In between 1919-1922 the British were opposed throught two mass movementsi.e.,the khilafat movement and Non-Cooperation Movement.Since these two movements raise separate issues,but they adopted a common programme of action.i.e., Non-Cooperation,Nonviolent.
THE KHILAFAT ISSUE
In India,the Muslims were demanding from the British(i)that the khalifa`s control over Muslim sacred place should be retained to them,and(ii)khalifa should be left with sufficient territories after territorial arrangements.In 1919,a Khilafat commitee was formed under the leadership of Shaukat Ali and Muhammad Ali(Ali brothers),Ajmal Khan,Hasrat Mohani,Maulana Azad.The Khilafat movement paved the way for the consolidation of the emergence of a radical nationalist trend among the Younger generation of muslims.
At November 1919,All India Khilafat conference held in Delhi in which a call was made for the boycott of British goods.For some time,the Khilafat leaders limited their actions to meetings,petitions,and deputationes in favor of the Khilafat.But After some time a militant trend emerged,demanding an action agitation such as stopping all cooperation with the British.It was very clear that the support of the Congress was essential for the Khilafat movement to succeed.Although Gandhiji was in favor of launching satyagraha and Non-Cooperation against the government on the Khilafat issue,but the Congress was not united on this form of Political action.
The Non-Cooperation Khilafat Movement-
In August 1920 The Khilafat commitee started a campaign of NonCooperation,and the movement was formally lauched. On September 1920 At a special session in Calcutta,the Congress approved a NonCooperation programme till the Punjab and Khilafat wrong were removed and swaraj was established.This programme boycott the government schools and colleges,boycott the law courts and dispensation of justice through panchayat instead,boycott foreign cloths and use of khadi instead,boycott legislative councils,renunciation of government honours and titles. Spread of the MovementThousands of students left government schools and colleges and joined around 800 national schools and colleges.These educational institutions were organised under the chairmanship of Zakir Hussain,Lala Lajpat Rai,Subhash Chandra Bose,Acharya Narendra Dev.,Many lawyers too gave up their practice like Jawaharlal Nehru,Motilal Nehru,C.Rajagopalachari,Lots of foreign cloths were burnt publicly and their imports fell by half.
People’s response in this movement
The participation in this movement is in wide range,People from every field every class participat in this movement,but to a varying extent.
Middle Class-People from the middle class led the movement at the beginning,but later they showed a lot of reservations about Gandhi’s Programme.The response to the call for resignation from the government jobs, surrendering of titles was not taken seriously.
Business class-The economic section get benefited as the economic boycott received support from the Indian Business group because they had benefited from the Nationalists emphasis on the use of swadeshi,but some seemed to be afraid of labour unrest in their factories.
Peasants-Peasants participation was massive.In general,the Peasants turned against the landlords and the traders.
Students- With thousands of students enrolling away from public schools and colleges, students are becoming active volunteers in the movement.
Women-A large number of women participated in the movement and actively participated in picketing outside stores selling cloth and liquor. They gave up Purdah and provided the jewels to the Tilak Foundation.