Tag Archives: technology

Capturing the moments through the digital eye

We as a human, we’re born as a social creature who likes to connect, befriend them and share memories. Earlier, we usually jot them down into personal diary. However, people still prefer to write in a journal, but in the age of digitalisation, blogging is on the verge. The blog has several media like images, videos, and noteworthy to mention, “the camera” through which they capture it. Almost every digital device like the smartphone, digital cameras, DSLRs used for capturing moments and sharing them with friends, relatives and acquaintances. Even the cameras used for security purposes like home security, theft detection etc. We also heard about thermal imaging camera, IR camera used for scientific purposes, also by photographers for night scenes while filming a documentary or a show.

A girl with a camera.
A girl capturing an image through a camera

Why do we need a camera when we have eyes to see it? The camera can be a boon or bane, useful for creating history so that people can know more about us in the future generations, can work as a piece of prime evidence for and save lives. The camera can be bad for several reasons like privacy invasions, clicking pictures without permission. Many institutions, hospitals don’t allow to capture images/videos, and it’s a quite controversial and debatable topic. The camera supports us to visualise the scenes even after a decade or more, and when we look back at them, we can still feel the positive vibes.

An old camera on a desk.
A Black and Silver Film Camera

Every invention has an origin, the portable camera was first invented by Johann Zahn in 1685, although in 1814, Joseph Nicephore Niepce took eight hours to click the first photograph. Before many more camera like instruments has come into the picture, most of them were merely able to screen the image, even pinhole camera is one of the discoveries such made. Now, we can share it in digital format, apply filters where AI has played a significant role. We share the images and showcase our memories on social media, through emails and also physical printed with photo frame. Earlier, the old technologies used photographic plate or on the film, now due to advancement in science and technology, we use the electronic image sensor. You may have heard the term CMOS sensor, a semiconductor device used in imaging after the 1960s before that CCD image sensor as seen in earlier digital cameras.

We know a lot about its history, let’s see how the digital camera works. There are several patents, and you can see one of them below:


Camera lens now is the key to imaging which helps to take images in milliseconds. In simple terms, most of the light around the lens is captured and focused on a single point resulting in a sharp image. Further, conversion into a digitised format takes place. There are numerous processes involved in a single shot of image captured. We can zoom in by moving the lens far from the camera sensor. The focal length is one of the key terms associated with the zooming. You may have seen DSLRs depicting the focal length of the lens, focal aperture. These are some of the few words in the world of photography.

A night shot for a camera lens.
A person holding a camera lens

Researchers from the Chalmers University of Technology in Sweden have devised a technology for ‘metasurfaces’, an artificial material with lots of interacting nanoparticles that can control light. They are working on this as the technology of the camera lens hasn’t changed for an extended period. You can read the publication mentioned below:


Photography has a separate fanbase. Almost everyone loves capturing moments, maybe the happiest moment when you made your first steps or perhaps where you got grand success. The digital era keeps on growing and always kept us astonished.


Alternative technology for a climate change resilient India

If you can’t see the stars blinking in the night sky, it does not mean they have disappeared. They are there just behind the blanket of clouds, you need to discover them.

The world is stringing hard to contain the climate change. Every country,every international organization is trying their levels best to create awareness of the rising hues and cries regarding climate of the earth. International organizations like UN come up with programs like UNFF, 1.5° C reports, several conversations like Paris, Geneva, Kyoto, protocol etc. Among all these efforts at International level, individual countries to are trying at national levels in order to curb this menace of climate change.
India, not behind in any of the major International alliances on climate change has also pledged to keep pace with World order to combat the rising problems of the nation and the world at large. But, what is climate change and how is it affecting the world and particularly in India? The answer to the question lies in the virtues of mother earth of balancing the heat and other atmospheric phenomenon around the world. Climate change is a process of change (rise) of the average temperature of the world. This change is a result of combination of natural and anthropogenic processes.
The rise of temperatures at the Arctic Ocean is particularly alarming. As a result India won’t be untouched from this major change. Being a major developing country, India is also putting it’s efforts in this direction. The largest economies of the world, depend highly on polluting sources of energy like, crude oil, coal. The emissions from these sources are not only polluting but they remain stranded in the atmosphere for millions of years.
The country is a proud owner of multiple Physiography leading to different sources of energies other than the conventional ones mentioned above. The states of Western and southern India are rich resources of solar energy, one of the most crucial sources of Renewable energy. Giving a boost to solar energy in these states will assure India of energy security as it is a very cheap and reliable source of energy for India. The government has striked the iron hot by initiating programs like International Solar Alliance, PM -KUSUM, cheap loans to households for planting solar panels, etc.

The other major renewable source of energy is wind energy and hydro energy. The vast coastal areas of India provide it with yet another gift of non- polluting form of energy generation can be a milestone in harnessing global warming and Thus climate change. One of the most significant amount of pollution is seen due to vehicles. The mega cities of the country are ranked one of the worst in traffic on roads. Owing to large traffic, these vehicles majorly release sulphur contents, PM 2.5, PM -10, carbon monoxide, etc. in the environment. The government recently has set up rules in this context. It has come up with BS -VI norms of vehicles which in comparison to BS -IV norms release only sulphur content-10. Apart from this, there is also a reduction in PM 2.5 and PM 10 levels. Pertaining to increased pollution in Delhi especially during the times of Diwali celebrations, it is also caused due to-

  1. Burning of crops of paddy in the neighbouring states.
  2. Bursting of crackers in a huge amount

The government has setup air purifying towers in the city to overcome this problem. Along with this, the government has adopted for management of paddy residue by converting it into a fuel which will be less polluting. And for the problem of crackers CSIR has come up with green crackers instead of the crackers which were used earlier.

Other sources which are creating obstacles in containing climate change are the manufacturing units which use and also release gases like CFCs, HFCs etc. There is no denying to the fact that increased use of refrigerators and air conditioners has massively raised the levels of GHGs, like, CFCs, HFCs and HCFCs. Out of the obligations of International conventions India has successfully phased out use of CFCs is determined to phase out HFCs by 2020.

There is no doubt that achieving the goals of climate change resilient technologies is very challenging in a developing country like India, where full literacy is still a dream far to achieve. But the very truth of India having the potential to convert it’s massive demographic dividend and resource rich geography is also not deniable. Not only the government, but also the people at individual levels have to strive in achieving a climate on their very own earth which could be worth living and not only for them but the generations to come. The future is awaiting for the successful implementation of the policies of the government already made and the one’s to be made. New records of collaborations for example the one with Government of U. K to efficiently and resiliently ban the usage of ACs in every corporate and business etc. will enhance India’s capacity to conform with aims like 1.5° C and 2°C and combat climate change.


Like an endless loop of strings, E-learning opens up multiple avenues for the students to choose from the comfort of their homes. Through E-Learning students in India can do varied courses offered by Harvard University ranging from a programming course such as CS50’s Introduction to Game Development to a social sciences course such as American Government: Constitutional Foundations.
Universities and their invaluable courses continents away can be accessed easily without the unnecessary hassle of the physical presence in the classroom.

E-Learning has brought varied courses around the globe in the comfort of one’s own house. E-learning has been successful in bridging the quality of education that one can access in the developing nations. It is a more economical and appeasing form of education in world crises such as the raging Covid-19 pandemic. It has ensured the unhindered transfer of knowledge when one is unable to be physically present in classrooms.  Schools and colleges have taken up E-Learning to ensure social distancing is not an issue they have to deal with so they can solely focus on the quality of education imparted to the students.

Despite its many perks, E-Learning also has its fair share of drawbacks. It is often difficult to cater to and overlook the progress of the students online which would have been a far easier prospect in the in-classroom mode of education. There are different challenges such as poor internet connectivity in the remote places and often the underprivileged do not have access to proper electronic devices. Some struggle with technology and thus are often unable to have a seamless E-Learning experience.

Though it is not without its fair share of challenges, E-Learning has been successful in the re-moulding the education system for the better. It is undoubtedly the mode of education for the future. It has been successful in providing affordable education to people in the different corners of the Earth. It has enabled some institutes to do without the physical infrastructure and additional costs that come along with maintaining physical classrooms.

There are several applications like Zoom, TeamLink, Google Meet, Duo etc which are being used by teachers and institutes to impart lessons to the students. The dangers of video lessons can be seen in the multiple instances of hacking and misuse of these applications. Data are stolen by hackers of the users of the application who misuse the data to their own fruition. The applications should be secured from hackers for seamless usage and to ensure that the users can operate it without any fear of their account being hacked.

E-Learning may, however, lead to a loss of jobs for a majority of people who used to assist in the seamless functioning of the brick and mortar classrooms. Publishing houses may suffer as learning moves online resulting in a sharp decline of hard copy textbooks. Publishing houses too shall have to adapt and move their publications online. Small publishing houses may fade away with time. The implementation of the proper 5G network would ensure an immersive learning experience. Physical libraries are slowly becoming defunct with even libraries uploading their content online. Information is available to Scholars very easily. Research has become easier than before. Some people have found it hard to cope up with the technological advancements while some have become unemployed with technology replacing manual labour. However, technology has changed the world for the better and made our lives easier. We should embrace technology as an inseparable part of our lives.


Welcome everyone today my topic is about Technology. So, you can see that now technology became a daily part of our life. Technology has changed our lives in many ways, like development in economics, or helps us to gain knowledge on machines or anything. As technology has advantages but also have disadvantaged to like influencing the value of society or deplete natural resources. Like it said, everything in the world has advantages and disadvantages likewise technology comforts our life, but internally it’s also causing disadvantage to us.

So what is the exact definition for technology? So technology is nothing but the sum of techniques used for production or services for our development. In current times we people produce desired products to solve our problems or fulfill the need for ourselves. The main problem caused by technology is unemployment. As we know that in every company and factory or any workplace the machines have been set up to finish the work fast and easy, so by using machines the labor is having many problems so this leading to unemployment. Also, because of technology, there are social sites which are a very common problem in youngsters nowadays as it is increasing loneliness and depression among themselves. However, we should always remember that innovations had been made for our help not to make victims of technology. It always depends on how do we are going to use technology. The way we use the technology we get benefits in that way.

So how we should use the technology that will not harm us? There are some thoughts on how we can use technology without hurting ourselves or others.

First, the main point and most important point is we should use the right technology because this decision impact whether technology is a blessing or a curse to our productivity.

The second way is using automation tools as it can reduce more than half of our efforts that we are doing manually.

Third use the technology when you need it most because if we always use technology we will get dependent on it, and we will always seek help from technology.

Fourth point use your calendar app for organizing your time of using technology. For example, if I am social sites most of the time then, I should reduce the use of social sites as it has a slow and severe impact.

Hence, there are many details but these details are most valuable.

There are some interesting facts about technology.

1. Do you Google rent goats? Yes, you read correct Google rents the goat to eat the grass at their Mountain View Headquarters.

2. Can you tell me the age of the Internet? You must be thinking how can the internet have age as the Internet is not a human being, so how can it have aged! Let me tell you that the Internet does have age, It is now 11410years old.

3. Do you know there is a day for computer security? November 30 is known as “Computer Security Day.”

4. World’s first 1gb hard drive was introduced by IBM in 1980.

5. Email is older than the World Wide Web.

6. Techno phobia is known as the phobia for technology.

7. Homophobia is the fear of being without mobile.

8. Cyberphobia is the fear of computers.

9. The first computer mouse was invented by Doug Engelbart in 1963 and it was made from wood.

10. The first television broadcast took place in 1925.

So, these are some facts of technology.

In the last, I want to say that it depends on us do we need to depend on technology or not. On the one hand, if it can save a life it can also take life. Thank you for reading my article I hope to find it useful and enjoyed it.

Please let me know in the comment what you think about technology. Thank you and have a nice day.

Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) Collaboration in OIC Countries


Ang Kean Hua1

1. Department of Science and Technology Studies, Faculty of Science,

University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.


There is a grave need nowadays to increase institutional and international STI collaboration. Countries are now seeking opportunities to work together not only to cut down the cost but most importantly to learn from each other. This paper attempts to analyses current stance of STI collaboration among OIC member states. First section will present a brief introduction, followed by the importance of STI collaboration in the second section. The roles of several influential actors in shaping the direction of STI cooperation in the Islamic world will be discussed in section 3. The next section talked about recurring issues that hinder the progress of STI co-operation and broad recommendations to reinvigorate scientific and technological collaboration among OIC will be proposed in the fifth section.

Keywords: Science, Technology, Innovation, Collaboration, OIC

1. Introduction

Science, technology, and innovation (STI) collaboration is in fact not an uncommon or a new activity within scientific world. During the epoch of Golden Islamic Civilization, scholars and scientists travelled to and fro various countries and institutions to exchange views, study under well-learned teachers, and to make joint observations or researches. The European Renaissance was accompanied by similar trend where international collaborations were frequently established through numerous scientific communities or projects. During those periods, STI collaboration is regarded as highly significant in advancing science and technology understanding.

With the establishment of the Organization of the Islamic Cooperation (OIC), interest in joint STI activities in the Islamic world is rekindled in accordance to the organisation’s aim to promote collectiveness and cohesion among Ummah. However, OIC is not alone in recognising the importance of global engagement in STI. For instance, in 2000, a review of Canada’s role in international science and technology was published and among its recommendations include the establishment of a special fund for international cooperative research (PMSEIC, 2006). The same strategy was echoed as well by United Kingdom who is aspired to become the ‘partner of choice’ for scientific collaboration in the future (GSIF, 2006).

1.1 The Need for STI Collaboration

Growing interest in international STI collaboration may be driven by various reasons. For example, STI collaboration is inevitable for Muslim countries if they wish to catch-up within this competitive knowledge-based economy. Gaining comparative advantage against other countries relies on how well researchers perform STI activities both individually and collaboratively. In addition, collective effort in the area of STI is imperative among OIC countries either to solve their inherent problems or to achieve common goals. Poverty, diseases, and other social wellbeing issues within OIC cannot be accomplished merely by a single country’s effort. The need for STI collaboration among OIC states is also very much driven by the deficiency of resources. Hiring sufficient qualified STI personnel or financing scientific projects may be beyond the capacity of a least developed country and thus cooperation from other OIC countries or organizations especially those with capital and human resources are required.

1.2 Existing STI Organizations and Collaborative Efforts in OIC

Royal Society in their 2010 report entitled ‘A new golden age? The Prospects for Science and Innovation in the Islamic World’ asserted that greater international outreach and collaboration is essential in order for the OIC members to enjoy the advancement of STI. For this purpose, various efforts have been conceived both at institutional and individual levels and some of the major progressions are discussed in the following.


OIC through Standing Committee on Science and Technological Cooperation (COMSTECH) has acted as the umbrella body in promoting intra-OIC STI cooperation. COMSTECH is established during the Third Summit Islamic of OIC held in Saudi Arabia in January 1981 with the aim to strengthen the individual and collective capacity of OIC member states in science and technology through mutual cooperation, collaboration, and networking of resources (COMSTECH, 2012). Table 1 highlighted some of the programmers that have been implemented by COMSTECH to fulfill its main objective.

Table 1: Programmed under COMSTECH



Inter Islamic Network (IIN)

IINs act as the focal institutions that aim to bring together scientists from all OIC countries to work on selected STI niche. To date, there are 13 IINs across OIC – 9 of them are active in status while the remaining 4 are currently suspended by the Executive Committee.

Visiting Scientists Program

Launched in 1998 to provide financial assistance to researchers desirous of visiting Centres of Excellence in OIC member states to conduct joint research or to deliver lectures in the selected fields of STI.

COMSTECH-TWAS Program for Young Scientists

COMSTECH and the Academy of Sciences for the Developing World (TWAS) is established in response to the needs of promising young researchers in OIC countries, particularly those attached to institutions that are lacking appropriate research facilities.


COMSTECH collaborates with the International Foundation for Science (IFS) to support research project of importance to meeting the development needs of the OIC member states.


COMSTECH is also responsible in governing another OIC organisation named Science, Technology and Innovation Organization (STIO). STIO, following its approval during the 34th Islamic Conference of Foreign Ministers in May 2007, is envisaged to be the implementation organ of the COMSTECH with Iran, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, and Syria are considered as the founding members. After six years of establishment, 20 OIC countries have declared their membership to STIO (Osama, 2013). STIO is mandated, among others, to promote regional and international cooperation, coordination, and to encourage activities in the fields of STI between member states, with the view to elevate the level of STI and human capital in the OIC (COMSTECH, n.d).


Islamic Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (ISESCO) was formally established in 3rd May 1982 after its approval during the Third Islamic Summit Conference held in Makkah Al-Mukarramah on 25-28 January 1981. To enhance collaboration in STI, ISESCO and its subsidiary organs particularly ISESCO Centre for Promotion of Scientific Research (ICPSR) has implemented various programmes – all of which aimed to coordinate individual scientists, research institutions, and centres of excellence in the member states so that they can establish effective scientific liaison among them. ‘Resource Sharing’, ‘Capacity Building (Scientist Training)’, and ‘Reducing Brain Drain’ are amongst the top priorities of ISESCO and ICPSR (ISESCO, n.d.).

In addition, the importance of collaboration is also addressed in ISESCO’s Three-Year Action Plan and Budget for the Years 2013-2015. In the plan, ISESCO is aspired to espouse a new perspective where the Islamic countries cooperation and its executive mechanisms will be translated into integrated programmes and projects that address fundamental issues and propose radical and effective solutions (ISESCO, n.d.).


The trend is reinforced with the establishment of the International Science, Technology, and Innovation Centre for South-South Cooperation (ISTIC) in 2008. The creation of ISTIC under the aegis of UNESCO is a follow up of the Doha Plan of Action which has been adopted by the Head of States and Government of the Group of 77 and China, during the meeting in Doha, Qatar in June 2005 on the occasion of the Second South Summit of the Group of 77 (ISTIC, 2010). With the aims to be an international platform for countries of the G77 and the OIC to collaborate in STI, ISTIC focuses on STI policy for development, capacity building, and collaborative initiatives that leverage existing networks (Day and Amran, 2011).

University-University or University-Research Institutions Nexus

Efforts to bolster STI co-operations are not solely restricted to international governing bodies nowadays. Bilateral agreement between higher educations and public research institutions across OIC countries often served as a mechanism for promoting co-operation in STI as well. In recent development for instance, Malaysia and Mozambique agreed in August 2012 to promote cooperation in joint research, development, and design projects that will include exchange of research findings, scientists and specialists, conferences, courses, and exhibitions (MOSTI, 2012). MOSTI further affirmed that under the agreement, a joint committee on STI cooperation will be established to determine priority areas, plan, coordinate, and monitor their collaboration in STI, and consider proposals for further cooperation. It is also reported that among the projects Mozambique is strongly interested in the establishment of an Industrial Scientific Research Council and a Lim Kok Wing University in Mozambique.

Collaboration in International Scientific Publications

Co-authorship of scientific publications has always been used as one of the most common indicators to evaluate the pattern of global STI collaboration. Plume (2011) in his article, for example, dealt with the issue of collaborative pattern among OIC countries based on their jointly authored scientific papers from 2004 to 2008 and eventually a collaboration map amongst OIC members is developed as part of his findings. Relationship between two countries is represented by their proximity with each other and the lines that connecting them (see figure 1). Countries that enjoy collaborative efforts are grouped together while those that do not are placed further apart. Meanwhile, the lines that run clockwise out of a country reflect the total output that is produced in partnership with the targeted countries – the thicker the lines, the stronger their collaborative ties and vice versa. For example, Malaysia shared a strong collaborative effort with Indonesia as indicated by their proximity on the map. However, the thick line running clockwise from Indonesia to Malaysia denotes that the nexus is stronger for Indonesia than for Malaysia (note that the line running clockwise from Malaysia to Indonesia is thinner).

Figure 1: Collaboration Map between selected OIC Countries from 2004-2008


Source: Plume (2001)

In addition, Plume (2011) also highlighting one critical point in his article that is scientific collaboration is frequently driven by the efforts and personalities of individual researchers, and not by governmental or international scientific organizations. This deduction was drawn upon the case of Pakistan and Cameroon where 34 out of 45 jointly authored papers among the two nations were written by Professor Muhammad Iqbal Choudhary from the University of Karachi and other co-authors from the University of Yaounde I.

2. Recurring Issues in the Islamic World

Despite many concerted efforts to encourage it, there is a unanimous acknowledgement that STI coordination is functioning rather poorly among OIC members (Hashmi, 1983; Mehmet and Moneef, 2006; Osama, 2010). STI collaboration is not a constant endeavour and this has widened the scientific and technological gap, not only between the developed countries, but also among Muslim countries themselves. As a result, there are only nine out of 57 OIC members that can be categorised as Scientifically Developing Countries (SDCs), followed by 14 Scientifically Aspiring Countries (SACs) and 34 Scientifically Lagging Countries (SLCs) which include 20 OIC’s least developed countries (Naim, 2010).

Figure 2: Percentage Collaboration with OIC and Non-OIC


Source: Naim and Atta-Ur-Rahman (2009)

Lack of collaboration among researchers in OIC countries is also highlighted in a study by Naim and Atta-ur-Rahman (2009). They pointed out two visible trends of research collaboration; scientist in OIC countries on average publish 80-90 per cent of all papers in collaboration with scientists in developed countries while only about 10-20 per cent of research papers are published in collaboration with scientists in other OIC countries. For example, in South East region, a total of 17,921 research papers were collectively contributed by the three OIC countries, Malaysia, Brunei Darussalam, and Indonesia during 1998 – 2007 where Malaysia leads with 70 per cent of the total number followed by Indonesia (28 per cent) and an insignificant contribution by Brunei Darussalam (Naim and Atta-ur-Rahman, 2009). The pattern of research collaboration in the region is similar to that observed in other regions with majority of the inter-institutional collaborative papers were published with scientists in developed countries. Only 1.3 to 5.4 per cent of the total papers were published in collaboration with scientists in OIC countries.

There are numbers of reasons associated with the meagre level of cooperation and coordination among the Islamic countries in the area of STI. Some of them, as argued by Osama (2010), are caused by insufficient research fund and lack of political power. Some of the issues impinging the development of STI collaboration in OIC countries are discussed further in this section.

Among the most acute impediment that is faced by OIC countries is the scarcity of qualified STI personnel. Figure 3 indicates that OIC member countries, on average, fall well behind the world average in terms of researchers per million people; 457 vs. 1,549, respectively (SESRIC, 2012). The gap is much larger when compared to the European Union that has an average of 4,651 researchers per million. Large disparity among OIC member states is also observed – Tunisia has 3,240 researchers per million inhabitants while Niger has merely 10 (SESRIC, 2012). Insufficient numbers of STI personnel in OIC countries affect science and technological activities such as research and this condition will eventually limit the prospect of STI collaborations in OIC.

Figure 3: Researcher per Million People


Source: SESRIC (2012)

The lack of capacity to train adequate STI workforces is further worsened with the continuous outflow of skills to other nations. Countries such as Malaysia have been struggling over the past few years to retain and to attract back their talents. The World Bank (2011) estimated about one million Malaysians diaspora are currently working and/or residing in all over the world. The numbers of émigrés’ is reported to have quadrupled over the last three decades and Singapore alone absorbs 57 percent of the entire diaspora, with most of the remainder residing in Australia, Brunei, United Kingdom and United States (World Bank, 2011). Some of the factors which influence their decisions to migrate include better economic prospects, greater opportunities for learning and research (better research infrastructures, research grants, research students etc.), and a progressive cultural environment for innovation, business start-up, and self-employment in the country of destination (OECD, 2002; Millard, 2005, quoted by Naim, 2010).

Another major hurdle facing OIC scientific smart-partnership is the availability of funding as mentioned earlier in this section. Financial support for scientific activities is relatively limited if not completely lacking in some South-South countries (Osama, 2008) including those in OIC and this impedes the feasibility of any collaborations. Current report pertaining to global R&D expenditures shows that the OIC countries account for only 2.1% of the world total Gross Expenditures on R&D (GERD) (see Figure 4). Without ample funds, multi- or trans-national collaboration in STI is hardly viable especially for the least developed economies.

Figure 4: GERD percentage of the World


Source: SESRIC (2012)

Lack of political power and commitment among OIC member states present another counter-productive attitude which will subsequently compromise any cooperative endeavours. During its chairmanship of the OIC between 2003 and 2007, Malaysia has proposed Vision 1441H, a strategic policy recommendations to revitalise Islamic countries. Among designated action plan to meet its vision is by fostering S&T collaboration among OIC nations. Every members is inspired not only to pursuit research partnership in the emerging technologies such as nanotechnology but also to share their own expertise – for example, petroleum engineering for Malaysia or water desalination for Middle East countries – through joint projects among interested parties (Vision 1441H, 2003). However, the plan is transpired to be in vain and Malaysia has expressed disappointment about the lack of commitment among OIC states (Day and Amran, 2011).

Finally, COMSTECH and STIO are also seen by the experts as being merely rhetoric in addressing the issues of STI development in Islamic countries. Professor Atta-ur-Rahman, COMSTECH’s former Coordinator-General, deemed COMSTECH to be a failure in boosting cooperation among OIC members (Sawahel, 2013). He asserted that resolutions agreed by members are not followed up by any real action. Other central figures also blame both COMSTECH and STIO for the status quo in OIC’s STI collaboration. Dr. Mohammed Ali Mahesar, incumbent Assistant Coordinator-General of COMSTECH proclaimed that the present problematic situation in OIC’s science and technological progress deserves urgent action and not hollow slogans by both parties (Sawahel, 2013).

3. The Way Forward

Ensuring OIC’s STI collaboration prospers is one of the most profound organisational and political challenges facing the scientific community in OIC. Below are some broad recommendations that are highly relevant to OIC’s condition.

1. Creating the political will and financial support for STI collaboration is a high priority. Political force is a powerful tool to determine a country’s strategic policies and action plans.

2. Joint ventures among universities, research institutes, or companies within OIC member countries in research intensive sectors should be encouraged towards more effective and cost efficient R&D investments. OIC countries may also take advantage of R&D spill-overs by rapidly learning about new technologies developed in other countries and improving them, or by importing technological goods and services from their trade partners.

3. It is imperative to learn from other’s success. In this connection, intra-OIC networking opportunities could be facilitated through projects, similar to the Framework Programmes of the European Union, to support research and technological development in the Islamic world and to promote joint research initiatives among the member countries (SESRIC, 2012). One of the main objectives of the Framework Programme is to make Europe the leading world forum for science and technology by supporting co-operation between industries, research centres, and public authorities both across the EU and with the rest of the world (Europa, 2010).

4. Encouraging and facilitating scientists’ mobility across regions is crucial in the process of internationalisation of scientific community. By engaging one another, OIC’s scholars and scientists will be able to benchmark themselves by learning best practices and consequently improve the quality of STI personnel.

4. Conclusion

In developing and harnessing STI collaborations, it is vital for the Islamic world to adapt to new situations in a rapidly changing world and to react positively in response to the advancement of STI. Problems within OIC’s collaboration must be handled wisely to prevent negative interferences. Development plans, programmes and policies in the OIC member countries should also be geared to improve the effectiveness of existing collaborative programmes. At the same time, OIC should start building new smart-partnership and networks both intra-OIC and outside OIC blocks. On the whole, collaboration between countries in the Islamic world is important if OIC is to benefit from STI. The needs and strengths of STI key actors i.e. governments, academia, industries, and societies should be integrated and taken into considerations in order to optimise the outcome of any collaborative efforts.


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E-Marketing and Insurance Service


Associate Professor of Commerce,

Muthayammal College of  Arts& Science, Rasipuram.



         The impact of information technology is visible in modern marketing, Selling the products and services through  Electronic medium is termed as E-marketing. E-marketing  requires lower amount of investment.It helps not only to the marketers but it helps in many ways for the customers.  The financial services sector  using E-marketing technology for marketing the services and giving better customer satisfaction.


E-marketing,  Insurance, customer satisfaction, technology