students of Technical College on the effect of family

The x2 was computed as 0.37 the critical value of the df(1) = 3.38 and 0.05 level of significance. The hypothesis was accepted because the calculated value is lower than the expected value.

Hypothesis two

Hypothesis Ho2: There is no correlation between students academic perfirmance form intact homes and those from broken homes.

Distribution of The Findings

Table two: Analysis on the response of students of Technical Colleges on the effect of broken and intact homes on academic performance.

Where X                =              stands for intact homes

Y             =              Broken homes

The hypothesis is rejected because from the calculation — I shows a very high relationship and are both affected by socio-economic status of parents

Summary of findings

  1. There no significant difference between academic performance of students from poor background compared to those from wealthy homes.
  2. From the result of findings it shows there is no correlation performance between intact homes and broken homes.


Discussion of Findings, Conclusion And Recommendation

The findings from analysis will be discussed as follows;

Hypothesis One

The finding of the researcher says that there is no difference between academic performances of students from poor background compared with those from wealthy.

This result is in line with the view of Hill et al (2004) which states Socio-Economic status of parents does affect student’s academic performance but makes possible for both children from rich and poor families to compete with each other.

Hypothesis Two

The findings of the research states that there is no significant difference between the academic performance of children from intact homes and those of broke homes. This shows that whether the students are from intact homes or broken homes, it has nothing to do with their academic performance. There are cases where even when students are living with parents, their parents never have time to check their children’s work; are always too busy, never found at home, only at nights to move very early the next morning, the children hardly have a taste of their parents also there are cases where even when children may not be living with the parents or is living with one of the parent, is determined to make the best of the situation by hard work and much studies, such a child might do well.

This shows that both are affected by socio-economic status. According to Azhar, Nadeem, Naz, Perveen and Sameen (2015) stated that the child’s educational development should start from home, before he actually starts the formal education. Proper attention should paid to educational development of the children for better performance at school.


The study showed that there is relationship between socio-economic status of parents and the choice course made by the students, so parents should try as much as possible to supervise the work of their children, and counseling them into making right career choices, these should be not based or the wealth of family. Also hypothesis one shows that there was no significant different between the performance of children from intact home and broken homes. This reveals that once a child is determined work or study, making use of the human and material resources available to him, whether broken home or not, the sky is his limit, they are encouraged to be serious with their studies whether living with their parent or not. Parents should strive to live together for proper up bring of their children, in order to avoid having dropouts and nonentities as children.

Parents as well as government should provide good learning atmosphere for the students to enhance better performances of the students, on the other hand students should make use these learning materials provided for them by the government and parents and stop perambulating around the streets of Nigeria, and stop forming different cults and nefarious groups that does foster their academic performance in schools. Teachers also have a role to play by making sure these students are well taught, occupied with assignments and class-work so as to create sense of seriousness in them. These assignments should be marked and recorded as continuous assessment. Quizes and test via examination should also be administered by the teachers. Workshop practice should also be taught in all the technical colleges to make them self-reliant and practically oriented.


The recommendations are made based on the findings and conclusion of this study.

  1. Parents should endeaviour to support and supervise their children’s academic work in and out of school.
  2. Parents should try as much as possible to live together for the proper upbringing of their children and avoid separation or broken homes.
  3. Parents and government should try as much as possible to see to needs of students in technical colleges.
  4. Government should furnish their libraries with current text books not the old fashioned and outdated ones; they should equip their laboratories, workshops and typing pools for effect studies.
  5. Government should provide and install computers in all Technical Colleges employ competent hands who can manage these computers.
  6. Government should ensure that salaries of teachers and worker in Technical Colleges are paid as and when due.
  7. Also workshop practice should be made compulsory for all students in Technical Colleges so as to be practically oriented and self-reliant.
  8. Furthermore practical allowances should be paid to teachers of Technical Colleges by the government.



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Nisha Yadav, U.V. Kiran


Occupational stress is stress involving work. Occupational related stress is the response people may have when presented with work demands and pressures that are not matched to their knowledge and abilities and which challenge their ability to cope. Occupational stress results from the complex interactions between large systems of interrelated variables. Occupational stress contributes not only to life stresses, but has an impact on health among security guards. Occupational stress among security guards was assessed in the present study. Occupational stress of security guards has a strong impact on the physical health and their performance at job. Hence the present study focuses on occupational stress among security guards.  The study was carried out in Lucknow on the male and female security guards using multistage sampling technique. A total sample of 180 security guards was selected from three areas- Banks, academic institutions and residential security. Modified version of occupational stress scale developed by Srivastava A.K. (1976) was used. From the findings of the study, it can be concluded that the security guards profession is very difficult. Security guards suffer from high stress and face problem and dissatisfied with their job and salary. Security guards continuously work for long hours and they are not satisfied with their salary.

Keywords: Occupational stress, Security guards, Physical and Psychological health


Occupational stress relates to the experience of stress in one’s place of work, occupation or employment. Occupational stress is defined as adaptive response to an external situation that results in physical, psychological and or behavioral deviations for organizational participants. Occupational stress is a state of tension that is created when a person responds to the demands and pressures that come from work, family and other external sources, as well as those that are internally generated from self imposed demands, obligations and self criticism. The terms work stress, job stress, or occupational stress is used interchangeably (Dollard 2003). Employers and governments have had increasing concern about occupational stress for over twenty years (Le Fevre, et al. 2003). In the past decade, effects of economic globalization and rapid technological changes have resulted in increased workloads and a faster pace in the work place (Dollard 2003).

Stress has been defined in different ways over the years. Originally, it was conceived as pressure from the environment, then as strain within the person. The generally accepted definition today is one of the interactions between the situation and the individual. It is the psychological and physical state that results when the resources of the individual are not sufficient to cope with the demands and pressures of the situation. Thus, stress is more likely in some situations than others and in some individuals than others (Michie, 2002).

According to Selye H (2006), stress is defined as a non-specific response of the body to any demand, positive or negative, made upon it. Thus, occupational stress is any discomfort which is felt and perceived at a personal level and triggered by instances, events or situations that are too intense and frequent in nature so as to exceed a person’s coping capabilities and resources to handle them adequately (Malta, 2004).

Stress related with a job or occupation is called occupational stress. Stress is a universal phenomenon, excess of which results in intense and distressing experience. Occupational stress refers to a situation where occupation related factors interact with employee to change i.e. disrupts or enhance his / her psychological and or physiological conditions such that the person is forced to deviate from normal functioning. Occupational stress is generally defined in terms of relationship between a person and his environment. There is potential for stress when an environmental situation is perceived as presenting demand which threatens to exceed the person’s capabilities and resources for meeting it. Every occupation has some stress, which may differ in its degree (Bhatt, 2013).

Security guards give service within several ranges of tasks. In the line of duty in various work settings, guards may be expected to maintain order and to detain criminal violators while appointed to a single property or placed on patrol for various sites or territories. Concisely, a security guard may encounter a variety of situations, locations, and behaviors. With such a heavy responsibility and important duties, it is very important to make sure that the security guards are mentally and behaviorally healthy and safe. Security guard is one of the fastest growing occupations worldwide. Security guard is defined as a privately employed individual, usually uniformed, who is personally hired or paid to protect a defined area of property and people via various direct or indirect methods. The range of duties includes monitoring, guiding, maintaining, and most importantly, preventing crimes.

Security guard is one of the occupations with high risk to get involved in incidents at work such as violence and crime. The needs for public interaction when working, as well as working pattern such as shift working hour and solitary work, contribute to increased risk of incident at work. In addition, presence of other risk factors may elicit the probability for incidents to occur.
Occupational stress is considered a challenge for the employers and because high level of stress results in low productivity, and other employee problems it is necessary that managers find a way of addressing the issue of occupational stress (Elovainio et al, 2002).



The study mainly intends to measure the depth of the amount of occupational stress and burnout one may experience on the other side. The concern for employee’s wellness in the workplace has extended with the focus shifting from employees with challenges to focusing to every employee. Research has been conducted on occupational challenges such as stress.

Security guards working in an organization face physical as well as psychological stress due to the tedious work involved in their job. Occupational stress results from the interaction of the worker and the conditions of work. Views differ on the importance of workers characteristics versus working conditions as the primary cause of occupational stress. The differing viewpoints suggest different ways to prevent stress at work. Difference in individual characteristics such as personality and coping skills can be very important in predicting whether certain job conditions will result in stress. In other words, what is stressful for one person may not be a problem for someone else. This view point underlines prevention strategies that focus on workers and ways to help them cope with demanding job conditions. Hence the present study was undertaken to assess impact of various parameters on the occupational stress among security guards working in various sectors and formulate a regression model.


Multi stage random sampling technique was followed in the present study. The present study was conducted in different areas of Lucknow city. The independent variables considered for the study were various sectors, gender, age, work experience. With the aid of modified version of occupational stress scale developed by Srivastava A.K. (1976) was used. A total of 180 security guards were selected from Lucknow district. Information was collected using interview method. The data was coded, tabulated and analyzed using the PAS software. Regression analysis was used for the statistical analysis of the data.


Linear regression is a statistical procedure for predicting the value of a dependent variable from an independent variable when the relationship between the variables can be described with a linear model. Occupational stress is phenomenon tested across male and female security guards to look into variation in the level of stress.

The following independent categorical variables were considered in the analysis: working institutions, gender, age (<45- >60) and work experience (<1- >5) years. Linear regression analysis with occupational stress as the dependent variable was used to examine the impact of each factor on occupational stress.


The research questions were addressed using linear regression model. The study variables were regression on occupational stress through entering demographic variable (working institutions, age, gender, work experience). This equation model was reported using occupational stress as the dependent variable.


Regression analysis was done using enter method all independent variable were entered at a time.

From the model it is elear that among all the variables, gender is the most influencing variable, where in females security guards were found to have high occupational stress in comparison to male security guards. Major impact on the dependent variable showing a β value of .406 at p= .000.

The statistical significance of the variable age when introduced into the analysis was found to be a fair predictor of how this affected stress in the large population of security guards.

From the model it is elear that among all the variables, working institutions influence are found to have average impact on occupational stress in comparison to age and work experience.

From the model it is also elear that among all the variables, work experience is negatively influencing with increase in work experience, the occupational stress was found to be lowered.

For the purpose to check impact on dependent and independent variables of the study, regression analysis was carried out. The value of R Square was found to be 635a showing that gender variables have strong (40.6%) effect on occupational stress. The table value of coefficients came up as positive indicating that intrinsic and extrinsic variables have positive effect on occupational stress. The value of intrinsic factors was higher (66.98) than the extrinsic factors (16.3%) which means that intrinsic factors have greater influence on occupational stress compared to extrinsic factors.

The findings on the effects of working facilities stress factors on the performance of employees in public universities in Kenya confirm that there is a statistically significant influence of workplace facilities on employee performance. This implies that a positive increase in the conditions of workplace facilities leads to an increase in employee performance. These results supports those of Botha & Pienaar (2006) who reported that income, heavy workload, lack of workspace, lack of resources (including equipment and material to do tasks), absence of proper company procedures, insufficient time to perform duties, meeting deadlines imposed by others, have been introduced as stressors related to work environment.

Occupational stress results from the complex interactions between large systems of interrelated variables. A study conducted on “Occupational stress among bank employees” revealed that private bank employees had high occupational stress due to role ambiguity, role conflict, under participation, powerlessness, low status, strenuous working condition than nationalized bank employees. Thus, the nature of job and working conditions are responsible for level of stress that

employees faced in various sectors. (Niharika & Kiran, 2014)

Occupational stress results from the complex interactions between large system of interrelated variables. A study conducted on “Occupational stress among security guards” revealed that there was highly significant difference between male and female security guards. Female security guards had more difficulty in managing their work and family as compared to male security guards. It was also observed that female security guards have stressful occupation experience because they had to make balance between their family and occupation. In the other case, male security guards have less stressful experience because they were only focused on the occupation. The result obtained on the occupational stress among male and female security guards. Female security guards had to face a lot of problem like difficulty on their work, nose irritation, mosquitoes disturb at night, night shift, less salary, guarding large area, summer and rainy season not comfortable and risky job. Due to occupational stress female security guards were highly affected by occupational stress. (Yadav & Kiran, 2015)


The study indicates a positive relationship as a predominant model of impact on occupational stress among security guards, working in various sectors. Some researchers regarded occupational stress as extra-work variable and hence it should be excluded when examining the impact of some variables on occupational stress. In an age of highly dynamic and competitive world, security guards are exposed to all kinds of stressors that can affect them on all realms of life. The growing importance of interventional strategies is felt more at organizational level. Highly significant negative relationship also is observed between independent variables and occupational stress. If organization encourages the implementation of programs and friendly policies they will be successful in reducing the turnover because work life balance practices can be helpful in attracting new security guards.

The results of occupational stress indicate negative impact on people, society and organizations. High levels of stress will cause negative effect on employees physical and mental well being ultimately shows effect on their performance. Most security guards were not satisfied with their occupation because they considered it too difficult relative to the low salary they receive for it. Female security guards have high occupational stress than male security guards as they have to face problems, psychological in nature along with physical problems.


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A case study of the knowledge of the Zimbabwe Educational Framework among teachers, school administrators and School Development Committees in Masvingo district.

Kudzayi Savious Tarisayi

Everjoy Munyaradzi


This study sought to assess the knowledge of education practitioners of the education legal framework obtaining in Zimbabwe. The participants in this study were sampled from workshops on financial management for teachers, school heads and School Development Committees in Masvingo district. The educational legal framework in Zimbabwe is composed of a number of statutory instruments as well as the Education Act Chap 25; 04 and the Zimbabwean Constitution. From this plethora of legal instruments guiding the Zimbabwean education system this study confined itself to the Zimbabwean constitution, Education Act Chap 25; 04, SI 87 of 1992, SI 70 of 1993 and Administration and finance Circular 6 of 1994. The study concludes that teachers, school administrators and SDCs know that education is a fundamental right. However, the study also revealed that teachers, school administrators and SDCs

were conversant on the legal instruments obtaining in Zimbabwe.

Key words: Education legal framework, Education Act, SI 87 of 1992, Zimbabwe


1.0 Introduction

This study sought to assess the knowledge of education practitioners of the education

legal framework obtaining in Zimbabwe. The participants in this study were sampled

from workshops on financial management for teachers, school heads and School Development Committees in Masvingo district. The educational legal framework in Zimbabwe is composed of a number of statutory instruments as well as the Education Act Chap 25; 04 and the Zimbabwean Constitution. From this plethora of legal instruments guiding the Zimbabwean education system this study confined itself to the Zimbabwean constitution, Education Act Chap 25; 04, SI 87 of 1992, SI 70 of 1993 and Administration and finance Circular 6 of 1994.

2.0 Legal Instruments

These are many pieces of legislation which were taken together form the education legal framework. This section takes a cursory analysis of the education legal framework.

2.1 The constitution of Zimbabwe

The Zimbabwean constitution as amended by the Constitution of Zimbabwe Amendment (No. 20) Act enshrines that education is a fundamental right. Section 19 (2) states that, “The state must adopt reasonable policies and measures, within its limits of the resources available to it, to ensure that children-(d) have access to appropriate education and training.” Thus, the supreme law of the country acknowledges and protects the right of children to education. The Constitution is read together with the Education Act which provides that primary education is compulsory in Zimbabwe.

2.2 The Education Act (Chap 25; 04)

The Education Act (hereafter the Act) was passed as Act 5 of 1987 and has been amended by quite a number of times. The Act has been amended by Act 26/1991, Act 24/1994, Act 19/1998 and Act 22/2001. Section 4 of the Education Act as amended recognizes education as children’s fundamental right. Mapuva and Mapuva (2014) state that, “The right to education in Zimbabwe has traditionally been a creature of statute, with the Education Act forming the legislative framework for the provision of education in the country.”Section 36(1) of the Education states “The responsible authority of every registered school to which a grant is made in terms of section thirty five shall establish a committee, to be known as a school development committee. Thus, it can be argued that it is jurisprudent on education practitioners to be knowledgeable of this legal instrument. In addition, section 36(1) of the Education Act proscribes for the establishment of school Development Committees (SDCS). Therefore, this entails that the Education Act provides a legal framework for the participation of parents in the education of their children. The Education Act can be viewed as covering all the essentials of the education system in Zimbabwe. Consequently, it can be reasoned that knowledge of this Act for education practitioners it fundamental.

2.3 Stationary Instrument 87 of 1992

The statutory instrument is derived from the Education Act (Section 36) which provides for the establishment of School Development Committees for registered non-governmental schools. Statutory Instrument 87 (1992:613) spells out some of the objects of the SDC as to:

  • Provide and assist in the operation and development of the schools;
  • Advance the moral, cultural, physical and intellectual welfare of pupils at the school; and
  • Promote the welfare of the school for the benefit of its present and future pupils and their parents, and its teachers.

Therefore, according to this legal instrument the SDC is an organ that promotes participation and empowerment of both teachers and parents in the improvement of the quality of education. In addition, SDCs have the mandate to charge and administer levies from parents of students enrolled in their schools (Statutory Instrument 87 of 1992:621). Hence, it is essential that education practitioners be conversant with this legal instrument as it provides for the role of parents in the affairs of the school.

2.4 Statutory Instrument 70 of 1993

SI 70 of 1993 is also derived from the Education Act, just like SI 87 of 1992. The statutory instrument provides guidelines for parental involvement in government schools. Statutory Instrument 70 of 1993:494 empowers School Development Association (SDA) to;

  • Promote, improve and encourage the development and maintenance of the schools;
  • Assist in the advancement of the moral, cultural, physical, spiritual and intellectual welfare of the pupils at the schools; and
  • Promote and encourage programmes of interest, both educational and social, for the benefit of the students and their parents and teachers.

Hence, it can be revealed that SDAs are empowered to make full use of locally available resources to improve the provision of education in schools. There are a few schools which are government schools in the area under study.

2.5 Administration and Finance Circular 6 of 1994

The Administration and Finance Circular 6 of 194 is a manual on financial administration in non-governmental schools. According to Gumiro (1994) the manual contains detailed but very basic accounting procedures and other administrative matters which all school heads and SDCs need to be well acquainted with for the proper administration of the school. The Under Secretary (Revenue and Suppliers), Gumiro (1994) states that one copy of the circular should be kept by the head and another by the SDC chairperson. The distribution of the circular and explanation by the Under Secretary expounds glaringly the importance of the knowledge of its contents to the school administrator and SDCs. Thus, it becomes imperative that teachers, school heads and SDCs be conversant of the circular to a greater extent. The increase in the number of newspaper articles on alleged abuse of school funds reveals tellingly that there is non-conversance and non-adherence to the circular in schools. Examples of newspaper headlines include; Three school heads suspended over fees mismanagement (Newsday, 10 July, 2014); Two school heads jailed over fraud (The Herald, 16 July, 2012) and Three headmasters fired, four under investigation for abusing school funds (, 11 April, 2013).

3.0 Purpose of the study

The overall aim of the study was to analyse the knowledge of education practitioners of the legal framework obtaining in the education system in Zimbabwe.

4.0 Context of the study

The researcher used a case study approach. Yin (2003:13) states that the case study investigates, “contemporary phenomenon within its real-life context, addresses a situation in which the boundaries between phenomenon and context are not clearly evident, and uses multiple sources of evident.” The researcher carried out the study in Masvingo district. The participants were drawn from workshops on school financial management that were carried out in the district. The workshops drew five participants from each and every school, the head and deputy head and a teacher as well as the chairperson and vice-chairperson of the SDCs. The researcher purposively sampled participants from the teachers, head and deputy heads and SDCs who participated in the workshops. A purposive sample of 40 participants was selected by the researcher based on the knowledge of the population and the purpose of the study (Patton, 1990). The researcher utilised a questionnaire which had both open and closed questions. The questions covered by the questionnaire included aspects on education in the Zimbabwean Constitution, the Education Act, SI 87 of 1992, and SI 70 of 1993 and the Finance and Administration Circular 6 of 1994.

5.0 Discussion

The majority of participants (80%) revealed that they knew that education was a fundamental right according to Zimbabwe’s legal framework. However, only 40 % of the participants were able to identify the legal instruments which provide that education was a fundamental right.

In addition, all the participants revealed that at their respective schools they had a file with all the four legal instruments. The teachers, school administrators and SDCs indicated that they had the Constitution of Zimbabwe, Education Act, SI 87 of 1992 and the Finance and Administration Circular Number 6 of 1994. However, only 50 % of the participants indicated that they were conversant with the dictates of the legal instruments.

Furthermore, 90 % of the participants revealed that they did not know that the Education Act had been amended Act 19/1998 and Act 22/2001. This finding shows that schools were still utilizing the Education Act as amended by Act 24/1994 that is the revised edition of 1996.

70 % of the participants revealed that they only heard about SI 87 of 1992 during SDC elections. Statutory Instrument 87 of 1992 covers procedures, qualifications and disqualifications of members for SDC membership. Therefore, the study revealed that the SI was mainly used as an election tool while negating its other core objects already alluded to in this paper.

Moreover, the majority of participants (80%) stated that they had attended only one workshop which covered the legal instruments pertaining to the education system. Thus, the study revealed teachers, school administrators and SDCs prior to the workshop which was used for this study had not attended any other workshop covering legal instruments obtaining in the education system.

6.0 Conclusion

From the preceding discussion of the main findings of this study the researcher concludes that teachers, school heads, deputy heads and SDCs know that education is a fundamental right. The study also concludes that education practitioners and SDCs & SDAs were not up-to-date with amendments to the Education Act as revealed by the lack of knowledge on amendments by Act 19/1998 and Act 22/2001. In addition, the study concludes the schools in Masvingo district have copies of the legal instruments obtaining in the education system in the country.

7.0 Recommendations

The researcher makes the following recommendations from this study;

  • Workshops on education legal instruments should be carried out regularly.
  • Workshops should include all stakeholders in the education system in order to clarify any sources of conflict in the school system.
  • The Ministry of Primary and Secondary Education should disseminate information pertaining to any amendments on the Education Act.



  •, 11 April, 2013
  • Mapuva, L and Mapuva, J (2014) Zimbabwe’s New Constitutional dispensation and children’s right to education; University for Peace and Conflict
  • Patton, M.Q (1990) Qualitative evaluation and research methods (2nd Edition); Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications
  • Newsday, 10 July, 2014
  • The Herald, 16 July, 2012
  • Yin, R.K. (2003) Applications of Case Study Research. Applied Social Research Methods Series, 34.London: Sage Publications
  • Legal Instruments
  • Government of Zimbabwe (2013) Zimbabwean constitution
  • Government of Zimbabwe Education Act Chap 25; 04
  • SI 87 of 1992
  • SI 70 of 1993
  • Administration and finance Circular 6 of 1994.


Anjali Sharma,  Dr. Jyotsana Khandelwal

ABSTRACT –  70 % of India Population Lives in 627000 Villages in rustic Areas.90% of the Rural Population is amassed in towns with a Population of under 2000, with agribusiness being the principle Business. This demonstrates the Potential India and needs to bring the much – required Volume Driven Growth. As far as possible in the Urban Market has come to and now advertisers are moving Rural. They are taking after “GO RURAL” Strategy.

There is an increment in Income of Rural People , development in rustic interest is required to expand twofold overlay each Quarter in light of the fact that buyers are climbing towards premium items. Notwithstanding, in the later past there has not been much change in the volume of premium cleansers in extent to economy cleansers, in light of the fact that increment in costs has driven a few shoppers to search for less expensive substitutes. The Maximum Advertisement is Personal Care Category originates from Toiletry Soaps .It will be additionally great to see some ground substances about country promoting before advertisers wander into rustic markets with their brands. Like in urban territories, People who sit in front of the TV in rustic zones, likewise impact the decision of numerous individual consideration items.


Key Words: Advertising, Rural India, Market Segmentation, Consumer buying behaviour.,


Foundation of study: The latrine cleansers business sector is evaluated at 530,000 TPA including little imports. Hindustan UniLever is, obviously, the business sector pioneer. The business sector is littered over with a few, driving national and worldwide brands and an expansive number of little brands, which have constrained markets. The famous Brands in the provincial ranges incorporate Lifebuoy, Lux, Cinthol, Liril, and Nirma, Santoor. Latrine cleansers, in spite of their dissimilar brands, are not all around separated by the buyers. It is, in this way, not clear on the off chance that it is the brand faithfulness or experimentation tricked by high volume media battle, which support them. A result is that the business sector is divided. It is clear that this must prompt an exceptionally aggressive business sector. Latrine cleanser, once just a urban marvel, has now entered for all intents and purposes all ranges including remote provincial regions. The incremental interest streams from populace expand and ascend in utilization standard affected as it is by a more noteworthy sympathy toward cleanliness. Expanded deals incomes would likewise grow from up degree of value or per unit esteem. As the business sector is constituted now, it can be partitioned into four value portions: premium, prominent, rebate and economy cleansers. Premium cleansers are evaluated to have a business sector volume of around 80,000 tons. This deciphers into an offer of around 14 to 15%. Be that as it may, by quality it is as much as 30%.

Market Segmentation: Soaps are likewise arranged into men’s cleansers, women’s cleansers and basic cleansers. There are a couple claim to fame cleansers as straightforward Glycerin cleansers, shoe cleansers, uniquely seasoned cleansers, cured cleansers and child cleansers. Forte cleansers are high esteemed yet appreciate just a little share of the business sector in worth terms.

The business sector is developing at 7% a year. This implies the incremental interest era is 5% far beyond the populace development. With expanding attention to hygienic measures, the business sector could develop at a rate higher than 8% yearly. Interestingly, 60% of the business sector is presently sourced from the rustic segment. This implies the change between the two fragments is not substantial. Since upper-end business sector center is the urban ranges, edges originate from the urban area.

Variables influencing purchasing conduct: Price is the most critical component which impacts the purchasing conduct of purchaser, by which a customer goes for the different section of cleanser like premium, mainstream, sub-famous and carbolic which are fundamentally chosen by the expense consider and fat substance the cleanser. The purchasing recurrence is either month to month that is finished by the families or if there should arise an occurrence of single guys it is more than once in a month. The events when premium cleansers are obtained are typically when there are celebrations and functions. Moti Soaps are typically introduced amid celebrations and events for presents and endowments. The special procedures support deals. Different strategies like the value off’s, purchase one get two free, free endowments and different plans support deals in short run furthermore help in clearing stocks. One of the essential focuses a cleanser advertiser ought to note is that the cleansers are normally acquired by ladies in urban territories as a large portion of the everyday utilization of individual consideration items are made by ladies. A point to note is that ladies utilize more individual consideration item than men do and thus premium cleansers are for the most part focused at them. Men ordinarily settle on buy choices in country territories. Henceforth the advertiser needs to receive diverse procedure for such a business sector.

Advantages looked for by different clients from different brands are:

Magnificence – Lux; Freshness – Liril, Cinthol

Characteristic – Medimix, Margo

Child – Johnson and Johnson, Doy

Cream – Dove, Doy Care (saturating)

Sedated – Dettol, Savlon,

Glycerin – Pears, Emami

Infiltration: One of the components, which influence the interest of cleansers, is the entrance, which the items have in business sector. In the event of cleansers this has not been a noteworthy issue as the entrance in the provincial zone is as high as 97% and that for urban zone is around 99%. In this manner the roughly the entrance is around 99% for general India.

The cost of the premium fragment items is twice that of economy portion items. The economy and well known portions are 4/5ths of the whole cleansers market. The infiltration level of can cleansers is 88.6%. Be that as it may, the per capita utilization of cleanser in India is at 460 gms for each annum, while in Brazil it is at 1,100 gms for every annum. In India, cleansers are accessible in five million retail locations, out of which, 3.75 million retail locations are in the rustic ranges. In this manner, accessibility of these items is not an issue. 70% of India’s populace dwells in the provincial ranges; consequently around half of the cleansers are sold in the rustic markets.

Development: With expansion in expendable wages, development in country interest is relied upon to increment in light of the fact that buyers are climbing towards premium items. In any case, in the later past there has not been much change in the volume of premium cleansers in extent to economy cleansers, in light of the fact that increment in costs has driven a few shoppers to search for less expensive substitutes. The real players in individual wash (Soap) business sector are HUL, Nirma and Godrej.


Publised by WPP COMPANY ( OGLIVY INDIA ) Developing markets, for example, India are a vital wellspring of development for Unilever. The organization is receiving exceptional advertising ways to deal with expansion utilization of its items in these districts, situating itself as a moral brand that advantages more extensive society.

Unilever’s Lifebuoy ‘Swasthya Chetna’ (‘Health Awakening’) effort is one case. This teaches individuals on the significance of wellbeing and cleanliness in averting loose bowels and urges them to embrace a basic hand-washing administration utilizing cleanser. Swasthya Chetna is India’s biggest ever country wellbeing and cleanliness instruction program. HUL have done forceful publicizing techniques to advance its “Swasthya Chetna” Program.

Lifebuoy wellbeing officers went to 43,000 Indian towns and schools more than five years where they utilized item shows, intelligent visuals, rivalries and dramatization workshops to spread the wellbeing and cleanliness message.

The project has come to 110 million country Indians since it started in 2002. Consciousness of germs has expanded by 30% and cleanser use has expanded among 79% of folks and among 93% of youngsters in the ranges focused on. Cleanser utilization has expanded by 15%.

The crusade got acknowledgment for its development and adequacy, winning Silver in the Rural Marketing Advertisers Association of India recompenses in 2006, and the excellent prize at the Asian CSR honors 2007. It was additionally perceived by the Indian government who made a unique version postal spread devoted to the crusade. .[1]

Publised in by Sawmya roy on August 18,2009 – Godrej No. 1. is a hit however, from the stables of Godrej Consumer Products Ltd. It asserted the number three spot in the latrine cleanser classification for the quarter finished June 2009, eating into business sector pioneer Hindustan Unilever’s (HUL) piece of the pie.

It is currently the third most elevated offering cleanser behind Lifebuoy and Lux. Lifebuoy and Lux, both HUL items and business sector pioneers, saw piece of the pie decrease by very nearly 2 percent to 16 and 15.4 Santoor additionally stakes case to the number three spot. The ACNielsen Repot demonstrates Godrej No. 1 in the number three opening, yet just as far as volume. Since it is a markdown brand, it tumbles to number five as far as worth. Santoor and Dettol take the third and fourth spots on the Neilson Report Table.

Can cleansers have risen as the most promoted item in the individual consideration classification in the first 50% of 2009, abandoning summer skewed class top picks’ similar to talcum powders and thorny warmth powders/creams by an impressive edge. The main 10 rundown saw three of the brands from latrine cleansers – Lifebuoy Swasth, Chetna 07, Godrej No.1 Papaya Lotus and Lux Pink Soap.

The adjustment in pattern is on the grounds that customary summer classifications like talcum powder has come to stagnation because of purchasers’ work day towards different classes like the antiperspirants. The movement from talcum powders to latrine cleansers amid summers is additionally on the grounds that cleansers too are progressively being situated as a quality included, corrective class which could guarantee enduring scent, smooth skin and even decency at times. As per industry gauges, the cleanser portion is one of the greatest FMCG classes in India with washing and latrine cleansers constituting around 30 for every penny of the cleanser business sector..

Hindustan Unilever (HUL) is the greatest sponsor in the individual consideration class crosswise over print and TV media. Latrine Soaps had a 1/fourth partake in the whole individual consideration promoting in print, while the classification drove the publicizing with 30 for each penny offer on TV. HUL publicized with 42 brands in which Lux cleanser, Fair Lovely Multivitamin and Pepsodent Complete Germi Check had the most extreme share.[2]

GCPL is the second biggest shower cleanser maker in India, after Hindustan Unilever. The organization guarantees its Godrej No.1 brand is the top rated Grade 1; latrine cleansers ,have a higher fat substance than washing bars) and the business sector pioneer crosswise over north India. Rustic deals’ commitment to aggregate income has expanded to 42%, and GCPL has picked up a rate point each in piece of the overall industry of hair shading and cleansers. Godrej expanded its Market Share with the Advertising in Rural Areas with their Discount Schemes. GCPL dependably have been for the most part concentrating on “Tweak item and correspondence; construct acknowledgment through exhibition; assemble verbal exchange for the brand; and manufacture access through advancement and a savvy appropriation channel.” Conventional knowledge says rustic shoppers need redid items intended to suit their needs, their conditions and their wallets. Be that as it may, they likewise need items like those accessible in urban markets, such a variety of trust that little bargains in item quality are satisfactory. “Rustic purchasers need the same item as urban customers. On the off chance that you bargain on quality to make it reasonable now, they will avoid your image when their pay levels increment.

The arrangement lies in altering the measure of the offering, not the item itself. GCPL has done quite recently that, presenting littler bundles of the same items, at value focuses provincial customers can manage. Littler bars of cleanser, home grown henna bundles for 10 pennies, sachets of powder hair color and talcum powder for 20 pennies go about as passage focuses for country shoppers, who return for bigger packs when their financial plans license. Offers of shopper items in rustic markets top instantly after the harvest and amid celebrations and the wedding season (September through December), when a large number of India’s 600,000 towns are in a have-money will-spend mind-set.

Gone are the days when the rustic customer was content with utilizing mustard oil and plain cleanser. Today, he/she is looking for uncommon marked items for every day skin and social insurance needs. Rustic buyers crosswise over pay sections are demonstrating a checked affinity towards spending on premium top notch items, which are supported by solid brand values, For occurrence, take sustenance items. Not just has the interest for cream rolls gone up in provincial markets, the offer of moment noodles, too,is developing almost twice as quick in the country business sector contrasted with the urban one. Besides, in each six country purchaser of hair color now uses hues other than dark something, which would have been named liberality 10 years prior. Indeed, even apparently urbane brands in classifications like antiperspirants and cleansing agents are said to be developing much speedier in country India than urban. [5]


It have been out that Advertisement assume a critical part in Purchasing of latrine Soaps in Rural India. With regards to Rural Market individuals are more disposed towards security on the grounds that when asked to the respondents, they said they see the Fear Appeal and change to a brand and the battle by Hindustan Unilever Limited (Swastya Yojna) have assisted them with gaining them a piece of the overall industry in Rural Market. TV Media is the Most Effective Media in light of the fact that larger part of the respondents said that they are affected by TV notice’s as opposed to some other Media. Offers assume a vital part in impacting the clients and numerous organizations have been fruitful by giving different Offers to the last client, the offers may be Discounts, Coupons, etc…The Frequency of the notices Influence the obtaining Behavior of the Customers .i.e, when the same Advertisement is Shown Again and once more, it would tend the clients to purchase the Product. The Jingles, Tagline additionally plays a vital in buying Behavior on the grounds that individuals in rustic territories would effortlessly relate it with the brand. Promotions Campaigns with Celebrity and mascots impact individuals in Rural Market to purchase the Product.


Organizations like Hindustan Unilever, Godrej have great vicinity in the provincial business sector on account of their consistent Advertising and Sales Promotion endeavors, so for organizations like Nirma, Wipro, Reckitt Benkiser to pick up piece of the overall industry they have to expand their Promotion endeavors.

There is a discernment that individuals in the country markets are exceptionally value delicate, yet according to the study it was discovered that when it came to toiletry cleansers individuals were prepared to bargain for cost, if the nature of the item was great. There are numerous new contestants to the country market or in the latrine cleanser industry, For Eg: ITC have come up in can cleansers and they have to do thorough publicizing in rustic regions to pick up acknowledgment in the provincial business sector. With regards to Rural Area, People are more inspired by Offers and Schemes, so it would be a decent move for the organization to turn out with offers and plans frequently. There is dependably a feeling of apprehension in psyches Of Rural individuals , so organizations can exploit this and promote the Product. Eg: HUL did it with their Swastya Chetna Program for their Soap “Lifebuoy” and picked up piece of the overall industry from this move. On the off chance that the organizations need to taste Success in Rural Markets, they need to turn out with Separate Campaigns in provincial Areas, a completely new Campaign in Rural Market. Illustration: Godrej thought of Project Dharti for their Godrej No: 1 Soap and they have picked up piece of the overall industry out of it. There is Rise in Demand for Medicated Soaps in the business sector ,so it would be useful for organizations to present sedated cleanser as their new variant.



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