Benefits of Online Learning and E-learning

Online learning has transformed the world of higher education in developed countries. Online learning has significant benefits since it can cover long distances that were not viable before. It is conceivable for a student studying biological sciences in London to be taught by a tutor or material in Brazil.


This article details the full list of online learning advantages to help you realize the benefits of this exciting teaching method.

  1. Global reach –

This is probably the most notable benefit of e-learning. With a computer and an internet connection, it does not matter in which country the student is in. In fact, you can access the learning anytime, anywhere. Remoteness is no longer an impediment to learning, whether scientific or professional. Therefore, it is practicable to reach a massive number of students soon. This can happen, regardless of his whereabouts. This is a meaningful advantage for students around the world. On the other hand, if students have any doubts then they can order the reference books using AliExpress Coupons India.

  1. Extreme flexibility of schedules –

It is really very easy – e-learning is more suitable since it adapts to the needs and learning decisions of each student. Online education allows learners to approach reading at their own pace, whether they are students, busy adults or workers. Students are free to design their schedule as they see appropriate. Besides, they can take their classes anywhere – at home or in a park, if they have a suitable mobile device with them.

  1. It adjusts quickly to the different needs of the students –

We all learn in various ways, and e-learning does everything possible to meet the educational needs of each student. Online learning professionals design e-learning courses that meet all learning needs and adapt to personal inclinations. Therefore, it does not matter if the target audience is visual or auditory students. There are a variety of methods and tools that can meet all the requirements.

  1. Immediate evaluation is possible.

Students can not only start their course quickly, but they can also see instant results. Whether they are working alone or with a trainer, e-learning offers many possibilities to provide useful feedback to students. Also, students can obtain additional resources online, which is always an asset.

  1. Unlimited degree of personalization –

Distance is no longer a hindrance to education. Same holds true for the culture and the community of the students. The translation and customization of the online course with e-learning content reach past borders and gives education to a broader audience. This is an advantage for any online education program because one can use identical material for students from all over the planet.

  1. Immediate change in learning material –

Online learning is much more advanced today, and tomorrow will be even more. Multimedia and interactivity, as well as continually developing technologies, frequently offer a variety of applications and devices that can not only be used to modernize online learning, but also to make it more powerful. Furthermore, you can get updated learning material using Flipkart Offers Today. The most compelling part is that once an e-learning course is up to date, students can instantly access the newest version with a single click.

In near future with the coming of “Internet of Things” and greater number of smart devices it is expected that the trend of e-learning will continue to grow and mature. It has only been about a decade that the industry has been in existence but it has shown sufficient momentum that allows for optimism regarding the future.


Benefits of Sports facilities to Higher Education

Playgrounds and outdoor games equipment have a long history, both in the community public space and in both primary and secondary educational bodies. The latter two of these have both embraced and accepted the idea that these are not just necessary parts of the school system, but in fact they offer essential benefits that give children outlets and essential educational benefits.


However at the tertiary education level the subject is less readily relished. While increasing numbers of universities around the world are investing in effective and valuable outdoor sports equipment, the broader opinion remains that such things are an extravagant luxury. Something only to be invested into when a university finds itself in a comfortable and well established financial position. A non-essential that does not provide the kind of ancillary benefit or necessary advantages to be considered a facility of urgent need.

An increasing body of evidence however shows that this kind of thinking could be misguided, and that in fact universities and colleges need to look more seriously at sports equipment not just as a luxury to be enjoyed by the more athletically gifted students among their number, but as something that could be of extreme benefit to the university as a whole, staff and students alike.

Attracting the best students and staff

With university in general around the world becoming a more and more expensive endeavour for students, and many other career opportunities opening up to the well educated professionals who might have otherwise become research staff and teachers, games facilities become an important attraction factor for students and staff alike.

Depending on your country, and how your school is set up, charges between subjects and universities may not vary as much as is necessary to make competing on price a viable option, and the ability to offer access to specialist health and fitness facilities could be a vital swing factor when potential new academic staff are looking for, especially when you’re not able to be more flexible on salary or other more traditional benefit systems.

This attraction goes further than just the students and staff who are directly considering your establishment. With a wider array of sports facilities, your institution can host more events. This in turn gets its name into more situations, widely increasing your mind share in the broader population. A very valuable commodity when trying to get the best possible students and staff to come to your institution.

Structured non-classroom socialising

One of the most difficult things for many students making the tough transition between secondary and tertiary education is the lack of structured social time. Their daily routines will mostly lack the same kind of rigorous planned arrangements that they were more used to at secondary level. This can cause problems when it comes to things like making friends, forming social groups, and developing the kinds of connections that came much more naturally in earlier life.

Sports facilities solve this problem by providing an environment that is both structured and social. Somewhere that students can develop the kind of interactions and connections that can support them in their efforts to turn their university routines into a new kind of everyday life, and takes halls of residence and transforms them into homes and communities.

Lower stress and increase confidence

Despite the seeming platitude-ish nature of the claims that better sports and fitness facilities can improve the quality of students life, the data does consistently support this proposition’s truth. During a wider study by Purdue university conducted from 2010 to 2013, over one sixteen week period, when a group of 110 students who regularly took part in voluntary gym classes such as yoga and kickboxing were compared to 100 students who made no visits to the recreation facilities at all, the study found that the former group all reported lowered levels of stress and anxiety related to their academic matters, and higher overall levels of confidence.

This kind of benefit leads to a much more important output – improved grades. A 2014 study at Michigan State University found that their students who enrolled in memberships at the University’s Sports and Fitness Centres had average higher grades, and better consistent attendance over their first two years. They also found there was a substantially higher GPA, and 14% more gym-membership students became sophomores than non gym students.

This is just the briefest surface scratching into the matter, and from even this brief consideration, the results are clear. The kinds of benefits that sports facilities offer to universities are not ones to be ignored.

Author Name – Michael Trimmer

Brief Author Bio – Michael is a professional writer and political sciences academic who has worked in religious journalism, UK parliamentary affairs, corporate education consultancy, and student affairs magazines.

European Journal of Business and Social Sciences

The main objective of European Journal of Business and Social Studies (EJBSS) is a academic publication is to create an exchange platform between researchers, teachers and scholars that study, teach, learn or are connected to the educational or educational associated disciplines. Our aim is to build and maintain a mutually beneficial and long-term bidirectional informational dialogue among our authors and beneficiaries of the published research.ijr banner - Copy (3)

Its principal scope is to disseminate the latest research findings and scientific advances in the educational field of study, exploring traditional and modern tendencies, observing social and cultural effects and investigating interdisciplinary methodologies. We invite our collaborators to actively participate with their latest scientific research, with their theoretical and practical experience at the development of this informational platform as a novel tool for the advancement of educational science.

Our publication provides an active instrument to the authors for publishing and distributing their achievements world-wide according with the Open Access policies and methods as well as a powerful tool for the researcher in order to obtain theoretical and practical knowledge for future research projects.

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Large numbers of rain drops,
Results in a little water body .
Large quantities of water,
Results in a little pure water.
Large number of books,
Results in a little competitive knowledge. 
Large number of pages,
Results in a little  book.
Large number of mistakes,
Results in a little problem. 
Large number of problems,
Results in a little solution.
Large amount of cereals,
Results in a little grain.
Large number of trees,
Results in a little green area.
Large number of achievements, 
Results in a little praise.
Large amount of hardwork,
Results in a little success.

-Sahaj Sabharwal
-Jammu city,
Jammu and Kashmir,
 India .


Today, the simple living people become prey of other people . In front of a huge crowd, these simple living people are being insulted.  This is due to their calm and simple nature .
These simple living people are generally ignored and are being exploited by other people . They become a source of laughter for those people who get bored and want someone to entertain them.c42c72291d4bb1dacfdff191e8565696
First of all , the people who get bored , search for those people who are sitting idle or just ignored by someone or having simplicity in their life . Bored people just ask those people to come and sit with them and in front of their friends / relatives, they just make jokes of the simple people . The respect of the simple living people is just snatched by them and they play with the calm hearted people just like playing with useless toys . And the crowd surrounding the bored people also start laughing on the calm hearted people by  accompanying the bored people and insulting the simple living people without thinking about the feelings of those people having simple life and calm nature .
Reason : Only calm hearted and simple living people become the prey of those bored people because of their non violent behaviour and their capability to dissolve the words spoken by them on simple living people . These calm hearted people don’t get angry physically but internally their feelings get burned and being tolerant , they never show them or expel them off.
Conclusion :
1.) Calm hearted people should avoid  to be in contact of such bored people who are just making fun of them.
2.) They should make good friends and avoiding  selfish friends .
3.) They should respect themselves more than anyone else .
4.) They should warn the bored people not to make fun of them or by complaining  their parents/guardians or teachers .
5.) They should perform their activity carefully and with attention so that no one can make fun of them.

-Sahaj Sabharwal
-Jammu city,
Jammu and Kashmir, India .

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Inner voice
Inner Voice is a voice 
Which expels when no choice.
Tolerance is silent inside noise
Which becomes dangerous crime’s base.
Including burning heart cries
Which ignites when blood dries.
Tension reaches greater heights 
Which internally firmly bites.
Rascal when kept inside cine
Which hurts the mind, nothing fine. 
Work done with high anger line 
Which destroys the surroundings,no mistake mine.
Feeling high tempered alone 
Which everyone notices but not shown.
No friend here,just God is one
Which spreads blessings just like sun.
                                       -Sahaj Sabharwal 
                                      -Pacca Danga, 
     -Jammu city ,Jammu and Kashmir, India. 
                                       – Dps,Jammu.



revenge timeRevenge time has come near,
Now, it’s your turn to be in fear.
Chance will be allotted  to you to try any gear,
But no one can stop me to watch your face in tear.
Forgiving time is over,
Even it was my mistake to start my process slower.
Your mistakes have reached the brim of the tower,
It’s guranteed that you will blame yourself forever.
It’s my open threat,
That it will be difficult for you even to take last breath.
Sure that you always remain meathead,
Guranteed that you might be in hell even after death.
No one can dare to stop me doing such an end,
In which each part of its body will rend.
Even God will help me in form of temporary lend,
By not punishing me for such an offend.
Be prepared for your last day on earth,
Now remember those crimes you did from the beginning of your birth. 
You destroyed many people’s hearth, 
Even after that you were in heartless mirth.
Now see what is going to happen with you,
For you it will be something new.
All the problems will stick with you like glue,
Excitement is of watching your life’s end view.

-Sahaj Sabharwal
-Jammu city,
Jammu and Kashmir,
 India .

An Application and Management of Green Technology in Construction Projects

Ubaid L. Hanfee

(Construction Engineering & Management, PRMCEAM, Badnera, Amravati)


Prof. S. Sabihuddin

(Head of Civil Engineering Department, PRMCEAM, Badnera, Amravati)



As the construction activities increase rapidly day by day, construction industries provides huge contribution to the global warming because the activities of construction involve the usage of fossil fuels which emits a lot of toxic gases which is very harmful to humans and the environment. Furthermore, the buildings and projects constructed also contribute greatly to the global warming because these buildings need power, and most of them are powered by conventional power plants which use also highly polluting fossil fuels such as coal and oil. This mix of environmental impact from the actual building construction itself and from the operation of these buildings after construction is one of many human activities that lead to the emission of greenhouse gases, especially the carbon dioxide (CO2).

The aim of this project is to minimize the environmental impact of construction process and maximize both economic viability and the social benefits of construction works, by providing proper management in construction projects. With the help of proper management in construction projects we can reduce the effect of global warming to humans and the environment.

In this project, we deal with the Application of green technology in the construction projects. Also it deals with the project management approaches required for delivering a successful green construction project with the concepts of a conventional constructional project. By performing the analysis of different management knowledge areas for managing green projects, we can deliver a cost-conscious successful green constructions. Our project also deals with the Environmental benefits of green technology in construction projects.


In today’s world of climate change and high energy prices, it is critical that buildings use as few fossil fuels (including coal generated electricity) as possible to “future proof” the home against unpredictable and rapidly rising prices.

Fossil fuels currently provide 95 percent of the world’s commercial energy supply, whereas renewable energy sources supply less than three percent. If we are going to approach our future with foresight, it would be wise to reduce our consumption of fossil fuels and invest in renewable energy at home as soon as possible. The green innovations embraced in infrastructural offices underline on the “three R’s” or RRR of natural preservation viz., lessen, reuse and reuse. At this stage it is critical to recognize what is implied by “Green Technology in Construction Projects”.

According to International Journal of Engineering Research & Management Technology global energy uses by different sectors are as follows:

The maximum amount of energy consumption is done by Building sector i.e. 45%. Thus, In order to reduce such consumption of energy, It become very essential for us to use Green Technology instead of Conventional Techniques.

FIG 1.1 Energy used by Different Sectors


1.2 Green Technology in Building Construction


The term green technology refers to technology that is considered environmentally friendly based on its production process or  supply chain; a means of energy production that is less harmful to the environment than more traditional ways of generating energy, such as burning fossil fuels.

Green technology has become one of the hottest trends in construction. Green technology makes the structure more energy-efficient and sustainable, so they have a lower carbon footprint and a reduced impact on the environment. The advantages of a green innovation application in development are extensive and far reaching offering critical favorable position when utilized as a part of new facilities and additionally in existing facilities.

 As we know that buildings also produce Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions, but this sector receives less attention compared to other pollution contributors such as the transportation and industry sectors. In addition to green technology measures in construction works would be an advantage to the building sector as it will reduce the carbon dioxide emissions.

The basic principles of sustainable design or ‘green design’ as it is popularly known, are to aim for maximum resource conservation, to enhance efficient utilization of non-renewable resources by adopting efficient systems and to maximize use of renewable forms of energy as well as to recycle and reuse resources. These principles need to be applied throughout the building life-cycle e.g. during the site planning and development stage, building planning and construction, and building operation and maintenance.


GREEN BUILDING is one that incorporates the use of clean and renewable energy, efficient use of water and use of recycled or recyclable materials, and provides for healthy indoor air quality. Buildings are responsible for 40 per cent of the world’s energy consumption. The green building concept helps to conserve energy. Today the world requires high performance, low energy buildings offering long-term sustainability.


The different technologies used in green building construction are as follows: Rain Water Harvesting in Building:


Rainwater harvesting (RWH) is one of the most efficient process of collecting and storing rainwater that falls on a catchment surface  for use, independent from, or supplemental to the mains water supply. This reduces demand on the mains supply and offers some resilience from local supply problems and ultimately reduces the amount of energy used for water treatment and transportation.


Fig Rain water harvesting Green Insulation:


Green insulation is one of the best way to insulate a building and to have a well-defined thermal boundary.  The thermal boundary produced in green insulation, separates the conditioned (heated or cooled) spaces from outdoor or unconditioned areas.  A building ought to be protected ceaselessly around the warm limit, including corners and edges.

Fig Cellulose Insulated Walls

The surface of ducts and furnace cabinets present outside the thermal boundary, generally in an unfinished basement, also get insulated.  An extremely basic issue that by and large emerges while making a warm limit is warm connecting, which happens when conductive materials traverse over an obstruction and enable warmth to spill out of one side to the next. If an insulation is placed between wooden studs but not covering the studs, the wood will continue to conduct heat through the wall. To limit the warm crossing over for the most part conductive materials, for example, wood, steel, and aluminum is being utilized, or by including warm breaks so conductive materials are not in contact with each other.

In order to minimize such issue cellulose insulation is generally used. Cellulose insulation often consists of 75 to 85 percent recycled material, which is greater than fiberglass’ i.e. 30 to 40 percent, and cellulose is even better at preventing airflow than fiberglass. Cellulose and cotton are definitely better choices when it comes to green insulation. Geothermal Heating:


Geothermal heating is an efficient renewable energy resource that’s far more environmentally friendly than coal-powered electricity or natural gas. In this technology, A water mixture is pumped through pipes lied underground to collect thermal energy and then this water is routed to a heat pump and takes that energy and puts it to use to heat or cool your house. To power the heat pump generally electricity is being used, the efficiency of the geothermal system means that we will get far more energy from the pump than we pour into it. Solar power:


Solar energy is one of cleanest, renewable energy sources available which is the largest current energy source for earth surface. Solar energy is generally classified into two categories i.e. Passive solar power and Active solar power.

Passive solar home design simply uses the sun’s rays to heat a home by directly falling the rays through windows. In order to warm the home, large sets of windows let in solar energy, and a heat-absorbing surface such as dark wall retains this heat.

While Active solar systems obviously provide very large amount of heat than passive solar design. In this technique, solar panels absorb the sun’s radiation and use the heat to warm air or water, cutting down on gas or electricity consumption. The efficiency of solar panels depend upon the size of the system and the surrounding climate. In any case, given the correct conditions, a solar system will compensate for the in advance expenses of establishment over the long haul with long periods of free vitality.

Fig Solar Power in Green Building Electro chromic glass:


Smart glass, or electro chromic glass is one of the efficient green technique in which the glass uses a tiny burst of electricity to charge ions on a window layer and change the amount of light it reflects. While low-emittance windows that stops a portion of the sun’s radiation as of now exist, savvy glass enables you to pick how much light you need to square. Integrated with savvy building control systems, skyscrapers could have a huge number of windows tint consequently amid crest hours and come back to finish straightforwardness in the nighttimes. Brilliant glass designers expect a 25 percent diminishment in HVAC costs because of the dynamic windows. Electro chromic glass is as yet being idealized for business utilize, yet hope to see a greater amount of the glass in the coming a very long time as contending engineers convey this keen vitality sparing innovation to the market.

Fig. Electro chromic glass


2.1. Process of Methodology

The process of methodology consist of seven steps is given in figure 3.1,

Estimation and comparison between Green building and Conventional Building.
Design Approach





Fig.4.1 Methodology Process




2.2. Design Approach


The idea goes for creating plan type of a working to incorporate the three fundamental components of atmosphere i.e. light, air and water into the manufactured condition. This three components of nature, upon their incorporation into the constructed shape have their useful and in addition tasteful effect. Their useful part is much critical in current circumstance as a cutting edge building isn’t just among the most exceedingly awful polluter of atmosphere yet additionally the biggest purchaser of vitality.

Instinctive approach – Intuitions are the considerations and inclinations that ring a bell rapidly, in light of a specific winning condition, absent much reflection upon the scientific information or systematic estimations. When outlining a building, a creator does not begins with all the diagnostic information that is accessible, however the fashioner takes after a few instincts to build up a frame, most appropriate to the nearby climatic conditions, required spatial association, practical appropriateness, advancement of shape and stylish interest.

Madhya Pradesh is a landlocked state at the core of India, having “hot dry and composite” climatic conditions. The difficulties in planning for sweltering dry and composite atmosphere are: warm is welcome in winter yet avoidable in summer; wind is welcome amid sticky months however avoidable amid winters and sweltering summers. The central point that influence an atmosphere responsive outline could be recognized as-

  1. Shape
  2. Orientation
  3. Heat
  4. Air
  5. Water
  6. Light


2.2.1. Shape:

State of any building creates from a base frame one essential rule for choosing the base shape is surface territory to volume proportion. It depends on the idea that diverse geometric shapes with same volume have distinctive surface territories. This proportion is especially critical in the situations where the climatic mediation is significant factors in planning. The last building structure develops from this reasonable base-shape. A building structure having low S/V proportion picks up warms amid summers and daytime and correspondingly loses lesser warmth amid winters and night. Low s/v proportion is viewed as ideal for hot dry and composite atmospheres as it lessens the warmth pick up and warm misfortune, which thus decreases the cooling and warming heap of building. The s/v proportion shows warm execution of fundamental shapes as opposed to complex ones. The most reduced symmetrical building would be a solid shape. In any case, for day lighting and ventilation, extensive zones presented to outside surfaces are viewed as great. Subsequently 3D shape is extended to expand its surface region and frame cuboids, which is a square shape in design. The bargain made with the thermal performance of the external envelop can be compensated by using insulating material in outside texture. The effectiveness accomplished through legitimate day lighting and ventilation by expanded surface region is an extra preferred standpoint. The warm execution could be balanced by appropriate introduction of building square.

2.2.2 Orientation:

In the wake of choosing the base shape, the subsequent stage is to situate the square. In northern side of the equator, north exterior of the building does not get any immediate sun oriented radiation, though southern façade gets immediate radiation in winter however next to no in summer. Additionally sunlight got from north is viewed as best as light from north is diffused light which needs glare. Henceforth longer façade ought to be situated towards north-south. East and west dividers get most extreme solar radiation, particularly when the sun is low in height. Sun based pick up on west and south-west part can be especially troublesome as its greatest force harmonizes with most sizzling piece of the day. Along these lines, shorter veneer of the building shall face east west course.

To acclimatize the atmosphere into the constructed condition, it is basic to bring the light, air and water into the building so occupants get the chance to feel these components from outer veneers as well as from inside the building. Patio brings the indigenous habitat inside as well as controls the inner condition and serves the need of the occupants. It works as a convective indoor regulator and gives insurance from extraordinary impacts of sweltering summers and chilly winters. It additionally makes inclinations with shifting level of lights and shades and with them the feel of abode. Now, there is a rectangular block facing north-south, with central opening i.e. courtyard. To join light, air and water, it is required to additionally build up the arrangement frame. Right off the bat, separating the current square into four littler squares and adjusting each square in such away so as the altered type of each square fills a particular need.

Destinations for advance alteration of each square are-

1) To limit sun based radiation.

2) To bring air into building and enable it to go through the texture, ideally after humidification.

3) To put a water body in windward side, with the goal that it serves practically and helps in convective cooling of the building.

4) To acquire most extreme north light into work zones.


2.2.3 Heat:

Sun oriented radiations from west and south-west bearing are most awkward and troublesome as the radiation power from these headings is greatest when the day is generally warmed. To limit these radiations, north western square is evacuated and south-western square is slanted with shorter façade confronting south west. Subsequently, just little surface gets immediate radiation and remaining appearances gets lesser radiation. This further diminishes the warmth pick up into the building. Littler face that gets immediate radiation can be protected utilizing empty squares or cavity dividers with extra screen dividers. In addition, these spaces can be utilized for non-adapted uses as toilets, stairs, stores and so forth that demonstration as buffer between habitable territories and appalling regions.


2.2.4 Air:

Air development is a pivotal factor for human solace. To carry the air into the structure, the most vital thing is to know the overarching wind course for the neighborhood, in the event of Raipur, is from south-west. To utilize this breeze, giving an opening in the southern veneer isn’t sufficient. Alongside the south western square, that redirects the air towards the building, a distension of south-eastern square is required to trap this air. This makes a channel with wide mouth welcoming immense volume of air and tight back end pressurizing the air caught, consequently making a high weight zone. The courtyard, being under low pressure, attracts the pressurized air, which ventilates the premises byVenturi-impact.


2.2.5 Water:

Stylishly, water anyplace around the building or all around the building looks outwardly satisfying. Be that as it may, from useful perspective in hot-dry and composite atmosphere, its arrangement ends up critical. If there should be an occurrence of Indore, the breeze originating from south-west is generally hot and dry and south west segment is additionally most warmed piece of the building. In this manner, south-west corner is right area for putting any water body. This water continues dissipating, cools and humidifies the in-streaming hot dry breeze, before it enters

the imprisonments of the structure. South western square could be stilted to extend water body into the courtyard and also allow air to pass through from under the stilted block.

2.2.6 Light

Most positive normal light for better working condition in insides is diffused north light giving longer north veneer and patio at Center permits abundant sunlight from both, outside façade and additionally inside yard confronting exteriors. For most extreme north light, northern and eastern squares are given with opening child north face. These squares can be the most possessed work region as these are slightest heated blocks with maximum north exposure. Northern facade is further modified form being straight to U-formed, bringing about expanded accessible window region.

2.3 Planning


 The numbers of plans of building are collected as per requirements, suitable in plan, design, analysis and execution. Among those plans sorting was done which fit into our requirements and are suitable in our climatic conditions. The sorted plans were observed, studied and also obtained new other ideas that can be adopted. The study of different plans gave the base of the plan. From the sorted plans the feasible parts of building is got selected and practiced to get a new creative plan. For this creation, lot many parts of plans are examined and clubbed all plans together creating a better plan. For planning the Institutional building the different shapes were considered which used before or can be adopted newly like orthodox, curves, and studied their features, effect, advantages and disadvantages.  The effects of shapes also studied and analyzed are follows:

  • Effect of shapes

The shape of a building has a significant effect on cost Seeley. The complex the state of a building the more costly its unit cost will be. In addition, structures with entangled or sporadic blueprints prompt an expanded border/floor region proportion which thusly results to a higher unit cost. A Building with complex outline will also result to an increased cost due to the fact that setting-out, ground work, and drainage work may be more complicated and uneconomical. The Block work and rooftop work will likewise be costly because of the mind boggling nature of the building delineated. Square molded structures are said to be the easiest arrangement shape which is more affordable to construct, despite the fact that it isn’t generally a reasonable recommendation as there might be a trouble in arranging the inside design of huge square building. Border to-floor proportion, unit development cost and general task cost are influenced by variety fit as a fiddle many-sided quality or abnormality. The less difficult (or more muddled) the arrangement shape, the lower (or higher) the unit development cost will be. This is because of the way that the state of the building impacts essentially by number of building components, for example, establishments, dividers, roofs, floors or the rooftop.


  • Regular and irregular Shapes

The simplest plan shape, that is a square building will be the most economical to construct. Square shaped structures would not generally be a practicable suggestion, since in abodes, littler workplaces, schools and healing centers structures an incredible significance is joined to the attractive quality of anchoring sufficient normal day lighting to most piece of the building. A perplexing (sporadic) structure would contain territories in the focal point of the building which would need sufficient common lighting. Additionally there might be a trouble in the arranging and inner design of the building.On account of circular structures, the encasing floor territory for the smallest edge is uneconomical and brings about major interior arranging issues. Comparing two buildings of rectangular and irregular shape, each of which has same floor area. Irregular shaped building where there is 6% more external walls to enclose the same floor area, setting out are increased by about 50% excavation cost about 20% and drainage cost by approximately 25%. The additional cost do not finish there as brick work and roofing will also be more costly due to the work being more complicated.

  • Effects of Plan Shapes on Total Cost of a Building.

The shape of a building has an important effect on construction cost of a building. Variation in plan shapes have a direct effect on the horizontal and vertical components of the building, example, walls portions, beams and columns with their associated finishing and decorations. Irregular shapes will also have effect on the construction cost in the aspect of services, therefore the number of subsidiary items which could be affected by a change in the shape of the building includes;

Longer services and waste pipes to supply sanitary appliances depending on the plan shape.

Possibility of high roof cost due to increased number of corners which causes material wastage.

The Possibility of additional cost in applying finishing and decoration. The running cost of the completed building may also be affected by such factors as higher heat losses (windows and walls), window cleaning and painting. A junior organization of Royal institute of Chartered surveyors (RICS) in (1970) set up a research team to consider the effect of height and shape on building construction costs. This team studied a number of buildings with different shapes and height but the buildings all had a gross floor area of 95m2. The conclusions of the study of the research team were two in fold;

  1. The total construction cost increases with increase in the perimeter wall length in relation to the floor area.
  2. The expanded cost turns out to be very much articulated when the stature of the building is being expanded with extra floors without modifying the total floor area.
  • Effect of Plan Shape on Cost of Substructure

The nature of the soil determines the strength of the soil. The strength of soil-lime mixture is dependent on many variables such as soil types, lime content, curing time, water content, method of compaction and cost. It is discovered that increase in temperature on curing lime soil lead to increase strength. If the soil is swampy there will be increase in cost because of the type of foundation will be changed from strip foundation to deep strip foundation which will increase the cost of substructure. If the soil is a rocky area, it depends on the depth to which the rock is located, if the rock is located at the surface, that calls for little explosion before construction commence. If otherwise then there will not be increase in cost of explosion. In 1970, Building research establishment has reported that foundation as a proportion of total building cost can vary from 8 to 18% and tend to decrease with increases in the number of storey. Adequate information on subsoil condition is vital before a decision can be made as to the most economical type of foundation.

  • Effect of Plan Shape on Cost of Superstructure

The costs of superstructure vary considerably depending on block designs, and this element result to an additional construction cost of multi-storey projects over a traditional housing. The need for fire protecting walls, ceiling, floors and staircases in multi-storey buildings also leads to an increased construction costs. As described earlier, increased circulation ratios with multi-storey blocks will also produce higher unit usable floor space costs. In general three storey flats were about 30% more expensive that two-storey buildings, with costs related to a specific unit of floor area such as the square meter. Increasing the heights of blocks of flats from 3-5 storey raised cost by about 12% (6% per storey). This trend continued when the total height was further increased to 6-8 stories, with a further rise in costs of about 17%. The rate of increase in costs appeared surprisingly to flatten above eight stories in height to about a 2% addition per floor.

  • Effects of Plan Shape on Cost of Block work

The significance of blocks in housing and construction in general cannot be over emphasized, as it is the most accepted walling unit by the public because of its peculiar resistance to fluctuating weather condition. As reported by that apart from availability and cheapness of building materials, quality of such materials are measured in line with durability, size, shape and strength. Walls and partition with associated windows and doors constitute a major item of expenditure of a building. For low rise buildings, cavity walls are generally, the lowest long term cost solution, provided satisfactory detailing and workmanship are secured. Stone facings are very expensive and care is needed to select a stone which is suitable for the particular environment.

  • Effect of Plan Shape on Cost of Frame Structure

A frame may not be necessary in low-rise building, but generally costs tend to rise rapidly over the first few storey as the frame takes the loads imposed by a succession of upper floors. As for the foundation, the total frame cost will change at rates determined by two separate factors, that is, the vertical and horizontal loading. 1. The addition of upper floors requiring supporting beams will vary at the rate of change in the ratio of upper floor area to total floor area: The additional loading on the columns will require strengthening of columns or reducing bay sizes as the number of floors carried increase. If the total floor area remains constant, then the smaller building on plan will create more perimeter frame conditions and this will add a further cost factor. Moreover, on an irregularly shaped design, it may be easier to design a frame using steel in order to accept the disadvantages of irregularly sized columns and beam casings. Such design would also be possible in concrete, but the irregularity may also result in high costs for the framework.


  • Effect of Plan Shape on Cost of Roof work

A cost investigation of low pads found that level rooftops were reliably higher than similar pitched rooftops, the additional cost summing all things considered to around 30%. With pitched rooftops sporadic formed squares brought about impressively expanded cost. For a multi-story building outline (where the aggregate rooftop cost is shared by a bigger number of abodes), a diminishment in rooftop development cost per staying unit is not out of the ordinary. On account of 3-4 story fabricating, the rooftop is frequently of comparative development to that utilized for 2-story structures. Material expenses of conventional block two-story structures ran from fourteen to eighteen percent of aggregate cost ( the base being for a low pitched rooftop with low quality covering, and the most extreme for a piercing rooftop with superb covering).

  • Effect of Plan Shape on Cost of Services

 The main considerations that regularly have impact on human solace incorporate; rain, wind, temperature, mugginess, radiation, air volume and development, air virtue and ionization. Shittu et al. (2013) portrayed how structures and their natural administrations have turned out to be more mind boggling and the scope of decisions keeps on expanding. Specifically, ecological prerequisites are frequently viewed as excessively late in the plan procedure for them to make a positive commitment to the last outline. This is uneconomical when seen against the staggering expense of administrations establishments which may add up to as much as 25% of the aggregate expenses on a cutting edge lodging plan and half on a doctor’s facility venture. Along these lines, there is a crucial requirement for incorporated plan arrangement with all masters contributing at each phase of the outline procedure. Also, take note of that administration expenses will increment with a seize three or four story when it ends up important to introduce a lift, despite the fact that the impact will diminish as extra story are included given the zone per floor is financially served. Likewise, structures with more mind boggling shapes require an extra course of action for acoustics, lightning and ventilation, most particularly a multi-story building.

  • Effect of Plan Shape on Cost of Finishes

The impact of completing on the cost of structures in customary block two story structures, floors, stair and completions represent around 8-11% of the aggregate cost. With pads and maisonettes, floor completes by and large record for around 6% of aggregate expenses. Floor completes likewise shift impressively in unit cost and the thickness of ground surface can impact basic cost as a thick wrap up. The Economic particular of building arranged by Construction Section of Nigerian building and Road Research Institute (NABRRI, 1989) uncovered that 10%-15% cost is spared by putting with enhanced strategy utilizing triangular trowel and corner completing contraptions, concrete, paint, or distemper on dividers, steel and timber with indigenously made paint. After studying the effect of shapes on various criteria, the different shapes of building are analyzed. The different shapes taken into considerations are as follows:

Circular/Roundabout Shape

Previously, round structures were considerably more typical. Conventional roundabout safe houses incorporate igloos, tipis, African mud block cottages, yurts and British and European round structures. They were the state of decision since they were solid, vitality productive, useful for ventilation and air flow, less defenseless in solid breezes and they utilized minimal measure of materials with respect to floor territory.

Round structures accompany numerous advantages:

Less epitomized vitality

With regards to building outline, the principal decide is that a basic shape is significantly more supportable than an intricate shape. Of any shape, the circle has the most limited limit in respect to its zone. This implies for any given floor zone a round building has less divider length and along these lines less materials. The following most effective space is a square took after by a square shape.

Energy Efficient

Since round structures have less surface zone, in respect to floor space, there is less surface coming into contact with the climate outside. Accordingly, it takes less vitality to keep up their insides to agreeable temperatures. Round structures are additionally more streamlined and in this way, concede less drafts which likewise makes them more vitality productive.





Seismic tremor and wind obstruction

In a round working there are many interconnected focuses which give the building an interesting mix of adaptability and quality – characteristics which make them fundamentally more secure in quakes.

The streamlined properties additionally make round structures more impervious to typhoon level breezes (and torrents so far as that is concerned). These same breezes, however, beat emphatically against the substance of conventional homes, in the end devastating these habitations if the breezes are sufficiently solid. Round structures are a decent option in zones inclined to powerful breezes and sea tempests. A rounded roof is less affected by wind planning which is when a strong wind lifts the roof structure up – and sometimes off the building.

More affordable

Round structures can cost fundamentally less to develop. Conventional structures, with their different surfaces, are confused structures. Round structures, however, are moderately basic, they utilize less materials and set aside less opportunity to manufacture. They utilize 15 to 20% less materials for every square meter (or square foot) than a rectangular plan! Less surface zone implies they are additionally less exorbitant to keep up after some time.

Better acoustics

Sounds are gentler inside the building making it perfect for rest and reflection, yet in addition for mingling and playing music. The shape additionally opposes commotion infiltrating all things considered. Sound waves disseminate as they fold over the building, protecting the inside from boisterous clamor outside.

Rectangular shapes

For the most part, most structures embraced rectangular shape as there is ease in arranging, specifying, plan and furthermore for development. Prior quicker and more prudent to construct spaces inside rectangular shape are additionally more advantageous to determine. Absolutely, filling plot productively is the most evident reason, alongside making it less demanding to fit standard furniture and fitting. Anything non-symmetrical dangers winding up more costly to outfit or fit out. Taking in perspective of bending, plumbing line in the dividers.

With arrive restricted and significant, fitting a building effectively in a plot isn’t just a characteristic tasteful choice however spare cash also. More noteworthy plot of building plots are rectangular or fit as fiddle, so developing in that kind of plot will give near model building. These are the most traditionalist and powerful ways to deal with collect a building; odd shape will be more confounded to create and cost more. This is considered down to business strategy for fitting in furniture and other inside things, which by chance seek most part in rectangular or square shape too. Adjusted game plans used more material, more resource and are costly to keep up; so rectangular or square shapes are better. Keeping in the perspective, the rectangular or square can be joined to make fascinating shapes like ‘L, H, or T.’

E-shaped building

Advantages of E-molded Building are as per the following:


It is watched that present development extends in the city were not giving great measure of ventilation in homes. A tad of research told that how helpful a very much ventilated building can be for the general population who live in it. In standard building outlines, it can give the same. Taking a gander at the plan, E molded structures give a great deal of degree to make vertical houses more ventilated, having a consistent stream of regular air.

Garden View

In consistent structures, not all structures get the advantage of having the garden see. Some of them confront the opposite side, which in the long run makes them troubled about the place they are remaining in. There is require an outline that satisfies everybody’s longing to have a working with an excellent garden see. The E shape configuration was an ideal fit in that necessity also. Alongside ventilation, it likewise offers extension to give everybody an excellent garden see.


The advantages of daylight are not escaped anybody. At the point when there is a working with enough daylight, it brings inspiration, as well as other medical advantages also. Amid daytime, it’s a wonderful sight to see the rooms loaded with characteristic light. It diminishes the general utilization of power and its bills. With E shape outline, there’s sufficient measure of space for each home to have satisfactory measure of daylight, bringing about more Vitamin D and better invulnerable arrangement of the general population.

Returning to the roots

Investigating the idea of E-molded building, it looks like intensely with the structures that used to be in before times. Obviously the look and execution style is present day, however the center takes after to the structures our ancestors more likely than not lived in. In prior circumstances, building had a yard at the focal point of it with every one of the rooms looking towards it. This idea was one major motivation behind why individuals of prior circumstances has better wellbeing, and lived longer. We trust an E molded building is an advanced type of those old structures that gave a solid living.

Octagonal shape

More Interior Space

One preferred standpoint of an octagonal plan is that it gives around 20 percent more indoor space than a square building that has a similar border, on the grounds that an octagon encases more space than a square. The inside space likewise has less space-squandering corners. Early octagonal homes were regularly worked without corridors, depending rather on a focal hall for access to inside rooms. This expanded the usable space inside the octagon.

Construction and Energy

An octagon building was cheaper to build. Its shape consumed less exterior space and therefore required fewer construction materials. The space was more affordable to warm in winter since rooms opened into each other around focal anterooms. The building was less demanding to cool on the grounds that the windows gave cross ventilation.

After critically studying the sorted data, the data collected for the project study was analyzed for our residential building. The plan of I-shaped building is observed and thought for the shape adoption which is suitable for our residential building.

Call for Papers Feb 2019 for International Journal of Research

IJR: International Journal of Research (ISSN: 2348-6848)

Last date of Submission: February 28, 2019

Monthly Online+ Print journalCall-for-Papers

For more details please visit:

We are glad to inform you that authentic, scholarly and unpublished research articles, essays, short story, poetry, book review, interviews of English Literature are invited from scholars/ faculty/ researchers/ writers/ professors from all over the world for publication in IJR.

Submission Guidelines

We accept original theoretical or research articles, book reviews, interviews, poems and short fictions as electronic submissions via e-mail as attached documents (Microsoft word only). All manuscripts must be in Font Times New Roman, Size: 12, Line spacing: Single spaced and submitted only as MS Word 2007/ 2010. All manuscripts should strictly follow the MLA 8th Edition Style of Citation. The documents must include name and affiliation details in the body of your submission. Submission must be in single attachment. Subject line must be Submission of Poem/ Fiction/ Article etc. Submission e-mail must include the statement claiming that you have read the submission guidelines, you agree to the policy of the journal and that the submission is original and does not contain plagiarized material.

Format of the Research Papers:

Authors are requested to strictly follow the MLA 8th Edition style while preparing the articles.

Authors are also requested to include the following in the format of their articles:

1. Full title with subtitle, if any. Times New Roman font, size 16, bold (not all capital letters)

  1. Name and affiliation of the author/s.
  2. An abstract of the article of about 100-150 words along with 4-5 Keywords.

  3. Authors should note that the main body of the text should be prepared in such a way that no formatting is needed afterwards. Heading, sub headings and illustrations should be well incorporated within the main body of the article. Times New Roman font, size 12 and justified.

  4. The word-limit for Research paper is 5000 words inclusive of Abstract and Works Cited.

  5. All portions of the articles should be single-line spaced.

  6. Author should be careful regarding grammatical and typographical errors.

  7. All essays submitted must be in English for review.

  8. Plagiarism report of the Research paper duly checked in plagiarism software like Urkund, viper, Turn it in or Plagscan etc.

Do not decorate your submission with lines, borders, special characters etc., which may lead to rejection.

Fiction and Poetry

Our mission is to publish the finest fiction (up to 5,000 words). There are no restrictions on subjects and themes. For poetry, we aim to publish challenging and engaging works by both established and emerging poets.

Please note:

Fiction: Submit one piece at one time.

Poetry: Submit up to three poems at one time.

Include a short third-person biographical note in your submission.

Only previously unpublished works are considered.

Response time: Within a Week.

Copyright to Authors:

IJR – International Journal of Research (ISSN: 2348-6848), is entitled to publish submitted work in online and print. The editor can also reproduce the submission in any form (book/ anthology) and authors will be reported about the publication in other form. We allow our authors flexible rights to republish and reproduce and distribute their published contents with third parties anywhere in any format on the following conditions:

1. The authors will inform the editor about the intended republication or reproduction by third parties by sending a signed letter.

  1. The authors will acknowledge credits to International Journal of Research and Edupedia Publications Pvt Ltd as the first publisher and include the Vol. No. and Issue No. in their works.

Plagiarism Policy:

By submitting paper for publication to the journal, you as contributor/ author/ co-author state that:

1) You are fully aware that plagiarism is wrong and you know that plagiarism is the use of another person’s idea or published work and pretend that it is one’s own.

2) You declare that each contribution to your work from other people’s published or unpublished sources have been acknowledged and the source of information have been referenced.

3) You certify that you will not allow anyone to copy your work with the intention of passing it off as his/her own work.

4) You certify that you are solely responsible for any incomplete reference that may remain in your work.

Send your contribution/s to: or

ISSN 2348-6848 (Online) & 2348-795X (Print)

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