Tag Archives: Research-Paper

How to Choose a Great Admission Essay Topic

This article includes the best pieces of advice on how to choose a good topic for your admission essay. You will learn the basic rules of writing such types of essays as well.

How-To-Write-A-College-Admission--Essay

How to Choose a Great Admission Essay Topic

Writing an essay, especially an admission one, may seem a hard task for those who have never done this before. You may hesitate a lot before you start your writing due to your lack of knowledge of what to include in your essay. So, picking up the topic of your essay is the first and probably the most difficult thing to do. Today we will convince you that your essay’s topic has great influence on the content of your admission essay and therefore it should be chosen responsibly.

Whether you are entering a college or a university, you will certainly have to teach yourself writing an admission essay as it is the half of a road to successful admission. Should admission essays include special terminology or some metaphors? Should you fully introduce your personality in the text? Or should it be just your thoughts on some topic? It is difficult to decide, but we will help you with that.

The most important pieces of advice to pick up a topic:

  • First and foremost, do not panic. Let your consciousness believe you know what to write about. The best way to write a good admission essay is to start doing it at least a week before the deadline. You should have enough time to clear your thoughts.
  • Do a brainstorm and write all your ideas on paper, even those which seem inconvenient or stupid to you.
  • Think about the case that proves your authenticity and shows your good traits. Every human being is unique, so coming up with such a case should be easy.
  • Ask yourself “So what?”. Understanding the use of the story you are writing about is necessary.
  • Include the things you are proud of. Usually, talking about the things that praise your personality is one of the easiest tasks. But do not exaggerate, it will be obvious if you are too arrogant.

The Main Requirement for an Admission Essay

The requirements vary from college to college, from university to university. But some things remain the same for all the essays. For an admission essay, it is normal to write approximately 500 words. The subject should be personal and demonstrate your skills or life circumstances. Therefore, try to describe them well to become a more desirable candidate.

You should not write an art composition because the style of an admission essay is very formal. But your creativity should not be limited as it is a precious thing the admission board will appreciate. Remember that not every person is able to tell a great story in 500 words. It is your chance to prove your pithiness in writing. Start with a detailed text and exclude some unnecessary things step by step.

Standing out is crucial

 Have you ever played any musical instrument? Or perhaps you did some sport (or do it now). Well, it is great, but almost everybody did the same. A part-time job is common among kids as well. Do not tell such trivial things as it may not be interesting to the readers. Make them remember your personality by telling some of your special characteristics. Do not forget to engage the reader with a hook the same way you do it in simple essays. But starting with a question will not be the best way for an admission essay.

You may also describe your interests and passions going back to your childhood. This way the admission officers tend to trust you more and they see what kind of a person you are now, under which circumstances you have formed yourself as a person. Maybe, there is something from the childhood influencing you these days? Feel free to describe that.

And do not try to seem an absolutely ideal person, there is no such person on the Earth. And the admission essay is not about that. It has more to do with reflecting on your life and your experiences. It is the best way to conclude who you are now and what your plans are for developing yourself in the future.

Stand Up and Do It

Now, the hardest part of the job is finished as the topic of your essay is chosen. Do your best and write a breathtaking story so that the admission officers will not hesitate to accept you. Good luck with your admission essay! And remember that everyone has some fascinating stories to tell.

Advertisements

BANK FRAUD – TYPES AND PREVENTION

CHANCHAL SHARMA

M.COM, NET (COMMERCE)

SAPNA YADAV

ASSISTANT PROFESSOR

MONIKA RANI

ASSISTANT PROFESSOR IN COMMERCE

INTRODUCTION : – Banks are considered as necessary equipment for the Indian economy. This particular sector has been tremendously growing in the recent years after the nationalisation of banks in 1969 and the loberalisation of economy in 1991. Due to the nature of their daily activities of dealing with money, even after having such a supervised and well regulated system it is very tempting for those who are either associated the system or outside to find faults in the system and to make personal gains by fraud.These frauds, unlike ordinary crimes, the amount misappropriated in these crimes runs into lakhs and crores of rupees. Bank fraud is a federal crime in many countries, defined as planning to obtain property or money from any federally insured financial institution . It is something considered a white collar crime.BANK FRAUDS PHISHING

To understand the concept of Bank Fraud, we need to understand the concept of fraud and the various types of frauds and the ways to detect the same and the prevention of the same.

WHAT IS FRAUD : – Generally, A dishonest act or behaviour through which one person gains or tries to gain advantage over another which results in the loss victim, directly or indirectly is called fraud.

Under the IPC, fraud has not been defined directly under any particular section, but it provides for punishments for various acts which leads to commission of fraud. However the section is dealing with cheating, forgery, counterfeiting,misappropriation and breach of trust cover the same adequatly.

as outcome of fraud exceeds the losses due any other crime put together. With the rising bank business, cheating in the bank additionally expanding and the fraudsters are turning out to be increasingly complex and shrewd.

The four most important elements for constituting fraud are : – the active involvement of the staff, failure to follow the instructions and guidelinesof the bank by the staff, collusion between businessman,executives and politicians to bend the rules and regulations and any external factors.

LEGAL REGIME TO CONTROL BANK FRAUDS : –

  • The Indian penal code,1860
  • Criminal procedure code,1973
  • The Negotiable Instruments Act,1881
  • The Reserve Bank of India Act,1934
  • SARFAESI Act,2002
  • The Banking Regulation Act,1949

IMPACT OF FRAUD IN INDIA : – Many recent fraud incidents reported are related to fix deposites,loan disbursments, and credit and debit card frauds and ATM based frauds.All these frauds show that not only they undermine the profits, reliability of services and operating efficiencies but also have an impact on the society and the oragnisation itself.

This rise in the NPA is a serious threat to the Indian Banking industry as the sturdiness of a countrys banking and financial sectors deetermines the qualities of the product and services. it is also a direct indication of the living standards and well being of people.

Frauds has also hampered the growth of this establishment/industry. it is a huge killer for the business sector and underlying factor to all human endeavours. it is also increase the corruption level of the country.

CLASSIFICATION OF FRAUD AND PERVENTION:

To maintain uniformity in fraud reporting, frauds have been classified on the basis of types and provisions of the Indian Penal Code, and the and the reporting guildelines for the same has been prescribed by RBI The Reserve Bank of India classifies Bank frauds in the following catgories: –

  1. Misappropriation and criminal breach of trust.
  2. Negligence and cash shortages.
  3. cheating and forgery.
  4. Any other types of fraud not coming under the specific heads as above.
  5. Irregularities in foreign exchange transations.

MECHANICS OF BANK FRAUDS

DEPOSIT ACCOUNT FRAUDS:

The following types of frauds are generally commited;

  1. value inflation of cheques deposited
  2. changing the nature of the cheques(crossed to bearer)
  3. operating a dormant account fraudulently

Prevention Measures:

  1. carefully and systematic examination procedures of cheques and other trasactions.
  2. seperation of book keeping and cash handling operations.

PURCHADED BILL FRAUDS:

These are generally expensive and can take the following forms: –

  1. Discount on stolen or fake Railways Recipts and motor recipts along with other necessary bills.
  2. fake/forged bills for valueless goods are discounted.

Prevention Measures:

  1. Strict examination before discounting the bills.
  2. Establishing a better connection between the purchaser and the seller in the caes of dispatch of proceeds.
  3. Examining the recipts properly and strictly by conferming from the connected authorities.

HYPOTHICATION FRAUDS:

Cash advances,against pledged goods as securities are fertile field for frauds.

  1. Inflation of stock statements.
  2. Some of the stocked goods in the large quantity may have been less value.
  3. hypothicating some goods in the favour of different banks.

Prevention Measure:

  1. Only marketable goods to be acceptd as security
  2. Strict examination of the banks representatives and borrowers credential
  3. proper evaluation of stocks
  4. Verification of statements of stocks.

LOAN FRAUDS:

The following types of fraud are generally commited: –

  1. Two diferent person taking loans on the same item or product
  2. Borrowing is denied when the particular person is alleged of non payment
  3. Loan taken from one purpose but used for a different purpose i.e loan taken for agriculture but used for personal purposes.

Prevention Measures:

  1. Proper verification of documents and the purpose for taking the loan
  2. Incase of a substantial amount of loan taken, it should be checked by the competent authority

COMPUTER RELATED FRAUDS:

To provide efficient and fast service, most of the branches of the bank except the ones in the rural and remote areas have been computerized.

Not many frauds related to computers have yet been reported so far as computerization in the Indian banks is of recent origin. There is a need to anaysisthe nature of such crimes so that appropriate preventive measures may be devised.

CHEQUE FRAUDS:

This constitutes the biggest volume of bank frauds. This crime is done in the following forms:

  1. Cheques are stolen, filled and signed spuriosly and encashed.
  2. The signed cheques are stloen and are encashed with alterations, if needed
  3. Cheques issued by organistions for employees are duplicated.

Prevention Measures:

  1. The instruments must contain a proper date
  2. Checking cheque kitting
  3. The amount should be checked that it should be written in both numerical and words.

DISHONOUR OF CHEQUES:

Dishonour of cheque or cheque bounces are very serious problems and it is becoming even bigger. To cope with this issue which was affecting the smooth business tracsactions, the Government of India has introduced the Negotiable Instruments Act,1881 which provides for provisions to deal with cases of cheque bounce under section 138 to 142.

The Superme court of India in a landmark judgement has also provided with new guidelines to deal with cheque bounce cases.

CONCLUSION:

These frauds are a creation of the experienced criminals, frantic customers or someone associated with the banking system or a bunco bankster or their collusion. Most of time with a strict vigilance and examination of various documents, their work can easily be detected.

These frauds are now becoming more and more frequent and can be considered as one of the main reasons for damaging the economy of the country and with such high profile frauds happening all over the country, it has become necessary to put a check to these activites and if possible to create a more stringent legislation to deal with these issues.

“Sticking to the rules and eternal vigilance is the basic prevention measure.”

Tips on making a Successful Career switch

A lot of millennials are known for hopping jobs in their quest for job fulfilment. Their idea of a dream job frequently changes and they aren’t really shying away from taking that important decision of switching their career. If you too are sailing the same boat, then there are a few things you can keep in mind to successfully switch your career:change your career

Prepare yourself mentally: Career change is also like any other important life change where a career move should start with a self reflection. Ask yourself what is the first thing that you want from your job, what can’t you negotiate on, and which factors you can compromise upon? Ask yourself if it is ok to take advice from your mentor or peers. You are likely to get a positive response from this in-depth analysis and be ready to face the truth.

Assess your dream career/job: In order to avoid any disappointments in the future, talk to those who work in your favourite job. Follow them on social media, try to interact with them and ask them their opinion about your choice. Since they are already working in that field, they will be able to give you a real picture of what the new job holds for you. This can also help you with your job hunting process.

Assess your skills: If you are going for a career change, make sure you carry some transferable skills with you. You don’t necessary have to go back to skill to learn skills to make that career switch. Transferable skills such as project management, communication, collaboration, etc. are something that you can carry and use in your next job as well.

Give it a try: Before you take that final call, give it a try and assess yourself properly. You could take a few weeks off and work in your new job as an intern just to get the hang of things. This will help you understand the positives and the pitfalls of the new career and you will not be thrown away by any surprises later on.

Making a successful career switch is all about taking that final call and staying committed to it. There are plenty of jobs in Pune for you to target if you are in the nearby area. Explore everything you can before making that final call.

 

A Tale of Rebellion: Purple Hibiscus by Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie

Dr. Sonika Sethi

Assistant Professor of English

S D College, Ambala Cantt

Haryana-134001

sonrok@yahoo.com

#94169-54546

 

Book Review

 

BOOK DETAILS:

Title: Purple Hibiscus

Author: Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie

Publisher: Harper Perennial

Year: 2003

Place: UK

Pages: 307

Price: 8.99£

ISBN: 978-0-00-727235-8

Genre: Fiction

 

The unprecedented maturity in handling the theme of Tradition versus Modernity in her debut novel makes Adichie a novelist par excellence. Purple Hibiscus not only depicts the strife between modernity and tradition but also dares to take up the conflict that clogged the minds of thousands of Nigerians in the times of newly acquired Independence. Transition is never an easy process and Adichie has aptly demonstrated the fact through her characters belonging to three generations. The story in a way reminds the reader of Achebe’s Things Fall Apart which is an excruciating tale of the members of a society who once stood together like a rock to preserve their culture but fall apart under the influence of powerful external force that targets the younger generation. The struggle between old beliefs and new religion is apparent in Purple Hibiscus. The characters of Papa Nnukwu, Papa Eugene, Jaja, Father Amadi and their views collectively highlight the mental anguish of the people of Nigeria standing at the crossroads of cultural, political, economic, social and religious anarchy. The newly independent country might have attained freedom from its colonial masters however, the newly appointed self-styled rulers are either inexperienced or incapable to handle the transition of the country. They are corrupt, power-hungry with dictatorial tendencies. Nepotism and corruption in public affairs rule the roost. Papa Nnukwu stays rooted in his religion and traditions and refuses to surrender to the new religion, Christianity whereas his son Papa Eugene with his half-baked ideas and total devotedness to his English education and the new Faith has not only adopted Christianity but also implements violent measures with his wife and children to ensure that they stay true to the path of the new religion and forget the old ways and culture of the ancestors. On the other hand there are characters like Aunty Ifeoma, Jaja, Father Amadi who believe in the middle path and a slow transition from the old to the new. They are not ashamed to follow the ancestral ways while simultaneously embracing the new religion, education and culture.

The beauty of the entire delineation lies in the element that this unending strife has been presented to the reader through the innocent, unassuming, unprejudiced and young eyes of a fifteen year old girl Kambili whose feelings are torn between pleasing her dominating father and pursuing her own dreams and desires. She longs for an appreciative glance or a word of acknowledgement from her domineering father who wants his children to be firm adherents of the new Faith and the epitome of excellence in all their pursuits. A small, unintentional and involuntary action like staying for a while longer than the sanctioned time with their grandfather does not go without punishment or physical torture in one way or another. Yet Kambili loves her father and longs for his appreciation. Her affection towards Father Amadi, a native Christian priest awakens the sleeping serpent of her carnal desires but she is helpless at the hands of destiny which tears the two apart. Overall, Purple Hibiscus is an extraordinary novel with lively descriptions of the lifestyle, food, ceremonies and festivals of the Igbo and exposes the reader to an endearing and simplistic world of the Nigerian tribes. The beauty of Adichie’s fiction and narrative resound in the homogenous amalgamation of the Nigerian state trying to cope up with the cultural chiasm that divides the Modern and the Traditional. The use of purple hibiscus, a rare and hybrid variety of the flower, as a metaphor, clearly sends across the message as they represent the people of Nigeria who have been converted into hybrids in their own land. They are worried about losing their traditional values and hence the need to preserve the flower yet the writer is hopeful that it will endure the test of time and will be able to establish its roots once the environment becomes congenial. The novel is about troubled times but it ends on an optimistic note with the purple hibiscus blooming in the garden, having adapted itself to the new and changed circumstances.

 

Call for Papers February 2018

International Journal of Research (IJR)


Since 2012, The International Journal of Research (IJR) is one of the leading Online Only international journal for presenting novel and fundamental advances in the fields of Computing, Engineering, Information Technology and Sciences. International Journal of Research (IJR) is approved by National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR). International Journal of Research (IJR) is a Monthly, Open Access, Peer Reviewed and Fully Refereed international journal with minimal processing charge. We broadly cover research work on next generation cutting edge technologies and effective marketing strategies. Writing a research paper is a skill and call for papersInternational Journal of Research (IJR) have the team of Scientists and Academicians who are dedicated to help, learn and improve that skill by providing a guidance for writing high quality research papers. In depth evaluation of each research paper is a prime focus of every member of International Journal of Research (IJR) Reviewer Panel ensuring the novelty in each research manuscript being published.

Call for Papers


International Journal of Research (IJR) calls Scholars, Engineers, Academicians, Scientists, Industrial professionals and Researchers from all over the world to submit their unpublished original work for inclusion in our upcoming issue. All submissions will be reviewed and evaluated based on originality, technical research, and relevance to journal contributions. International Journal of Research (IJR) highly welcomes theoretical, technical, research, as well as empirical papers from all areas of research in the area of technology innovation and emerging trends. All the accepted articles will be published in the upcoming issue of the journal with Online ISSN number and latest Impact Factor received by SJIF, Morocco and ResearchGate

Submission Deadlines


Volume / Issue / Month Volume 5 Issue 4, February 2018
Initial Submission Window Starts now and ends by 25th of Month.
Submit Online editor@edupediapublications.com
Submit Offline edupediapublications@gmail.com
Contact No. +91-9557022047

Frequency: 12 Issues Per Year

Areas Covered: Multidisciplinary

Type of Articles: Research Paper, Survey Paper, Informative Article, Case Studies, Review Papers, Comparative Studies, Dissertation Chapters, Research Proposals or Synopsis, M.Tech / M.E / PhD Thesis

Accepted Language: English

Ubud, The Ultimate Tourist Destination

Ubud is undoubtedly the cultural capital of Indonesia. Many tourists come to this place to see the traditional dance and drama of Balinese culture. It is also home to the Balinese royal family and has various museums that display the rich culture and heritage of the region. Let us see some of the top attractions of this place.

Ubud, The Ultimate Tourist Destination

Agung Jagatnatha Temple of Ubud

The temple is dedicated to Sanghyang Widi Wasa and happens to be the biggest temple of the region. The Temple Management organizes two festivals every month based on the lunar cycle. You can visit the place during full moon day and get to enjoy special ceremony. In the same way, you can also consider visiting the temple on the new moon day and take part in the traditional rituals. The unique part of the temple is the Shrine that is designed in the form of a Lotus Throne. This is also commonly known as Padmasana according to local culture. It consists of Empty Throne made of white coral material. It has amazing stone carvings and other inscriptions that describe various stories of Hindu gods.

Mountain villages of Bali

The amazing hamlets host different communities that have their own culture and dialect. They are also known locally as Bali Aga Villages. The region is famous for music and arts of the primitive culture. If you want to visit this place, make sure that you follow the instructions of the local people completely. Outsiders are not allowed to stay in the place after evening hours as the local people strictly follow the traditions even to this day. The best time to visit this place is during the months of June and July when the three day festival of Udaba Sambah is held in Tenganan village. The unique cultural aspect of this village is that it prohibits polygamy and divorce.

Health Resorts

Bali is one of the premier locations for health and wellness holidays and is home to some of the best retreats in the world. Bali Weight Loss deserves a special mention as it has received world renowned recognition and is said to have even beeb attended by Michelle Obama.

Bird Park of Bali

The amazing Bird Sanctuary is home to more than 250 species of birds from Indonesia and other regions of the world. It is also rich in flora and has more than 2000 topical plants. Bird lovers come to this place to catch a glimpse of various birds including Barred Eagle Owl, Wreathed Hornbill, Jawa Hawk and the Bali Starling. The unique aspect of this Sanctuary is that the birds are comfortable with tourists walking around the place and you can enjoy your time during the vacation. The best time to visit this place is during the early morning hours when the birds are most active.

Elephant Park of Bali

This is the best place to visit in Bali if you love adventure sports. You can indulge in white water rafting and trek and cycle through the amazing jungles of Bali. You can also enjoy the amazing ride on the Sumatran elephants to get the complete view of the surrounding villages. Tourists often come to this place to enjoy the beautiful view of paddy fields along the Melangit River. In the background, you can also get to have a glimpse of the Blue Sea at the Nusa Penida Island.

Kite Festival of Bali

July is the best place to visit the Padang Galak Beach of Sanur to watch the annual Kite Festival of Bali. You will be surprised to see many international teams coming to this place to compete with local teams. Participants from as many as 11 different countries take part in the event to compete in different categories. Points are given for the successful launch of the kite and the duration of flight. Along with that, the grace with which the kite is handled is also considered while announcing the winners.

Stone sculptures of Batubulan market

This is the best place to visit to get amazing stone sculptures of the region. You can get any variety ranging from contemporary to traditional in different sizes at this place. The unique feature of this market is that the craftsman can custom design the sculptures according to your choice. You will have complete flexibility with regards to choosing the size and material of the sculpture. However, the region is traditionally famous for soft volcanic rock sculptures. Earlier, they were used as ornaments for various temples and even the palaces of the region had many decorative items made of this material.

Badung Market of Bali

This is the largest Market of Bali and is open throughout the day. You can get to buy the best articles that signify the arts and crafts of this region. It has 4 levels with each one dedicated to selling different varieties of products. You can get to buy fresh produce on the ground floor and the upper levels are dedicated to different textiles and handicrafts. You can also catch a glimpse of the Badung River that is situated next to the market. Make sure that you bargain to get the best deals in this place.

These are some of the top attractions of the region. You can get in touch with the leading travel agencies of the region to get suitable transport and accommodation facility during your vacation. The local people of the region are very friendly and you need not worry about anything during your holidays. However, it is a good idea to maintain appropriate dressing sense considering the traditional mindset of the local people.

SCHOOL CLIMATE—THE POSSIBLE REASON FOR EDUCATIONAL STRESS OF AIDED SCHOOL STUDENTS OF KERALA

JENY RAPHEAL

school climate

             The National School Climate Center (NSCC) (1996) defines school climate as the quality and character of school life. School climate constitutes patterns of students’, parents ‘and school personnel’s experience of school life and reflects norms, goals, values, interpersonal relationships, teaching and learning practices, and organizational structures. Schools differ in their climate and this climate has definite role in determining the well-being and happiness of students. When we notice considerable difference in the educational stress levels of students studying in government, aided and public schools there is enough reason to trace for its causes in the school climate of those schools.

     A survey was made in two Aided, two Government and two Private schools of Thrissur district in Kerala state. 261 higher secondary school students participated in the survey.

Aided Aleemul islam higher Secondary school, 43
Chaldean Syrian Higher secondary School, 56
Private Nirmalamatha Central School CBSE, 41
Sandeepany Vidhya Niketan ICSE, 21
Government Anchery Govt Higher Secondary School, 48
Government Model Boy’s School, 52

            Contrary to the usual norm prevailing among parents and teachers, private school students exhibited comparatively lower levels of stress than their counterparts in Aided and Government Schools. Aided school students had highest level of stress.

            The survey which conducted during September-October 2017 probed five dimensions of educational stress namely   pressure from study, workload factor, worry about grades, self-expectation and despondency. The standardized tool used for the study was a five point Likert scale developed by a group of educational researchers presided by Jiandong Sun in 2011. Before the survey it was translated into Malayalam and all statistical procedures for asserting validity and reliability were duly performed.

The mean value of stress level was “above average” for the entire sample of students participated in the study. Graphical representation of school wise comparison are given below

NOT

Why this difference?

             School climate or culture will have a serious role in the educational stress of adolescents. Research findings back this perspective. At the same time socio-economic status of parents is another major factor affecting the educational stress of students. For example, there are studies showing academic anxiety is significantly low among students whose parents have higher educational qualification. Also academic stress and examination anxiety of students usually exhibit an inverse relationship with educational and income levels of their parents. Findings of researches going on in many parts of India keep on reiterating this claim.

Socio-economic status of parents is more or less same

             In Kerala, private schools are where students from high socio economic status flock. In search of better avenues for excellence both in life and education the creamy layer of society opt for CBSE or ICSE syllabus for their wards. At the same time, lately, there is a trend for this group to shift into Kerala syllabus thanks to the differences in the criteria with which the grades scored by students following two syllabuses—Kerala and Central— are estimated at the time of admission for various courses for higher studies. Due to this, affluent parents too are willing to send their wards to aided schools provided; these schools maintain a reputation for their pass percentage. For this reason, one may consider that the socio economic back ground of students studying in aided and private schools are more or less same.

            So there is enough reason to assume that increased stress levels noticed in the students of aided educational institutions is not exclusively due to socio-economic status and related individual differences. It might be due to some peculiarities constituting the very culture or clime of those schools.

School climate can be the reason

 

            School climate has the potential to permeate into overall well-being of the students. For a student, school climate enters into his psychological makeup through teacher-student interactions, peer interactions, class room experiences, parent-teacher communications etc. All these interactions will be laden with the ethos for which school stands for. Educational vision/mission of the institution determines the very texture of all experiences students meet within the school. So difference in educational stress can be a difference in the educational attitude schools foster.

            An in-depth enquiry into the matter will uncover the facts. Educational ministry of Kerala which is hell-bent on raising the standard of educational institutions cannot avoid this angle of exploration. Educational stress among students can jeopardize any well crafted educational policy.

            In all the five indicators of educational stress, aided school scored highest which included pressure from study and worry of grades. The competition among schools to secure 100% pass in board exams and teachers pressurizing the students to meet this end is one of the salient features of working culture of teaching professionals of schools of Kerala. So whenever dealing with student educational stress the role of school climate in it must be probed into.

Why Does a Custom Essay Help Service Exist?

enjoying-time-writing-an-essay

The growing number of custom writing services available online is more than overwhelming! Do a little research, and you will surely find an affordable essay writing service with the list of the professional writing options that can be reached twenty-four hours a day. Besides, every expensive or cheap essay writing service is striving to do the best to meet your academic writing requirements. But one of the aspects that worry the college and university students in the US, the UK, Germany, Australia, France, Canada or anywhere else is the price they should pay for the options offered by this or that custom writing company. Students’ eyes are blazed the very moment they face the variety of the writing and editing services on the web with the most diverse prices. And the question that pops up is why the cheap writing sources actually exist? Aren’t they too good to be true?

Cheap Academic Writing Services: What’s the Point?

Students do not trust the companies, where they promise to craft an essay, a dissertation, a thesis, a research or a term paper in business, science, law or any other subject at the smallest possible cost. They truly believe that such cooperation can only guarantee a poor quality assignment, a total waste of money, and completely ruined college reputation. But the reality isn’t necessarily like that. At PaperWritingHelp.net, they provide inexpensive assignments that stand for your academic interests! And we can prove that there is nothing wrong with collaborating with the cheap services like this one!

So, what is the reality behind the cheap essays writing service?

  • Affordable writing companies are there to help needy college and university students. It’s not a secret that a student’s budget leaves a lot to be desired. While college students in the USA or Canada can easily buy an English essay for a great sum of money, a lot of their colleagues from other countries find it hard to purchase papers from the website with expensive offers. PaperWritingHelp.net has reliable and committed writers, who are open to deal with your “I’m searching for a reliable essay helper to assist me when researching my topic and write a great paper” requests and charge reasonable prices.
  • The other good thing about cheap custom writing agencies is that they’re a perfect place for a writer, who is just the beginner in the custom writing industry. A lot of companies on the market tend to recruit writers, who already have many years of professional experience. As for the cheap services, they heartily welcome individuals, who have little or no experience at all. And even though they will charge lesser for their papers writing options, the quality of every other assignment delivered to you will be beyond all praises! In other words, the authors get an opportunity to gain the necessary experience and then move to more expensive companies.
  • Free samples are the other reason why so many cheap custom writing companies are available on the Internet and why they are so popular among the high school, college, and university students. A huge resource of professionally researched projects is at your disposal whenever you need them to see how an A+ research paper, coursework, dissertation, PowerPoint presentation, book report or any other project should be researched, arranged, and edited.

Dedicated Customer Care Center

At PaperWritingHelp.net, they’re proud to state that their online Customer Care department is available at your service round the clock! They have hired only experienced, friendly and well-trained experts who are able to assist you with any of the issues you may come up with. They know that it makes every college and university student come back to them over and over again! Feel free to reach them with your concern twenty-four hours a day, and they will either handle it or find a competent specialist, who can deal with it in the most professional manner. You are heartily welcome to talk to their managers whenever you feel the need for it!

Long-Term Potentiation Research Paper

Introduction

Long-Term Potentiation (LTP) is a process, which is mainly attractive for the contemporary neuroscience. In fact, this branch of science is relatively new, but at the same time, it is essential and profound research in this field is nowadays fundamental since they contribute significantly to better understanding of many processes traditionally hidden from a naked eye but which can define the life and normal functioning of a living being.

writing-research-brief383109052In this respect, it is particularly noteworthy to discuss the presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms which are integrally involved in the maintenance of LTP, and one of the primary goals of this paper would be to find out the role of these two different processes in the maintenance of LTP across different time periods and stages.

The essence of LTP

Before discussing presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms and their role and impact on LTP, it is primarily necessary to briefly define LTP and find out the core of this notion because it will naturally help to better understand the role of both mechanisms in the maintenance of LTP.

First of all, it should be said that LTP is traditionally defined as the long-lasting strengthening connection between two nerve cells (Westbrook and Guthrie 1984). Naturally, such a definition seems to be quite simple, but at the same time, it is insufficient for the profound understanding of the essence of LTP. This is why it is necessary to explain the nature of this notion mostly.

In this respect, it is possible to refer to practice. To put it more precisely, it should be said that the recent experiments have revealed the fact that “a series of short, high-frequency stimulations to a nerve cell synapse can strengthen, or potentiate, the synapse for minutes to hours” (Bliss and Lomo 1973:354). In other words, it is possible to estimate that the time of the strengthening of the synapse may last from several minutes to hours under the impact of specific stimulation on a nerve cell.

However, it should be pointed out that these results were received in the temporary situation while in nature, in living cells, LTP may occur readily under the impact of natural mechanisms and can last much longer than experiments showed. Notably, it can last not only for hours but even for days, months, and years.

Probably, it is necessary to briefly the mechanism of LTP to understand better its significance and the significance of period for which it lasts in nature. So, it should be said that LTP occurs in the result of the interplay of protein kinases, phosphatases, and gene expression. Eventually, this gives rise to “synaptic plasticity and provides the foundation for highly adaptable nervous system” (Otmakhova 2000:4451). Nowadays many specialists working on neuroscientific learning theories estimate that long-term potentiations along with its opposing process, long-term depression, are the cornerstone, the cellular basis of learning and memory.

It is why it is hardly possible to underestimate the value of this process and consequently the importance of further research in this filed, which is relatively new for the modern science because LTP was initially discovered in the mammalian hippocampus by Terje Lomo in 1966. In such a way, the research in this field has lasted even for less than a half of a century, but it does not make these investigations any less significant. It is not a secret that LTP remains in the focus of attention of many specialists.

In this respect, it is necessary to point out that the modern LTP studies seek to “better understand its biology, while other research aims to develop drugs that exploit these biological mechanisms to treat neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease” (Rogan et al. 1997:607). It is why the role of research concerning LTP is vital and, in such a situation, it is particularly important to find out the role of presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms in the maintenance of LTP across different time periods.

The role of presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms in the maintenance of LTP

Speaking about the impact of presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms on the support of LTP, it is necessary to underline from the beginning that there are defined two main phases. The first stage is an early phase which is traditionally defined as protein-synthesis independent phase (E-LTP). Remarkably, specialists note that this step may last for a relatively short period from one to five hours. The second stage is entirely different and, to a certain extent, contrary to the previous one. This phase is traditionally defined as the late phase (L-LTP), and it is a protein synthesis-dependent phase, which lasts for quite a long time from several days to months (Otmakhova 2000).

Speaking E-LTP, as it has been just mentioned above, produces a potentiation of a few hours duration. Specialists explain that it occurs in the result of “making the postsynaptic side of the synapse more sensitive to glutamate by adding additional AMPA receptors into the postsynaptic membrane” (Weisskopf 1999:10514).

In stark contrast, L-LTP results in “a pronouncing strengthening of the postsynaptic response largely through the synthesis of new proteins” (Weisskopf 1999:10515). These proteins include glutamate receptors, for instance, AMPAR, transcription factors, and structural proteins that enhance the existing synapses and form new connections.

Furthermore, it is also necessary to point out that some of the recent researches revealed that “late LTP prompts the postsynaptic synthesis of a retrograde messenger that diffuses to the presynaptic cell increasing the probability of neurotransmitter vesicle release on subsequent stimuli” (Otmakhova 2000:4449). At the same time, it should be pointed out that the conclusions made in the results of the researchers are highly hypothetical since they are obviously insufficient and need to be continued. In fact, it is really hardly possible to estimate that the researches that have been held in recent years are absolutely reliable because firstly, certain time is needed to provide sufficient pieces of evidence of the conclusions of the researches and, secondly, it is necessary to take into consideration the conclusions and results of further researches. To prove the low reliability of the researches, it should be said that the mechanism of L-LTP, which has been just proposed above, are only weakly supported by existing data. Moreover, some specialists in the field of neurobiology even doubt the very existing of L-LTP.

Nonetheless, to support the thesis of the significance of presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms in the maintenance of LTP, it is necessary to draw some practical examples of recent researches. For instance, according to the analysis of Esteban (2003) the researcher, is looking for the existence and functionality and existence of presynaptic mechanisms, arguments transmitter release in hippocampal slices. The researcher presented “simulations with a quantitative model glutamatergic synaptic transmission that includes modulation of the presynaptic fusion pore, realistic cleft geometry and a distributed array of postsynaptic receptors and glutamate transporters” (Esteban 2003:122)). Eventually, he concludes that such modeling supports the idea that “changes in the dynamic of glutamate release can contribute to synaptic silencing” (Esteban 2003:218).

At the same time, the research held by Nicoll may be summoned up as follows. First of all, paired-pulse facilitation thought to be emblematic of presynaptic change, not found in perforant path, where LTP occurs. Consequently, not presynaptic and as a researcher estimates both confirmed and challenged. Furthermore, AMPA component of glutamate response increased by LTP, consistent with the postsynaptic mechanism, whereas presynaptic would have affected both. Finally, the research showed that both failure rate and coefficient of variation of release, both consistent with presynaptic effect. By the way, it is noteworthy that Nicoll remarks that “the result is robust, but not conclusive” (2003:726).

The role of tetanic stimulation and importance of multiple systems for the control of LTP

On analyzing the research concerning LTP and both presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms, it should be said that tetanic stimulation can also play an essential role in this process as well as multiple control for LTP, which is also of paramount importance.

Speaking about the role of tetanic stimulation, it should be pointed out that, depending on its strength, tetanic stimulation can induce LTP and it will be either of a single pathway to a synapse, or cooperatively via the weaker stimulation of many (). Such a phenomenon may be explained by the fact that there is a stimulus threshold, which has to be reached to induce LTP.

Consequently, if one pathway into a synapse is stimulated weakly, it results in insufficient postsynaptic depolarization to induce LTP. On the other hand, when “weak stimuli are applied to many pathways that converge on a single patch of the postsynaptic membrane, the individual postsynaptic depolarisations generated may collectively depolarise the postsynaptic cell enough to induce LTP cooperatively” (Otmakhova et al. 2000:4449).

As for the importance of multiple systems for the control of LTP, it should be pointed out that such operation is needed objectively to receive reliable results of the research. Otherwise, it would be hardly possible to speak about scientific reliability of any research lacking such a system. At the same time, the development of the multiple systems for the control of LTP is another problem specialists currently face researching LTP because the development of such a system is also a severe problem since the research in this field are relatively new. Consequently, there is an absolute lack of reliable multiple methods for the control of LTP, which, as it has been just mentioned above, are essential.

Conclusion

Thus, taking into account all above mentioned, it is possible to conclude that presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms can play a crucial role in the process of LTP. It should be pointed out that the presynaptic mechanism’s maintenance of LTP may be defined in temporal terms as lasting from one to five hours. As for the postsynaptic mechanism, its maintenance of LTP may be defined respectively as varying from several hours to several months. However, it should be emphasized that the data of the research are still insufficient and it is still necessary to continue the investigation in this field.

Our team is grateful to a freelance writer hired by Smart Writing Service for sharing this research paper sample.

Sex With Child Wife Is Rape: Supreme Court

 “Such a girl child has no recourse to law under the provisions of the IPC notwithstanding that the marital rape could degrade and humiliate her, destroy her entire psychology, pushing her into a deep emotional crisis and dwarf and destroy her whole personality and degrade her very soul.”

unsafe women

–     Supreme Court Bench of Justices Madan B Lokur and Deepak Gupta

                                          In a latest verdict grabbing news headlines, the Supreme Court has on October 11 criminalised sexual intercourse by a husband with his wife who is below 18 years of age. It will henceforth be considered as rape. In effect, the judgment has done away with the protection husbands enjoyed under Indian Penal Code Section 375 Exception 2 that allows a husband to have sexual intercourse with a minor wife, provided she is not below 15 years of age. This is welcome in the sense that it will certainly  discourage child marriages in India which otherwise has been rampant in India cutting across religious lines!

                                    While craving for the exclusive indulgence of my esteemed readers, let me inform them that the decision came on a Public Interest Litigation filed by NGO ‘Independent Thought’. A two-Judge Bench of Supreme Court comprising of Justices Madan B Lokur and Deepak Gupta decided to read down the above provision of IPC by inserting 18 years in place of 15 years, to make the exception to IPC Section 375 read as, “Sexual intercourse or sexual acts by a man with his own wife, the wife not being under 18 years of age, is not rape.”

                                          For my esteemed readers exclusive indulgence, let me also inform them that by doing so, the Supreme Court has harmonized the law under IPC with the provisions of the Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (POCSO) Act 2012 under which “penetrative sexual assault” with a girl below 18 years by a person (even if related to the child through marriage) is a punishable offence under Section 5(n), the punishment for which extends from ten years prison term to even life imprisonment. The Bench read down this exception arguing that it was inconsistent with other statutes dealing with children such as The Prohibition of Child Marriage Act (PCMA), Juvenile Justice Act and the POCSO Act as all these have fixed the minimum age of the girl child for sexual relations at eighteen.

                             To put things in perspective, the Bench of Supreme Court held categorically that, “…In our opinion, sexual intercourse with a girl below 18 years of age is rape regardless of whether she is married or not. The exception carved out in the IPC creates an unnecessary distinction between a married girl child and an unmarried girl child and has no rational nexus with any unclear objective sought to be achieved. The artificial distinction is discriminatory and is definitely not in the interest of the girl child.” It has thus left not even an iota of doubt that henceforth sexual intercourse with a girl who is 18 years of age shall be considered a rape. It shall make no difference whether she is married or not. Undoubtedly, this will go a long way in checking the sexual exploitation of a girl who is below 18 years of age.

                                      Not stopping here, the Bench also added that, “It was also contrary to the philosophy and ethos of Article 15(3) of the Constitution as well as contrary to Article 21 of the Constitution and our commitments in international conventions…and to the philosophy behind dome statutes, the bodily integrity of the girl child and her reproductive choices.” It must be appreciated here that the Supreme Court while rendering this landmark judgment has taken into account the principles enshrined in Article 15(3) of the Constitution as also the commitments which India gives time and again in international conventions of preserving the bodily integrity of the girl child as also her reproductive choices. The judgment added it was “dreadful” that it also “turns a blind eye to trafficking of the girl child..which is such a horrible social evil”. Very rightly said!

                                       Truth be told, the Bench noted this glaring anomaly in IPC and POCSO. It minced no words in saying that, “A married girl between 15 and 18 years of age could be a victim of aggravated penetrative sexual assault under POCSO Act but she cannot be a victim of rape under the IPC if the rapist is her husband, since the IPC does not recognize such penetrative sexual assault by a husband as rape. Such a girl child has no recourse to law under the provisions of the IPC…However such a victim could prosecute the rapist under the POCSO Act. We see no rationale for such an artificial discrimination.”

                                      One has to appreciate that this was long overdue. There can be no denying this! Supreme Court has thus, no doubt, taken a right step in the right direction. It will certainly help minor victim to pursue rape case against her husband who tend to take her for granted.

                                       Truly speaking, the order also comes as a boost to curb child marriages, as the protection for husbands under the Exception clause of IPC Section 375 was seen by the court to “encourage” child marriages. Interestingly enough, Centre sought to oppose the PIL and submitted that child marriage, though a crime, is a social reality in the country, home to 23 million child brides, with a high prevalence among Scheduled Castes (34.9 percent), followed by Scheduled Tribes (31 percent) and lower wealth index (44.1 percent). It took the plea that with marriage, the girl child consents for sexual intercourse as well. Centre too has a point which cannot be lightly dismissed.

                                             As it turned out, the Bench strongly felt that, “There is no question of a girl child giving express or implied consent for sexual intercourse…those days are long gone when a married woman or girl could be treated as subordinate to her husband or at his beck and call or as his property. Constitutionally, a female has equal rights as male…Traditions that might have been acceptable at some historical point of time are not cast in stone. If times and situation change, so must views, traditions and conventions.” The court was assisted with research by two lawyers Gaurav Aggarwal and Jayna Kothari who displayed ample material on the detrimental effects of child marriage on the girl child’s reproductive, physical and mental health. It even impacts children born of such marriages. Without doubt, this landmark judgment forcefully espouses the woman’s right to be treated on par with men and rejects outright the age old dictum that woman or girl is subordinate to her husband and is like his property. Who can question this?

                                Needless to say, Justice Lokur in his separate judgment said, “India realizes the dangers of early marriages, it is merely dishing out platitudes and has not taken any concrete steps to protect the girl child from marital rape except enacting the POCSO Act.” It is high time and Centre must take with full seriousness what Supreme Court has said and work accordingly. Leaving it to the Centre and States to proactively curb child marriages, he added, “Welfare schemes and catchy slogans are excellent for awareness campaigns but they must be backed by focused implementation programmes, other positive and remedial action so that the girl child can look forward to a better future.” Centre as well as all States must adhere to what the Supreme Court has so rightly said!

                                        It must be added here that Justice Lokur wrote in his judgment which ran into 70 pages that, “The only pragmatic opinion available was to read (this) exception to Section 375 of the IPC in a purposive manner to make it in consonance with the POCSO Act, the spirit of other pro-child legislation and the human rights of a married girl child.” Justice Gupta who wrote a separate judgment concurring with Justice Lokur said the said exception was liable to be struck down as it is “arbitrary, capricious, whimsical and violative of the rights of the girl child and not fair, just and reasonable and, therefore, violative of Article 14, 15 and 21 of the Constitution of India”.

                                  One must bring out here that Justice Lokur while pointing out the injustice and anomaly enshrined in the exception to Section 375 itself which mandated that sex with a girl below 18 years of age, with or without her consent, was statutory rape  made it clear that an unmarried girl child can prosecute her rapist but a married girl child aged between 15 and 18 could not even do that. He went on to say eloquently that, “A child remains a child whether she is described as a street child or a surrendered child or an abandoned child or an adopted child. Similarly, a child remains a child whether she is a married child or an unmarried child or a divorced child or a separated or widowed child. At this stage we are reminded of Shakespeare’s eternal view that a rose by any other name would smell as sweet – so also with the status of a child, despite any prefix”.

                                  It must also be added here that Justice Gupta also clarified that the judgment will have “prospective effect” meaning it will not apply to past cases and that cognizance of such offences can be taken only in accordance with the provisions of Section 198(6) of the Criminal Procedure Code. The provision says that court shall not take cognizance of an offence under Section 376 IPC “if more than one year has elapsed from the date of commission of the offence”. This to check the arbitrary misuse of this provision which has been rightly inserted.

                             To be sure, the Bench, however, clarified that it was not making any observation on “marital rape” of a woman who is 18 years of age and above as the issue was not before the court. The question whether marital rape should be criminalized is pending before the Delhi high Court where the Centre has filed an affidavit opposing this saying that doing so may destabilize the institution of marriage apart from being an easy tool for harassing husbands. I personally feel that marriage does not confer an unfettered licence to rape a woman and it must be punishable doubly as the husband betrays completely the unflinching trust posed by her in him by marrying him. Sex has to be with consent of a woman and not without her consent.

                                 Anyway, coming back to the main topic, this latest judgment also referred to the counter affidavit of the Government of India which drew the attention of the court to the National Family Health Survey – 3 (of 2005) which states that 46 percent of women in India between the ages of 18 and 29 were married before the age of 18 years. On PCMA which under Section 3 says that a child  marriage is not void, but only voidable at the option of any of the parties, the judgment categorically said that, “In other words a child marriage is sought to be somehow ‘legitimized’ by the Union of India and the onus for having it declared voidable or a nullity is placed on the child bride or the groom”. In fact, this Section puts the burden on the child bride or groom to seek a declaration of nullity from a court of law.

                                   In this regard, the Supreme Court lauded Karnataka for its commendable act of amending the Prohibition of Child Marriage Act (PCMA) to make child marriage automatically void. In Karnataka, the husband of a girl child would be liable for punishment for child marriage under the amended PCMA; for penetrative sexual assault or aggravated penetrative sexual assault under the POCSO Act; and if the husband and the girl child are living together in the same or shared household for rape under the IPC.

                                      In his separate judgment, Justice Dipak Gupta investigates the reason behind the “magic figure” of 15, the age from which a husband can have sexual intercourse with his minor wife. His research, the Judge notes, revealed that the reason dates back to 1940, when the age of consent for a girl was 16, the age of marriage 15 and the age under the exception clause 15. In 1975, the age of consent was 16, the age of marriage 18, and the age under exception 15. Today, when the age of consent and marriage of a girl are 18, the age under the exception is still 15. He said that the magic figure is based on the fact that it has been existing for a long time.

                                    As it turned out, the lawyer of Centre in August while citing tradition wanted status quo and had contended that the country’s socio-economic realities cannot be ignored and that the exception clause was necessary to “protect the institution of marriage”. To this, the Apex Court responded saying that, “Unfortunately…if a girl child between 15 and 18 years is married, her husband can have non-consensual sex with her without being penalized, only because she is married to him, and for no other reason. The right of such a girl child to bodily integrity and to decline to have sexual intercourse with her husband has been taken away”.

                                      Be it noted, Justice Gupta also answered the question whether the court by invalidating the exception will be creating a new offence which the legislature did not intend to make. He said that, “In my view, as far as this case is concerned, this Court is not creating any new offence but only removing what was unconstitutional and offensive.” It is thus clear that the Supreme Court has not created any new offence but only removed what was unconstitutional and offensive and by doing so if an offence is created, so be it. Justice Gupta also said that child marriage puts a girl’s health at risk. He said that, “When a girl is compelled to marry before she attains the age of 18 years, her health is put in serious jeopardy”.

                         Senior Supreme Court advocate Indira Jaising while calling the verdict “progressive” had said the logical outcome of the judgment was to make child marriages automatically void. However, she said the judgment should not be used to criminalise the “experimentalism of the body” seen among adolescents who are aged between 15 and 18 years. Her point is valid!

                             Another senior Supreme Court advocate Prashant Bhushan while lauding the judgment as correct and harmonizing the IPC with other anti-child abuse laws like POCSO said that, “The judgment reinforces the fact recognized by other laws that a child is not in a position to grant or not grant consent.” Advocate Gaurav Agarwal who is the counsel for the NGO – “Independent Thought” on whose petition the Supreme Court gave this landmark judgment rightly said that, “This would compel families of boys to think twice before getting their sons married to minor girls.” But what if the parents of minor girls misrepresent her age in order to marry her off early? Then certainly they are squarely responsible for it!

                                     Supreme Court advocate Aishwarya Bhati also agreed that declaration of child marriages as void or a complete ban on child marriage is the “necessary corollary” to this judgment. Swati Maliwal who is Chairperson of Delhi Child Welfare also while welcoming the judgment rightly asked that, “What is the point of a Beti Bachao Beti Padhao Andolan if the girl is married off at 15 itself?” Rightly said! Sudha Ramalingam who is a senior advocate said the judgment was rightful as it was now synchronized with POCSO but said implementation would be difficult, especially in cases of child marriage, where there would be tacit approval by the family.

                                All said and done, the Bench asked the Centre and the States to take proactive steps to prohibit child marriage across the country. Centre and States must comply accordingly. The verdict has sent a loud and clear message that, “Sanctity of marriage must not be misused to cover up rape. The government cannot be oblivious to the trauma faced by a girl child married between 15 and 18 or to pro-child statutes and other human rights  obligations.”

                      In a big embarrassment for Centre, the Supreme Court upbraided the government for failing to enforce the PCMA strictly and for not criminalizing a man’s sexual intercourse with his wife aged 18 or below. It castigated and pulled up Centre saying that, “What has the government of India done? It has persuaded Parliament to convert what is otherwise universally accepted as a heinous crime into a legitimate activity for the purposes of Section 375 of the IPC if exploiter or abuser is the husband of the girl child”.

                                 It must be mentioned here that the court was responding to a petition that was only concerned with the “violation of the rights of girls who are married between the ages of 15 and 18 years”. So the court restricted itself only to it and did not elaborate on marital rape by adult man with his major wife who is above 18 years of age.

                            Poonam Muttreja who is Executive Director of Population Foundation of India rightly said that, “While the trauma of forced sex for the minor is in itself an unfair burden, it could also jeopardize her health and that of the infant, should an untimely and unwanted pregnancy occur”. Vidya Reddy of Tulir, Centre for the Prevention & Healing of Child Sexual Abuse wonders if this would actually deny young women medical help. She said since POCSO and the Criminal Procedure Code mandated reporting of an offence and since any sexual contact below the age of 18 was an offence, the health and well being of young people seeking medical care, for a safe delivery for instance, could be compromised and they could be sucked into the criminal justice system. She rightly said that, “This, in many ways, could deny them good healthcare and they may seek alternative forms of treatment as they would not want their families broken up.” In this whole process, the very life of the minor girl can be at stake!

                               It is high time and Centre too must realize that marriage does not confer an unbridled licence to a man to trample upon a woman’s legal and human rights which includes the right to say no to sex whenever she wants with no ifs and buts irrespective of whether she is major or minor and take urgent steps to criminalise marital rape with no exceptions whatsoever! I am very clear in my mind: Sex with woman can only and only be with her consent and under no circumstances whatsoever can be without her consent even if she is above 18 years of age!

Sanjeev Sirohi, Advocate,

s/o Col BPS Sirohi,

A 82, Defence Enclave,

Sardhana Road, Kankerkhera,

Meerut – 250001, Uttar Pradesh.