Tag Archives: Guest Post

6 Ways to Optimize Images for Social Media

When it comes to social media, images play a key role in getting the engagement that you want. It’s no secret that people are drawn to them. Just look at Facebook and Instagram. These platforms have millions of users because of they allow you to see images from people you care about

download social media

However, it’s not enough to just post pictures. You want your images to be really good so people and search engines take notice. Whether you’re trying to grow a following or you want to get more engagement from your followers, optimizing social media images is a key step to any social media strategy. In this article are x tweaks you can to make your images perform better on social media.

  1. Invest in a good camera

Photography gear can be quite expensive but if you have the money, invest in one. However, if  you don’t have the budget, you can get a cellphone with a really good camera. Plenty of smartphones these days boast that capability and you won’t run out of options to choose from. This is important for taking high-quality photos of your products. You want it to sell right? So get a better camera, practice your photography skills and showcase those goods!

  1. Get your image sizes right

Every social network has specific image dimension that they follow. If you don’t adhere to these, your images possibly get cut off which in turn affects your engagement rate. Make sure to follow the recommended dimensions for every platform that you use

The best sizes for sharing images on social media

  • Facebook: 1200 x 628
  • Instagram: 1080 x 1080
  • Twitter: 1024 x 576
  • LinkedIn: 552 x 368
  • Pinterest: 600 x 900
  • Google+: 431 x 431
  1. Use free photo editing websites

Most companies don’t have the time to learn photoshop. If you’re one of them, you can take advantage of tools like Canva, PicMonkey, or Piktochart to create beautiful, social media-ready images. These tools give you the ability to design images with ease since they have templates that you can easily change to match your branding. The best part is that most of these tools already have the dimensions set up for each image type on every platform you can think of such as Twitter header size, Facebook cover photo size, Pinterest board cover size, and more

Now that’s time saved!

  1. Name and tag your images appropriately

For your image to have the best chance of getting seen, make sure to name and tag it appropriately. Search engine crawlers may not be able to see an image but they can read the text associated with your image, helping them to analyze your post, rank you appropriately, and show your image to the right audiences.

So before uploading any photo, name it with the most accurate description. If you’re targeting a certain keyword, put it in there but make sure it fits the context of the image otherwise, you’re just keyword stuffing. Alt tags are also another opportunity to include those keywords since they’re supplementary information to the name of your image. Write no more than 125 characters for the alt text.

  1. Upload a file sized optimized for the web

Whenever you save an image Photoshop or any photo-editing tool, make sure to choose the Save for Web and Devices option. You want an image that’s not too big but you don’t want to compromise quality either otherwise, you end up with a pixelated mess! Keep a balance between quality and file size. If you’re using a tool that doesn’t let you control the size and quality of an image, consider using an image shrinker instead. These tools are designed to  size down an image without losing quality.

  1. Know your target audience

Last but not the least, get to know your target audience. There’s no point in following all these tips if you’re showing images that aren’t relevant to your followers. Worse, you could using be displaying your posts on a platform that they’re not even using. So before anything else, find out where your audiences are likely to hang out and start with that. If you have no idea where to start, look at your top competitors and see what they’re doing. Test it on yours and see which posts are driving the most engagement. You’ll be surprised what a little sleuthing can do!

These 6 tips will help anyone who is trying to improve their social media images. Got any more suggestions to share? Write them in the comments below!

 

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How to Choose a Great Admission Essay Topic

This article includes the best pieces of advice on how to choose a good topic for your admission essay. You will learn the basic rules of writing such types of essays as well.

How-To-Write-A-College-Admission--Essay

How to Choose a Great Admission Essay Topic

Writing an essay, especially an admission one, may seem a hard task for those who have never done this before. You may hesitate a lot before you start your writing due to your lack of knowledge of what to include in your essay. So, picking up the topic of your essay is the first and probably the most difficult thing to do. Today we will convince you that your essay’s topic has great influence on the content of your admission essay and therefore it should be chosen responsibly.

Whether you are entering a college or a university, you will certainly have to teach yourself writing an admission essay as it is the half of a road to successful admission. Should admission essays include special terminology or some metaphors? Should you fully introduce your personality in the text? Or should it be just your thoughts on some topic? It is difficult to decide, but we will help you with that.

The most important pieces of advice to pick up a topic:

  • First and foremost, do not panic. Let your consciousness believe you know what to write about. The best way to write a good admission essay is to start doing it at least a week before the deadline. You should have enough time to clear your thoughts.
  • Do a brainstorm and write all your ideas on paper, even those which seem inconvenient or stupid to you.
  • Think about the case that proves your authenticity and shows your good traits. Every human being is unique, so coming up with such a case should be easy.
  • Ask yourself “So what?”. Understanding the use of the story you are writing about is necessary.
  • Include the things you are proud of. Usually, talking about the things that praise your personality is one of the easiest tasks. But do not exaggerate, it will be obvious if you are too arrogant.

The Main Requirement for an Admission Essay

The requirements vary from college to college, from university to university. But some things remain the same for all the essays. For an admission essay, it is normal to write approximately 500 words. The subject should be personal and demonstrate your skills or life circumstances. Therefore, try to describe them well to become a more desirable candidate.

You should not write an art composition because the style of an admission essay is very formal. But your creativity should not be limited as it is a precious thing the admission board will appreciate. Remember that not every person is able to tell a great story in 500 words. It is your chance to prove your pithiness in writing. Start with a detailed text and exclude some unnecessary things step by step.

Standing out is crucial

 Have you ever played any musical instrument? Or perhaps you did some sport (or do it now). Well, it is great, but almost everybody did the same. A part-time job is common among kids as well. Do not tell such trivial things as it may not be interesting to the readers. Make them remember your personality by telling some of your special characteristics. Do not forget to engage the reader with a hook the same way you do it in simple essays. But starting with a question will not be the best way for an admission essay.

You may also describe your interests and passions going back to your childhood. This way the admission officers tend to trust you more and they see what kind of a person you are now, under which circumstances you have formed yourself as a person. Maybe, there is something from the childhood influencing you these days? Feel free to describe that.

And do not try to seem an absolutely ideal person, there is no such person on the Earth. And the admission essay is not about that. It has more to do with reflecting on your life and your experiences. It is the best way to conclude who you are now and what your plans are for developing yourself in the future.

Stand Up and Do It

Now, the hardest part of the job is finished as the topic of your essay is chosen. Do your best and write a breathtaking story so that the admission officers will not hesitate to accept you. Good luck with your admission essay! And remember that everyone has some fascinating stories to tell.

TOP ONLINE SHOPPING COUPONS OF THE MONTH: GET 20% OFF ON ALL PRODUCTS

Why spend more, when you can the same at a cheaper price? Well, then welcome to the world of “Coupons”. You can easily call coupons to be a lifesaver and say thanks for such small miracles. Just the difference is that for these, we don’t have to thank god, instead, we may just thank various online couponing aggregator websites for making such small miracles into reality. One such deal and coupon aggregation website is Zoutons which offers various kinds of deals, coupons and discounts on a wide range of category and helps in creating happy customers by cutting down their shopping bills.

discount coupons

Major Top Coupons

Many online couponing sites provides users with exclusive coupons and deals.  One will find a great variety of brands in all kinds of categories here. Here you will get separate top coupons differentiated on clothing categories, bills and recharges, electronics, footwear, home decors, travel, personal care, groceries, recharges, food delivery, e-wallets, gifts, holidays, and many more!

The top brands which are associated with this website are Myntra, Flipkart, Paytm, Swiggy, Tata Sky, Mobikwik, MMT, Jabong, Ola, Ebay, Food Panda, Oyo, Redbus, Book My Show – just to name a few. The list still goes on!

The below details will give you a better understanding of the same;

  • Fashion Clothing & Accessories Coupons

Today the world is all about style and fashion. And one cannot simply have enough of clothes and accessories. Agreed or not? Be it, men or women, today everyone wants to look and presentable and this can sometimes take a toll on us as this can cause a little hole in our pocket. Here come the top coupons to the rescue! One will find major brands like Myntra, Jabong, Ajio, Flipkart, Snapdeal, Craftsvilla, Yepme, Amazon, Voonik here. And mind you these are just a few to name.

Each of the above has different attractive coupons to offer. For example, there are few coupons which offer up to 40 – 50% discount from Jabong on Addidas clothing, while few have cash back offers, flat off offers, discount offers, etc. the coupons are too good to be rejected. One has to check out the website to believe it.

  • Electronic Coupons

The next important thing in our life after clothing is the use of electronic gadgets. For few this might even hold the first place. Electronics have become a very important part of our lives. Hence, with top electronic coupons being available from all trusted brands is nothing less than a boom.  You will find major brands like Flipkart, Banggood.com, Amazon, Snapdeal, Paytm, etc to be linked in the website hence give you wide range of choice.

The different subcategories that you will find are;

  1. Mobile
  2. Home Appliances
  3. Computers and accessories
  4. Mobile accessories
  5.  Cameras
  6. Computers and laptops Kitchen appliances

So, as we see there is both a wide range of categories and also different brands which we can choose from. The offers vary from Cash backs, instant offs, 10 – 70% discounts, free 100 $ worth coupons on eBay, etc. the most exclusive coupon that is available right now is offered by Snapdeal of Rs 2000/- off!

  • Book Coupons

As the saying goes, “Books are a man’s best friend”. You can never grow out of a book, they are all-time classics.  We will find all kinds of books belonging from different brands like Flipkart, Amazon, First Cry, Paytm, Amar Chitra Katha and so on. They are subcategorized in the following;

  1. E-books
  2. Kids Books
  3. Magazines
  4. Novels

There are a total of 165 offer coupons in this category at present. The coupons vary from up to 70% discount, instant discounts, and cash backs, flat off, etc.

  • Web Hosting Coupons

At this age of digitalization, having a website for the growth of any kind of business is one major step and the most important one. Hence, buying a domain has become quite popular. With this, the availability of Web Hosting Coupons has come to a major help. Top brands like Big Rock, GoDaddy, HostGator, and Hosting Raja have different coupons available on the website. Exclusive offers like under 99/-, flat 50% off, Free .in, are few of the coupon offers that are available out of the many.

  •  Cab Coupons

We all certainly feel elated whenever we manage to get hold of a cab coupon. As our dependency on cab has increased more and more, getting hold of cab coupons has become very important.  Cab companies like Ola, Uber, Meru Cabs, Zoom Car, Tez, etc. are providing with exciting coupon deals on the website.  One can find cab coupons of all kinds of occasions like local, outstations, rentals with all kinds of offers like flat 50rs off, cash-backs, flat discounts and many more.

  • Recharge and Bill Payment Coupons

Now with all the fun happening around, how can we forget the difficult part? Paying bills. Well recharges and paying bills is one of the most important “must dos” on our list. And even paying bills and recharges can turn out to be fun if we get a valid coupon for the same.  Online payment websites like Paytm, Freecharge, etc. have provided with various coupons like cash back offers, discounts and so on for the same.  The website covers all the below subcategories like;

  1. Mobile recharge
  2. Electricity
  3. Broad Band
  4. DTH
  • Movie Coupons

One of the most sought out coupons that we look out for is the movie coupons.  Now watching movies at theatres will be more fun and easy on the pocket as one will find brand like Paytm, Ticket New, PVR, Bookmyshow, Pay Zap, etc. offering different coupons for the same with offers like cash back, instant discount, buy 1 get 1 free offers, etc.

How can you stay updated related to the latest Offers and Sales?

Now, that we know how cool and exciting the website is and the exciting coupons that are available, it is important for us to stay updated with the latest sales and offers.  You can subscribe to various online couponing websites like Zoutons, coupondunia, grabon etc. to get the regular updates.

Also, to keep track the best way is to download their app on your phone as it is handier than logging into the website all the time. You will also be getting time to time notifications for the same.  Signing up for the newsletter is also a fun and convenient way to stay updated for the same. All you need to do is to sign in for the newsletter with your email id.

So, what are you still waiting for?  Just log into the website, check out for the exciting offers and coupons and start the fun. Once you get to know how fun is it, there will be surely no looking back for you. Hence, start on the loot if you haven’t still yet.

Tips on making a Successful Career switch

A lot of millennials are known for hopping jobs in their quest for job fulfilment. Their idea of a dream job frequently changes and they aren’t really shying away from taking that important decision of switching their career. If you too are sailing the same boat, then there are a few things you can keep in mind to successfully switch your career:change your career

Prepare yourself mentally: Career change is also like any other important life change where a career move should start with a self reflection. Ask yourself what is the first thing that you want from your job, what can’t you negotiate on, and which factors you can compromise upon? Ask yourself if it is ok to take advice from your mentor or peers. You are likely to get a positive response from this in-depth analysis and be ready to face the truth.

Prepare Yourself Financially: Career change requires savings. Imagine leaving your job without a single penny in your pocket. Oh, you can’t imagine it for sure. Thus, it’s suggested that you save up for the days that you will be jobless, or you can also opt for an emergency loan. Check this link: https://letmebank.com/emergency-loans-for-bad-credit/.

Assess your dream career/job: In order to avoid any disappointments in the future, talk to those who work in your favourite job. Follow them on social media, try to interact with them and ask them their opinion about your choice. Since they are already working in that field, they will be able to give you a real picture of what the new job holds for you. This can also help you with your job hunting process.

Assess your skills: If you are going for a career change, make sure you carry some transferable skills with you. You don’t necessary have to go back to skill to learn skills to make that career switch. Transferable skills such as project management, communication, collaboration, etc. are something that you can carry and use in your next job as well.

Give it a try: Before you take that final call, give it a try and assess yourself properly. You could take a few weeks off and work in your new job as an intern just to get the hang of things. This will help you understand the positives and the pitfalls of the new career and you will not be thrown away by any surprises later on.

Making a successful career switch is all about taking that final call and staying committed to it. There are plenty of jobs in Pune for you to target if you are in the nearby area. Explore everything you can before making that final call.

 

7 Great Ways To Improve Your English Pronunciation

Learning a new language can prove to be quite a task, especially when it comes to the pronunciation side of things. It may lead to frustration and helplessness and might make you feel like you’re learning to speak again. However, we strongly feel that to learn new things it is equally crucial to unlearn some essentials. Although, some of the best IELTS English Colleges might be able to help you with learning the basics of the knowledge, you can also master it all by your own.150-common-mistakes-english-300x300

7 Best Ways To Improve Your English Pronunciation Are:

  1. Learn to Listen

The very first thing that you need to do in order to speak fluently is to learn to listen. Allocating all your brain recourses to observe how the language is really spoken might work wonders for you in your process. Observe a native English Speaker and see hear how they pronounce some words that would rather be tricky for you. Since it is their native language, you can learn a great deal by just being around them. This will help you notice the difference between words like slip and sleep or dip and deep which have entirely different meanings.

  1. Record and Time

This is one exercise that even the best IELTS English College recommends. However, this may bear better results if you are somewhere midway in your learning process. Record a native English Speaker and time the time they take to read an entire passage. Now you should have a reference to compare to. Try to achieve this timing by recording yourself again and again until you observe a change in fluency. You could alternatively take help of various tools available online.

  1. Study the Movement

One of the easiest ways that has been reported to work is imitation. When you closely observe a native English speaker we are naturally inclined towards the movements of their lips when pronouncing a word. It is advised that you try imitating that until you get the pronunciation right. If you are still facing trouble with that you can alternatively try keeping a finger in front of your lips. The movement of your mouth will be more apparent for you to notice now thus helping you to pronounce words better.

  1. Practice With A Friend

One of advantages that best IELTS English Colleges have is the availability of partners who can help each other through the course. Making pronunciation learning even simpler is having an expert native speaker around who can guide you along your way. However, if you have a friend who natively speaks English, you could have the same benefits at home. This is hands down even better than learning with a mirror. The abovementioned skills only do a little to improve your pronunciation; the biggest change can come only when you try to have a conversation in the language more often.

  1. Divide it into chunks

Few words can always be tricky. Take ‘Maintenance’ for instance. For someone who is lagging far behind in the learning process, it can be a nightmare to pronounce the word. It is wiser to break bigger words into chunks and try pronouncing them altogether once you get the sub parts right. Breaking the word ‘Maintenance’ into three parts – ‘Main’, ‘Ten’ and ‘Ance’ might be easier for a few people and with the same approach even larger words can be learnt in a breeze.

 

  1. Speak Slowly

According to the best IELTS English College, most students are impatient to take things slow. Naturally, they make even more mistakes which leads to frustration. However tempting it may be, try not to speed things up to increase your fluency unless you have mastered pronunciation. Take things slow and focus on getting the words right. This will prove beneficial in the long run and leave you with clearer pronunciation.

 

  1. Watch a Series

When all things fail and having a native English Speaker friend is also not an option then here is something that we have seen working tremendously well. Take up a TV Series and start watching it with subtitles. Soon you will be deeply involved in the characters and the curiosity factor will keep you hooked. Try turning off the subtitles frequently in between to make sense of the plot without subtitles. It may be time consuming but definitely the best way to grasp pronunciation.

These abovementioned methods have been known to work tremendously well when learning a new language. These methods can be tried at home by yourself which means you no longer need to look for the best IELTS English College around you. However, learning a language can be quite a task on its own and one really needs to be patient to learn the different aspects of it. Taking things slow will help you master the language like a native speaker.

Author Bio

Stephen Charles is a renowned blogger, passionate to share amazing and helpful information with people on multiple niches. He loves to share his experiences with healthcare, news, technology, and sports enthusiasts from around the world.

Environmental Awareness Among School Students: A Case Study of Prevention and basic awareness of deforestation

 As you know deforestation is the removal or clearing of forest land in order for converting the land to non-forest use and is very urgent thing which wants to be fixed. Each of the days, we are cutting down the trees and clearing the forest at very disturbing rate. 46 to 58 thousand square miles of forest are mislaid at every year. This quantity is to down 36 football fields of forest each minute. It is one of the main problems in the 21st century.

Awareness of Deforestation

environmental awareness

It is an act of cutting down the tress for the resolves like as clearing the field or getting lumber. Logging operations, that give the paper and wood products for the world, chopped down uncountable trees every year. Loggers, some of them act unlawfully; also create roads for accessing number of remote places in the forests, which leads to further deforestation. Forest is also damaged as an outcome of growing the urban areas like as cities and towns.

Deforestation has number of negative effects on the environment. The main influence is the loss of habitation for number of animal species. About 70 percentage of earth contains plants and land animals and which are living in the forest, and number of them lost to deforestation in each of the year.

Deforestation is one of the casual factors based on the climate change. Forest soils are moist, but without any security from the tree cover against the sun, they will dry out very easily. Trees will also aid to uphold the water cycle through returning water vapour to the atmosphere. Without any trees for filing these kinds of roles, number of former forest fields can easily become infertile deserts.

Tress is also playing a crucial role in absorbing the green-house gases which may be the reason for global warming. Less forest means high number of green-house gases in the atmosphere that may donate in the enhanced rate of global warming.

How to Prevent Deforestation

You don’t have to live in the mid of a rainforest for to do the part for preventing the deforestation. The following are some of the suggestions that you have to consider if you are interesting in preventing deforestation in the rest of the world.

  • Use Recycled things:- Today, a consumer can buy a number of recycled things, comprising notebook paper, toilet paper, books and also shopping bags. While the people are using the recycled products and create a sensible effort not as the waste, the demand for the new raw material for replacing the things can reduce.
  • Tree care: – While cutting down the trees as sole out spare younger varieties and complete grown specimens. In the event which you should remove a tree for a genuine reason, ensure that for each tree lost as another is planted in the same place.
  • Farming Practices: – Those who plant the crops at a farm can contribute in putting a dent in the deforestation by rotating the crops. It is suggested for replacing the habit of utilizing the variety of portions of field every year with using the similar portions of land to plant the variety of crops. This practice has established efficient in upholding the soil fertility. Farmers may also hold number of other options, like as hydroponics and high yield hybrid crops, that will relies on the process of growing plants by using the mineral nutrients solutions in its place of the soil.
  • Cut Back on Palm Oil: – In Indonesia and Malaysia, an improving quantity of trees are cutting down in order to create the palm oil used for the production of some of the chocolates, breads, and shampoos. Consequently, the native orang-utans are losing down the habitat. You can spread limit and awareness the consumption of products containing the sort of oil.
  • Coals: – As the chill of winter occurs over the autumn season, try using the coals instead of firewood in the fireplace. Though it only takes a couple of hours for consuming the few logs there and here, bear in mind that it will takes number of years one tree to completely grow.
  • Reforestation: –It is the process of replanting or regenerating forest places which have been damaged or destroyed for the advantages of the mankind. Afforestation and deforestation share the similar meaning, i.e. afforestation is other name for the reforestation. Infrequently forests have the capacity to renew due to the trees in the environmental surroundings or due to the dispersal of seeds. Though, forest places which are seriously degraded can’t be renewed unless the plants that have been implanted by using the native processing methods.
  • Support Conservation Organizations: –Loan the support via contributions of the money, time, or actions for arranging that run programs which will concentrating on the preservation of forest lands and habitat like World Wide for Nature, Greenpeace, Conservation International and Community Forestry International.

 

Author Bio

Wilson David is a professional writer, working in education field from past 15 years. He wish to help students with their academic writing by providing writing tips and samples to score high grade in academic life. And also writers for different educational blogs as a guest. Currently also linked with best online essay writing services , an online writing firm.

Why Does a Custom Essay Help Service Exist?

enjoying-time-writing-an-essay

The growing number of custom writing services available online is more than overwhelming! Do a little research, and you will surely find an affordable essay writing service with the list of the professional writing options that can be reached twenty-four hours a day. Besides, every expensive or cheap essay writing service is striving to do the best to meet your academic writing requirements. But one of the aspects that worry the college and university students in the US, the UK, Germany, Australia, France, Canada or anywhere else is the price they should pay for the options offered by this or that custom writing company. Students’ eyes are blazed the very moment they face the variety of the writing and editing services on the web with the most diverse prices. And the question that pops up is why the cheap writing sources actually exist? Aren’t they too good to be true?

Cheap Academic Writing Services: What’s the Point?

Students do not trust the companies, where they promise to craft an essay, a dissertation, a thesis, a research or a term paper in business, science, law or any other subject at the smallest possible cost. They truly believe that such cooperation can only guarantee a poor quality assignment, a total waste of money, and completely ruined college reputation. But the reality isn’t necessarily like that. At PaperWritingHelp.net, they provide inexpensive assignments that stand for your academic interests! And we can prove that there is nothing wrong with collaborating with the cheap services like this one!

So, what is the reality behind the cheap essays writing service?

  • Affordable writing companies are there to help needy college and university students. It’s not a secret that a student’s budget leaves a lot to be desired. While college students in the USA or Canada can easily buy an English essay for a great sum of money, a lot of their colleagues from other countries find it hard to purchase papers from the website with expensive offers. PaperWritingHelp.net has reliable and committed writers, who are open to deal with your “I’m searching for a reliable essay helper to assist me when researching my topic and write a great paper” requests and charge reasonable prices.
  • The other good thing about cheap custom writing agencies is that they’re a perfect place for a writer, who is just the beginner in the custom writing industry. A lot of companies on the market tend to recruit writers, who already have many years of professional experience. As for the cheap services, they heartily welcome individuals, who have little or no experience at all. And even though they will charge lesser for their papers writing options, the quality of every other assignment delivered to you will be beyond all praises! In other words, the authors get an opportunity to gain the necessary experience and then move to more expensive companies.
  • Free samples are the other reason why so many cheap custom writing companies are available on the Internet and why they are so popular among the high school, college, and university students. A huge resource of professionally researched projects is at your disposal whenever you need them to see how an A+ research paper, coursework, dissertation, PowerPoint presentation, book report or any other project should be researched, arranged, and edited.

Dedicated Customer Care Center

At PaperWritingHelp.net, they’re proud to state that their online Customer Care department is available at your service round the clock! They have hired only experienced, friendly and well-trained experts who are able to assist you with any of the issues you may come up with. They know that it makes every college and university student come back to them over and over again! Feel free to reach them with your concern twenty-four hours a day, and they will either handle it or find a competent specialist, who can deal with it in the most professional manner. You are heartily welcome to talk to their managers whenever you feel the need for it!

Long-Term Potentiation Research Paper

Introduction

Long-Term Potentiation (LTP) is a process, which is mainly attractive for the contemporary neuroscience. In fact, this branch of science is relatively new, but at the same time, it is essential and profound research in this field is nowadays fundamental since they contribute significantly to better understanding of many processes traditionally hidden from a naked eye but which can define the life and normal functioning of a living being.

writing-research-brief383109052In this respect, it is particularly noteworthy to discuss the presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms which are integrally involved in the maintenance of LTP, and one of the primary goals of this paper would be to find out the role of these two different processes in the maintenance of LTP across different time periods and stages.

The essence of LTP

Before discussing presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms and their role and impact on LTP, it is primarily necessary to briefly define LTP and find out the core of this notion because it will naturally help to better understand the role of both mechanisms in the maintenance of LTP.

First of all, it should be said that LTP is traditionally defined as the long-lasting strengthening connection between two nerve cells (Westbrook and Guthrie 1984). Naturally, such a definition seems to be quite simple, but at the same time, it is insufficient for the profound understanding of the essence of LTP. This is why it is necessary to explain the nature of this notion mostly.

In this respect, it is possible to refer to practice. To put it more precisely, it should be said that the recent experiments have revealed the fact that “a series of short, high-frequency stimulations to a nerve cell synapse can strengthen, or potentiate, the synapse for minutes to hours” (Bliss and Lomo 1973:354). In other words, it is possible to estimate that the time of the strengthening of the synapse may last from several minutes to hours under the impact of specific stimulation on a nerve cell.

However, it should be pointed out that these results were received in the temporary situation while in nature, in living cells, LTP may occur readily under the impact of natural mechanisms and can last much longer than experiments showed. Notably, it can last not only for hours but even for days, months, and years.

Probably, it is necessary to briefly the mechanism of LTP to understand better its significance and the significance of period for which it lasts in nature. So, it should be said that LTP occurs in the result of the interplay of protein kinases, phosphatases, and gene expression. Eventually, this gives rise to “synaptic plasticity and provides the foundation for highly adaptable nervous system” (Otmakhova 2000:4451). Nowadays many specialists working on neuroscientific learning theories estimate that long-term potentiations along with its opposing process, long-term depression, are the cornerstone, the cellular basis of learning and memory.

It is why it is hardly possible to underestimate the value of this process and consequently the importance of further research in this filed, which is relatively new for the modern science because LTP was initially discovered in the mammalian hippocampus by Terje Lomo in 1966. In such a way, the research in this field has lasted even for less than a half of a century, but it does not make these investigations any less significant. It is not a secret that LTP remains in the focus of attention of many specialists.

In this respect, it is necessary to point out that the modern LTP studies seek to “better understand its biology, while other research aims to develop drugs that exploit these biological mechanisms to treat neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease” (Rogan et al. 1997:607). It is why the role of research concerning LTP is vital and, in such a situation, it is particularly important to find out the role of presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms in the maintenance of LTP across different time periods.

The role of presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms in the maintenance of LTP

Speaking about the impact of presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms on the support of LTP, it is necessary to underline from the beginning that there are defined two main phases. The first stage is an early phase which is traditionally defined as protein-synthesis independent phase (E-LTP). Remarkably, specialists note that this step may last for a relatively short period from one to five hours. The second stage is entirely different and, to a certain extent, contrary to the previous one. This phase is traditionally defined as the late phase (L-LTP), and it is a protein synthesis-dependent phase, which lasts for quite a long time from several days to months (Otmakhova 2000).

Speaking E-LTP, as it has been just mentioned above, produces a potentiation of a few hours duration. Specialists explain that it occurs in the result of “making the postsynaptic side of the synapse more sensitive to glutamate by adding additional AMPA receptors into the postsynaptic membrane” (Weisskopf 1999:10514).

In stark contrast, L-LTP results in “a pronouncing strengthening of the postsynaptic response largely through the synthesis of new proteins” (Weisskopf 1999:10515). These proteins include glutamate receptors, for instance, AMPAR, transcription factors, and structural proteins that enhance the existing synapses and form new connections.

Furthermore, it is also necessary to point out that some of the recent researches revealed that “late LTP prompts the postsynaptic synthesis of a retrograde messenger that diffuses to the presynaptic cell increasing the probability of neurotransmitter vesicle release on subsequent stimuli” (Otmakhova 2000:4449). At the same time, it should be pointed out that the conclusions made in the results of the researchers are highly hypothetical since they are obviously insufficient and need to be continued. In fact, it is really hardly possible to estimate that the researches that have been held in recent years are absolutely reliable because firstly, certain time is needed to provide sufficient pieces of evidence of the conclusions of the researches and, secondly, it is necessary to take into consideration the conclusions and results of further researches. To prove the low reliability of the researches, it should be said that the mechanism of L-LTP, which has been just proposed above, are only weakly supported by existing data. Moreover, some specialists in the field of neurobiology even doubt the very existing of L-LTP.

Nonetheless, to support the thesis of the significance of presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms in the maintenance of LTP, it is necessary to draw some practical examples of recent researches. For instance, according to the analysis of Esteban (2003) the researcher, is looking for the existence and functionality and existence of presynaptic mechanisms, arguments transmitter release in hippocampal slices. The researcher presented “simulations with a quantitative model glutamatergic synaptic transmission that includes modulation of the presynaptic fusion pore, realistic cleft geometry and a distributed array of postsynaptic receptors and glutamate transporters” (Esteban 2003:122)). Eventually, he concludes that such modeling supports the idea that “changes in the dynamic of glutamate release can contribute to synaptic silencing” (Esteban 2003:218).

At the same time, the research held by Nicoll may be summoned up as follows. First of all, paired-pulse facilitation thought to be emblematic of presynaptic change, not found in perforant path, where LTP occurs. Consequently, not presynaptic and as a researcher estimates both confirmed and challenged. Furthermore, AMPA component of glutamate response increased by LTP, consistent with the postsynaptic mechanism, whereas presynaptic would have affected both. Finally, the research showed that both failure rate and coefficient of variation of release, both consistent with presynaptic effect. By the way, it is noteworthy that Nicoll remarks that “the result is robust, but not conclusive” (2003:726).

The role of tetanic stimulation and importance of multiple systems for the control of LTP

On analyzing the research concerning LTP and both presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms, it should be said that tetanic stimulation can also play an essential role in this process as well as multiple control for LTP, which is also of paramount importance.

Speaking about the role of tetanic stimulation, it should be pointed out that, depending on its strength, tetanic stimulation can induce LTP and it will be either of a single pathway to a synapse, or cooperatively via the weaker stimulation of many (). Such a phenomenon may be explained by the fact that there is a stimulus threshold, which has to be reached to induce LTP.

Consequently, if one pathway into a synapse is stimulated weakly, it results in insufficient postsynaptic depolarization to induce LTP. On the other hand, when “weak stimuli are applied to many pathways that converge on a single patch of the postsynaptic membrane, the individual postsynaptic depolarisations generated may collectively depolarise the postsynaptic cell enough to induce LTP cooperatively” (Otmakhova et al. 2000:4449).

As for the importance of multiple systems for the control of LTP, it should be pointed out that such operation is needed objectively to receive reliable results of the research. Otherwise, it would be hardly possible to speak about scientific reliability of any research lacking such a system. At the same time, the development of the multiple systems for the control of LTP is another problem specialists currently face researching LTP because the development of such a system is also a severe problem since the research in this field are relatively new. Consequently, there is an absolute lack of reliable multiple methods for the control of LTP, which, as it has been just mentioned above, are essential.

Conclusion

Thus, taking into account all above mentioned, it is possible to conclude that presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms can play a crucial role in the process of LTP. It should be pointed out that the presynaptic mechanism’s maintenance of LTP may be defined in temporal terms as lasting from one to five hours. As for the postsynaptic mechanism, its maintenance of LTP may be defined respectively as varying from several hours to several months. However, it should be emphasized that the data of the research are still insufficient and it is still necessary to continue the investigation in this field.

Our team is grateful to a freelance writer hired by Smart Writing Service for sharing this research paper sample.

Fundamental Duties Most Unfortunately Has Become A Forgotten Chapter Of The Constitution

“The source of right is duty. If we all discharge our duties, rights will not be far to seek. If leaving duties unperformed we run after rights, they will escape us like will of the wisp, the more we pursue them, the further they will fly. I learned from my illiterate but wise mother that all rights to be deserved and preserved come from duty well done. Thus the very right to live accrues to us only when we do the duty of citizenship of the world. From this one fundamental statement, perhaps it is easy though to define duties of man and woman and correlate every right to some corresponding duty to be first performed. Every other right can be shown to be usurpation hardly worth fighting for.”

fundamental rights

                                                              –         Mahatma Gandhi when requested to give his thoughts on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights

                                                            At the very outset, let me begin by  saying that it grievously hurts me to painfully note that fundamental duties has more or less most unfortunately become a forgotten chapter of our Constitution. This most definitely should never have happened but we all have been watching this happening right before our own eyes. Communal riots breaking out on very small petty issues in which many people lose their precious lives, many children become orphan and homeless as their houses are burnt are all most painful reminders that fundamental duties have become more or less a forgotten chapter of our Constitution! Nothing on earth can be more unfortunate than this!

                                                     To say the least, burning of Indian flags, waving of Pakistani flags, ranting anti-India slogans and doing many other such anti-national acts cannot be justified under any circumstances. It is the fundamental duty of each and every citizen of India to desist from all such anti-national acts. Only then are we true citizens of India!

                                                      Needless to say, there can be no chapter in Constitution which is as important as the one on fundamental duties yet it has been mostly ignored. How often do we read articles on Constitution pertaining to fundamental duties? The obvious answer is once in a blue moon. This despite the fact that fundamental duties are most important as I have already noted above. No less than an eminent legal luminary of the stature of former Chief Justice of India – Justice RC Lahoti while delivering a guest lecture in memory of Justice KT Desai on 15 July, 2014 at Central Court Room in Bombay High Court, Mumbai on ‘Fundamental Duties – A Forgotten Chapter of the Constitution’ had himself most gracefully observed that, “I could not have chosen a subject better than the Fundamental Duties; more so, when as a student of Constitution I find that in the judicial circles and amongst the citizens, a significant provision like Article 51A is found to be conspicuous more by its absence. It is a beautifully well drafted piece of Constitutional enactment. Every word is so well chosen and placed as if a gem studded in necklace! To me, these 10 duties sound like incantations of some holy book.”

                                                     Having said this, I must now bring out here that Part IVA, Article 51A, providing for ten fundamental duties, was introduced in the Constitution not in 1950 when it was originally prepared but by the 42nd Amendment to the Constitution in 1976. Let us all read the basic text of this all important Article 51A, as enacted by 42nd Amendment pertaining to fundamental duties. It runs as follows : –

51A. Fundamental duties – It shall be the duty of every citizen of India:

(a)           to abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the National Flag and the National Anthem;

(b) to cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom;

(c)            to uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India;

(d) to defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so;

(e)           to promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities; to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women;

(f)             to value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture;

(g)           to protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wild life, and to have compassion for living creatures;

(h) to develop the scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform;

(i)              to safeguard public property and to abjure violence;

(j)              to strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity so that the nation constantly rises to higher levels of endeavour and achievement;

(k)          who is a parent or guardian to provide opportunities for education to his child, or as the case may be, ward between the age of six and fourteen years.

                                                             No doubt, it is pertinent to mention here that it was in 2002 and by the 86th Amendment to the Constitution that one more fundamental duty was added as clause (k) in Article 51A and very rightly so. The basic education of children is most imperative and must always be provided to children between the age of 6 to 14 as very rightly provided in clause (k). There can be no two opinions on this.

                                            A moot question arises here : Why it never occurred to the founding fathers of our Constitution of the dire need to include fundamental duties also in it? Most certainly, this was because the founding fathers had unflinching faith in all Indians that they would themselves voluntarily do their fundamental duties on their own without their mentioning it specifically in the Constitution. They were not wrong in doing so. It is the people themselves who have not risen to the occasion and abdicated from discharging their fundamental duties due to which it had to be specifically inserted in the Constitution in 1976 by the 42nd Amendment.

                                            All said and done, we must also not forget here that there some provisions which are implicit like all the fundamental rights have corresponding duties also like Article 17 implies a duty not to practice untouchability and same goes the case with other fundamental right. Similarly Article 14 which deals with right to equality also implies a duty to treat all others equally. What is most hurting to note is that while most of us always remember by heart our fundamental rights, we very rarely bother about fundamental duties which are equally as important rather more important but whom we very conveniently ignore blithely for preserving our own vested interest! This is the most sad part which is just not done!

                                            What most of us tend to ignore is that our rich Indian culture never believed in duties being imposed on us as our forefathers always believed in sacrifice and this alone explains that why fundamental duties and directive principles of state policy are not binding on citizens and no penalty is imposed on anyone for not performing them. We must be always grateful to the founding fathers of our Constitution for this but we hardly care for it! Here is where we have gone grievously wrong which we must be honest enough to at least admit.

                                           Truth be told, it is most unfortunate to note that the chapter on fundamental duties even after being inserted has been most blatantly disregarded and very conveniently overlooked everywhere. This alone explains why the former CJI – Justice RC Lahoti had to observe most painfully that, “The chapter on fundamental duties, inspite of having been introduced in the Constitution, is more neglected than noticed. I have not come across any textbook of schools incorporating the text of fundamental duties much less any discussion thereon. The commentaries on Indian Constitution which I have come across, do not deal with this chapter with any emphasis. Eminent jurists writing commentaries on Constitution have not written much on fundamental duties. The apex court of the country and the High Courts have also not much utilized the Article 51A while dealing with other constitutional provisions.”

                                           Truly speaking, HM Seervai who is one of the most eminent legal luminary and jurist that India has ever produced in his monumental work on Constitutional law of India has written just a para on fundamental duties which I feel it obligatory to mention here. I must go on to say here that two notable observations made by the eminent jurist Seervai deserves to be quoted here. He says most eloquently that, “[Article 51A] has been enacted under the mistaken belief that if Articles 14 to 32 confer fundamental rights on citizens, and Articles 38 to 51 impose ‘duties’ on the State, fundamental duties ought to be imposed on citizens…. If the directive principles are violated or ignored nothing happens; equally if fundamental duties are disregarded nothing happens. It is unnecessary to deal with Article 51A beyond saying that they are innocuous”. What Seervai has observed can under no circumstances be ignored. Centre must ponder most seriously on this and do what is best suited to meet the present circumstances. The eminent legal luminary Seervai further goes on to say that clauses (b) and (j) must appear ludicrous to people outside India and even to people within India.

                                                    Having said this, now let me turn my attention on how fundamental duties came into existence. It was during the term of former PM late Mrs Indira Gandhi that it was decided that certain fundamental duties must be incorporated in the Constitution so that all citizens remain conscious of it and not think that they have no duty at all to perform. On February 26, 1976 the All India Congress Committee appointed Swaran Singh Committee to suggest certain changes in the Constitution to meet the changed circumstances. Swaran Singh Committee consisted of 12 members with former External Affairs Minister, Sardar Swaran Singh as its Chairman and Congress Secretary, AR Antulay, MP, as its Secretary.

                                                      While craving for my esteemed readers exclusive indulgence, let me point out here that it is interesting to note here that the Swaran Committee said nothing about the fundamental duties but in its supplementary report, it listed the fundamental duties, which had to be incorporated as a separate chapter in the Constitution. This Committee also laid special emphasis on the dire need of making people more aware of the duties they must perform along with enjoying rights. This is how fundamental duties were inserted in our Constitution.

                                                  For my esteemed readers exclusive benefit, I must mention here that actually the Swaran Committee had recommended only 8 fundamental duties but the Congress government in Centre headed by late Mrs Indira Gandhi decided to include 10 duties as fundamental duties. I must also mention here that some suggestions made by Swaran Committee were not accepted by Centre. As for instance, it was suggested by the Committee that there should be a penalty or punishment for non-compliance of the fundamental duties but these were not accepted. The other suggestions made but not accepted were : –

  1. PK Deo (Kalahandi) suggested that, “Every young person, before graduation in any University or before being eligible for any employment in any service, shall serve in the Territorial Army or work in any factory, or farm, or irrigation project, at least for one year”.
  2. Smt Maya Ray made a notable suggestion that payment of taxes be included as one of the fundamental duties.
  3. Bibhuti Mishra suggested, “To observe celibacy in the interest of family planning and to abstain from excessive consumption of alcohol”. He had also suggested Article 51B and Article 51C being included in the Amendment, as under –

“51B Special duty of holders of public offices – It shall be the special duty of every member of the Council of Ministers either of the Union or of the States, and every person holding an office under the Government or every member or office bearer of any public institution to protect and safeguard interests of the country and abstain from doing anything which jeopardises or is likely to jeopardise the economic, social or political interests of the country in any manner whatsoever.”

“51C – It shall be the duty of every member of the Council of Ministers and every officer of the Government responsible for taking decisions in matters relating to policy of the Government or internal administration of the Government or Departments to abstain from consuming alcohol in any public place whether called as such or private.”

  1. Sardar Swaran Singh Sokhi suggested, “To have ceiling on expenditure and to have compassion for living creatures”.
  2. Dr Karan Singh suggested, “A duty to sustain the unity and integrity of the nation.”; “A duty to act in accordance with the Constitution and laws of the land.” and “A duty to perform public duties and safeguard public property.”
  3. Kartik Oraon suggested, “A duty to undergo compulsory military training for two years at the age of eighteen or on completion of education”.
  4. Jambuwant Dhote suggested, “A duty to use swadeshi and indigenously manufactured goods only.”; “A duty to undergo military training in the armed forces for one year in case of a student/youth who attains the age of seventeen years.”; “A duty to learn how to read, write and speak ‘Hindustani language’.”; “A duty not to have either in cash or in a bank (Indian or foreign) an amount exceeding Rs 25,000.”; “A duty not to keep cash, jewellery, gold, silver, diamonds, pearls, jewels etc., in safe deposit vault either in his name or in the name of a member of his family.”; “A duty not to keep gold exceeding ten tolas in the form of ornaments or in any other form in case of a female and not to wear any ornaments made of gold in case of a male.”; “A duty to surrender to the Government cash, gold and jewellery in excess of the ceilings.”; “A duty to transfer immovable property exceeding the ceiling to the Government through a testament or any other instrument.”; “A duty to abjure vice.”; and “A duty to consider his foremost duty to build a clean, perfect and ideal character while translating into practice the aforesaid ten duties of a citizen and family.”
  5. Priya Ranjan Das Munshi suggested, “A duty to get pass marks in the history of national struggle for independence in respective stages and volumes as specified by the legislation or guidelines of the Education Ministry, in all academic examinations and in all faculties from minor to graduate degree and in all competitive examinations like PSC, UPSC and IAS.”; “A duty to set compulsory military training in school and college level for able young men.”; “A duty to get compulsory physical culture and sports in all spheres of the youth and students”.
  6. Dr Paras Diwan suggested, “A duty to work.”; “A duty to pay taxes.”; “A duty to maintain discipline at work and public order.”; “A duty to participate in public life.”; “A duty not to spread hatred, contempt or provoke strife on account of national, regional, lingual, racial and religious differences.”; “A duty to be vigilant against the enemies of the state.”; “A duty to discharge any public or social office vested in him conscientiously.”; and “A duty to receive education”.

                                                 As it turned out, it was on 1-9-1976 that finally the 42nd Amendment was introduced in the Parliament as Constitution 44th Amendment Bill by HR Gokhale who was the then Law Minister. The debate on the Bill which included Article 51A was a long debate and the motion was adopted with certain amendments on November 2, 1976. The reason why I mentioned above even those suggestions which were not accepted is that most of these suggestions are really laudable and we all must try and do our best to follow them to the best of our ability keeping our national interests above everything else.

                                            As things stand, there are many like me who very strongly feel that fundamental duties are mere “show pieces” or you may say more directly – “dead letters”. This is so because they are neither justiciable nor judicially enforceable unlike fundamental rights. There is no direct or even indirect provision in our Constitution or any other law for the time being in force in our country by which we can get fundamental duties enforced. There must be some penalty or punishment to ensure that fundamental duties are properly enforced.

                                                    Needless to say, this alone explains why most of the citizens care the least to ensure that they are discharging their fundamental duties properly! This alone explains why it was a “grave mistake” on the part of the Congress government led by Mrs Indira Gandhi to not accept the landmark suggestion of imposing penalty or punishment for non-compliance of fundamental duties! Under the Constitution of Greece and Cyprus, there is a fundamental duty, cast upon the citizens to exercise his right of franchise, founded on the doctrine of compulsory voting. A failure to exercise the right to vote is an offence punishable under the law.

                                             Let me bring out here that the American Constitution does not enumerate any fundamental duties of an individual and the UK does not have any written Constitution. But in general, the common law duties of a citizen are the same in USA and UK and they are as follows : –

  1. Allegiance to the State,
  2. To disclose any treason or felony of which he has the knowledge, and
  3. To assist in the detection and suppression of a crime.

There are more than 35 nations whose Constitution contain specific provisions on fundamental duties. Chapter II of the Chinese Constitution of 1982 clubs “fundamental rights and duties” of citizens together. It merits attention to note here that Article 33(3) makes the performance of the duties an enabling condition for enjoyment of the rights. It would be worth recalling here some of the duties enjoined by Chinese Constitution and they are as follows : –

  1. Duty towards motherland – to safeguard the security, honour and interest of the motherland; to defend the motherland and resist aggression; to maintain national unity and integrity,
  2. To abide by the Constitution;
  3. To protect public property;
  4. To respect social ethics;
  5. To pay taxes; and
  6. To work etc.

                                       Let me also bring out here that the 1977 Constitution of the erstwhile USSR  too places rights and duties on the same footing and this is best evident by Article 59 which says that, “Citizens exercise of their rights and freedoms is inseparable from the performance of their duties and obligations.” Article 61 lays down that every citizen of the USSR is obliged to preserve and protect socialist property. Persons encroaching in any way on socialist property shall be punished by law.

                                              Going forward, the Yugoslavian Constitution of 1963 also assigns a high priority to the duties of citizen. Article 32 states that, “The freedom and rights shall be achieved in solidarity among the people by the fulfillment of their duties towards each other”. Article 36 says that, “The right to work and the freedom to work are guaranteed and whoever will not work, though he is fit to do so, shall not enjoy the rights and the social protection that man enjoys on the basis of work”. Article 61 further envisages that, “Every citizen shall conscientiously discharge any public or social office vested in him and shall be personally accountable for discharging it”.

                                                  To put things in perspective, Chapter III of the Japanese Constitution, 1946, is titled “Rights and Duties of the People” which clearly indicates that rights and duties are clubbed together and not separately thus clearly conveying that duties are as important as rights. Under Article 26, the parents have the obligation to send the children to receive the compulsory free education provided by the State and under Article 27, all people shall have the obligation to work.

                                          There can be no gainsaying the indisputable fact that Justice JS Verma, former CJI, has emphasized that discourse on fundamental rights and fundamental duties cannot be divorced from each other or else we do a dis-service to both. Eminent legal jurist DD Basu says that the fundamental duties can monitor fundamental rights. For instance, a person who burns the Constitution, in violation of the duty in Article 51A(a), cannot assert that the meeting or assembly at which it was burnt, by way of demonstration against the government, should be protected by the freedom of expression or assembly guaranteed by Article 19.

                                     Be it noted, it was as early as in 1969 that the Supreme Court of India in Chandra Bhavan Boarding and Lodging, Bangalore v The State of Mysore, (1969) 3 SCC 84 had stated most categorically that, “It is a fallacy to think that under our Constitution there are only rights and no duties. While rights conferred under Part III are fundamental, the directives given under Part IV are fundamental in the governance of the country. We see no conflict on the whole between the provisions contained in Part III and Part IV. They are complimentary and supplementary to each other. The provisions of Part IV enable the legislatures and the government to impose various duties on the citizens. The provisions therein, are deliberately made elastic because the duties to be imposed on the citizens depend on the extent to which the directive principles are implemented. The mandate of the Constitution is to build a welfare society in which justice – social, economic and political, shall inform all institutions of our national life. The hopes and aspirations aroused by the Constitution will be belied if the minimum needs of the lowest of our citizens are not met.” In this case, the court also held that freedom of trade does not mean freedom to exploit, nor do the provisions of the Constitution act as barriers to progress. They provide a balance for orderly progress towards the social order contemplated by the Preamble of the Constitution. Workers were held entitled to minimum rates of wages. In Municipal Council, Ratlam v Vardhichand, (1980) 4 SCC 162, the Supreme Court ruled that paucity of funds shall not be a defence to not carry out the basic duties by the local authorities.

                                                Let me also mention here that in Rural Litigation and Entitlement Kendra, Dehradun v State of Uttar Pradesh, (1985) 2 SCC 431, a Bench of Chief Justice PN Bhagwati and Justice Ranganath Mishra in order to prevent imbalance in ecology and hazard to healthy environment being created due to working of lime-stone quarries, directed the cancellation of the leases which resulted in permanent closure of lime-stone quarries. These directions were issued in face of the fundamental right to trade and business and the right to earn livelihood assigning paramount significance to fundamental duties and rather placing the fundamental duties, owing to people at  large, above the fundamental right of a few individuals. The court held that such closure would undoubtedly cause hardship, “but it is a price that has to be paid for protecting and safeguarding the right of the people to live in healthy environment with minimal disturbance of ecological balance and without avoidable hazard to them and to their cattle, homes and agricultural land and undue affectation of air, water and environment”. Similarly in Rural Litigation and Entitlement Kendra v State of Uttar Pradesh, 1986(Supp) SCC 517, it was held by Apex Court that, “Preservation of the environment and keeping the ecological balance unaffected is a task which not only governments but also every citizen must undertake. It is a social obligation and let us remind every Indian citizen that it is his fundamental duty as enshrined in Article 51A(g) of the Constitution.”

                                        It must be added here that in Shri Sachidanand Pandey  v State of West Bengal, (1987)2 SCC 295, the Apex Court held that whenever a problem of ecology is brought before the court, the court is bound to bear in mind Article 48A of the Constitution and Article 51A(g) which proclaims the fundamental duty of every citizen of India to protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wild life, and to have compassion for living creatures. Policy decisions taken by State are not ordinarily to be interfered with by the courts. But if it is the question of giving effect to the directive principle and the fundamental duty, the court is not to shrug its shoulders and say that priorities are a matter of policy not to be touched by the court; the court may always give necessary directions.

                                  It must also be added here that in MC Mehta v Union of India, (1988) 1 SCC 471, Article 51A, enacting fundamental duties of citizens, was read as casting duties on the government and for issuing certain directions consistently with Article 51A. The directions to be issued by government were –

  1. The Central Government shall direct to the educational institutions throughout India to teach at least for one hour in a week, lessons relating to protection and the improvement of the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wild life in the first ten classes;
  2. The Central Government shall get text books written for the said purpose and distribute them to the educational institutions free of cost;
  3. The children shall be taught about the need for maintaining cleanliness, commencing with the cleanliness of the house, both inside and the outside and with the street in which they live;
  4. The Central Government shall consider training of teachers who teach this subject by the introduction of short-term courses for such training;
  5. The Central Government, the Governments of the States and all the Union Territories shall consider desirability of organizing “Keep the city/town/village clean” week;
  6. To create a national awareness of the problems faced by the people by the appalling all-round deterioration of the environment.

On this, the former CJI, Justice RC Lahoti rightly said that, “The logic behind the approach adopted by the Supreme Court seems to be that if Constitution ordains the citizens to perform certain duties then the State is equally ordained to perform all such functions as would enable the citizens to perform their duties.

                                               Also, let me hasten to add here that in Vellore Citizens’ Welfare Forum v Union of India, (1996) 5 SCC 647 and MC Mehta v Union of India, (1997) 3 SCC 715, the Supreme Court recognized ‘The Precautionary Principle’ and ‘The Polluter Pays Principle’ as essential features of ‘sustainable development’ and part of the environmental law of the country. It is worth mentioning here that Article 21, directive principles and fundamental duty clause (g) of Article 51A were relied on by the Supreme Court for spelling out a clear mandate to the State to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country. The Apex Court held it mandatory for the State Government to anticipate, prevent and attack the causes of environmental degradation. In AIIMS Students Union v AIIMS, (2002) 1 SCC 428, while striking down the institutional reservation in AIIMS as violative of Article 14, the Supreme Court has drawn liberal support and backing of the fundamental duties, giving them paramountcy of consideration with other provisions of Constitution to test the Constitutional validity of such reservation in AIIMS.

                                       Having said this, let me reiterate here that just a few landmark Apex Court rulings even though laudable are woefully inadequate to deal with the endless number of cases of fundamental duties being thrown to the garbage! There are some more rulings which I have not mentioned but they are simply not enough.

                                                      Let me be direct in asking: Why can’t we fulfill our fundamental duties? Why can’t we be loyal to the nation? Why can’t we perform our fundamental duties with the same passion with which we claim time and again our fundamental rights? Why can’t we respect our national song, national anthem, national flag and everything else which is associated directly or indirectly with our nation’s pride? Why can’t we refrain from all such acts which directly or indirectly are inimical to the long term interests of our great nation? How can we claim to be Indians if we don’t perform our fundamental duties and just keep waxing eloquent on fundamental rights alone? There are many more such thought provoking questions which we must ponder over and answer honestly so that there is no fog of doubt left in our mind whatsoever of any kind!

                                                        No prizes for guessing that it is high time and now India too must seriously ponder over the dire need of clubbing duties and rights together so that duties are accorded the same high position as that of rights and to enjoy rights it must be obligatory that citizens discharge responsibly some duties also and not just keep enjoying fundamental rights and keep moving courts for enforcement of fundamental rights as we have been seeing happening in our country since independence till now! Also, it must be obligatory to render some basic fundamental duties and those not doing must be made to face punishment or penalty or both! Those who indulge in blatant anti-national acts by ranting anti-Indian slogans, burning national flag or any other similar act and abdicate their fundamental duty of respecting our national flag, national anthem, national song and unity and integrity of India have no right to claim fundamental rights and they have no right to claim Indian citizenship!

                                                      On a concluding note, let me say this most politely but at the same time most firmly: You cannot have it both ways! This is what most unfortunately is not being conveyed by Government to all such people who wantonly indulge in anti-national acts and yet are not ready to abdicate their fundamental rights and privileges associated with Indian citizenship! Fundamental duties most unfortunately has become a forgotten chapter of the Constitution. This must change now for the better and we all must fulfill our fundamental duties if we earnestly love our motherland otherwise we have just no right to stay in India or just keep claiming fundamental rights without performing any of the fundamental duties enshrined in our Constitution! The biggest tribute that we can pay to the founding fathers of our Constitution is to perform our fundamental duties with the same diligence with which we claim relentlessly our fundamental rights!

Sanjeev Sirohi, Advocate,

s/o Col BPS Sirohi,

A 82, Defence Enclave,

Sardhana Road, Kankerkhera,

Meerut – 250001, Uttar Pradesh.

SC Rightly Annuls Unconstitutional And Arbitrary Instant Divorce

Let me begin at the very beginning by pointing out that in a landmark judgment, the Supreme Court on August 22 rightly annulled the 1,400 year old reprehensible practice of instant triple talaq (talaq-e-biddat) among Muslims terming it unconstitutional and sending out a strong message that religious practices which are arbitrary and discriminatory have no place in a constitutional democracy. A historic 3:2 majority judgment by a multi-faith Constitution Bench set aside instant talaq as a “manifestly arbitrary” practice not protected by Article 25 (freedom of religion) of the Constitution. The triumvirate of Justices Kurian Joseph, UU Lalit and Rohinton F Nariman overwhelmed the minority verdict pronounced by Chief Justice of India JS Khehar and endorsed by Justice S Abdul Nazeer who is the juniormost Judge on the Bench.

triple talaq.JPG

                                     Be it noted, in talaq-e-biddat, divorce becomes immediately effective. Unlike the other two categories, it is irrevocable from the moment it is pronounced. In talaq-e-ahsan, the husband pronounces talaq once followed by abstinence or ‘iddat’ of 90 days or 3 menstrual cycles. If couple resumes intimacy in ‘iddat’ period, talaq is revoked, else it is final.

                                          To put things in perspective, in talaq-e-hasan, husband pronounces talaq 3 times over 3 months with ‘iddat’ of one month each. If intimacy is resumed in ‘iddat’, talaq is considered revoked. If it is not, the divorce becomes binding after third talaq. Supreme Court has declared illegal only “talaq-e-biddat” and Muslim men can still divorce their wives by “talaq-e-ahsan” and “talaq-e-hasan”.

                                   All credit to Shayara Bano – the 35-year-old Muslim woman from a remote hamlet – Hempur Daya in Kashipur in Uttarakhand. She was arbitrarily divorced in a letter by her husband in 2015 that contained the letter “talaq” thrice” and her husband also refused to give her two kids! She strongly stood up against fundamentalists, clerics and the glare of media and reiterated her firm determination to root out this regressive malpractice by filing PIL in Supreme Court on February 23, 2016. Now she stands totally vindicated as Supreme Court rightly upheld her contention!

                                                 But having said this, I must also mention here that along with Shayara Bano, the other key parties who were instrumental in drawing the attention of Supreme Court towards triple talaq were Ishrat Jahan, Aafreen Rehman, Atiya Sabri, Gulshan Parween and Bharatiya Muslim Mahila Andolan. Ishrat Jahan is a resident of West Bengal who was divorced by her husband Murtaza through a phone call from Dubai in April 2015. Murtaza married another woman and took away their four children with him leaving her totally helpless!

                                       Aafreen Rehman who got married in 2014 was first harassed for dowry and even beaten regularly. Later in September 2015 they asked her to leave their house. In her parents house she received a letter via speed post announcing triple talaq in January 2016.

                               Gulshan Parween of Rampur in UP filed a petition in Supreme Court asking for abolishing triple talaq in 2015. She alleged her husband sent her a talaqnama on a Rs 10 stamp paper when she was at her parents house. She alleged she was subjected to domestic violence by him for 2 years for dowry!

                                         Supreme Court made the Bharatiya Muslim Mahila Andolan (BMMA) a party in the case after taking cognizance of a survey which said 92% of Muslim women want abolition of triple talaq. Led by Zakiya Soman, the Mumbai-based autonomous body has been fighting for citizenship rights of Muslims since it was formed in January 2007. Naseem Akhtar who is BMMA’s Jaipur convener said: “It’s a balanced decision. Now we expect government to make a law against triple talaq the soonest.”

                                  Atiya Sabri of Uttar Pradesh is the last petitioner in this case. Her husband Wajid Ali and she were married since 2012 but in November 2015 her husband sent to her brother’s office a note of triple talaq. She alleged that as she had two daughters, aged three and four, her in-laws were not happy and they had tried to poison her. She approached the Supreme Court in January 2017 challenging the divorce and said that triple talaq violates fundamental rights of women.

                                                As we all know, the Supreme Court on August 22 declared triple talaq as void, illegal and unconstitutional. It is important to understand the entire sequence of events in which this landmark case proceeded. To make this task easier, here’s the chronology of events in this landmark case –

October 16, 2015: Supreme Court Bench asks Chief Justice of India to set up an appropriate Bench to examine if Muslim women face gender discrimination in divorce cases while dealing with a case of Hindu succession.

February 5, 2016: Supreme Court asks the then Attorney General Mukul Rohatgi to assist it on the pleas challenging constitutional validity of ‘triple talaq’, ‘nikah halala’ and ‘polygamy’.

March 28, 2016: Supreme Court asks Centre to file report of a high-level panel on ‘Women and the law: An assessment of family laws with focus on laws relating to marriage, divorce, custody, inheritance and succession’.

June 29, 2016: Supreme Court says ‘triple talaq’ among Muslims will be tested on “touchstone of constitutional framework”.

October 7, 2016: For the first time in India’s constitutional history, Centre opposes in Supreme Court these practices and favours a relook on grounds like gender equality and secularism.

February 14, 2017: Supreme Court allows various interlocutory pleas to be tagged along with the main matter.

February 16, 2017: Supreme Court says a five-Judge Constitution Bench set up to hear and decide the challenge to ‘triple talaq’, ‘nikah halala’ and ‘polygamy’.

March 27, 2017: AIMPLB tells Supreme Court that pleas were not maintainable as the issues fall outside the judiciary’s realm.

March 30, 2017: Supreme Court says these issues are “very important” and involve “sentiments” and says a Constitution Bench would start hearing it from May 11.

May 11, 2017: Supreme Court says it would examine whether the practice of triple talaq among Muslims is fundamental to their religion.

May 12, 2017: Supreme Court says the practice of triple talaq was the “worst” and “not desirable” form of dissolution of marriages among Muslims.

May 15, 2017: Centre tells Supreme Court that it will bring new law to regulate marriage and divorce among the Muslim community if triple talaq struck down. Supreme Court says it would examine whether triple talaq was an essential part of religion under Article 25 of Constitution.

May 16, 2017: AIMPLB tells Supreme Court that matters of faith cannot be tested on grounds of constitutional morality and also emphasized that triple talaq is a matter of faith for last 1400 years.

May 17, 2017: Supreme Court asks AIMPLB whether a woman can be given an option of saying ‘no’ to triple talaq at the time of execution of ‘nikahnama’. Centre tells Supreme Court that triple talaq is neither integral to Islam nor a “majority versus minority” issue but rather an “intra-community tussle” between Muslim men and deprived women.

May 18, 2017: Supreme Court reserves judgment on triple talaq.

May 22, 2017: AIMPLB files affidavit in Supreme Court saying it would issue an advisory to ‘Qazis’ to tell bridegrooms that they will not resort to triple talaq to annul their marriage.

August 22, 2017: Supreme Court by majority judgment of 3:2 rules that divorce through triple talaq is void, illegal and unconstitutional and against basic tenets of Quran.

                                              No doubt, this landmark judgment seeks to overturn the conventional belief that it is the community itself, not Parliament or courts, which should reform religious or personal laws. In a split verdict, three of the five all-male Judges on the case said the practice of saying “talaq” or divorce three times in one go sometimes even over email and Whatsapp violated women’s right to equality and was not integral to Islam. The dissenting note came from CJI JS Khehar and Justice S Abdul Nazeer who argued instant talaq should be suspended and the government asked to bring a law to regulate the practice within six months.

                                                    The CJI JS Khehar writing for himself and Justice Nazeer said the practice was part of Muslim personal law and, therefore protected by the Constitution from judicial review. He said that triple talaq cannot be declared unconstitutional and the “gender discriminatory practice can be done away by way of legislation. CJI Khehar said: “Personal law has a constitutional protection. This protection is extended to ‘personal law’ through Article 25 of the Constitution. It needs to be kept in mind that the stature of ‘personal law’ is that of a fundamental right… ‘personal law’ of every religious denomination is protected from invasion and breach, except as provided by and under Article 25.”

                                                   Both Khehar and Nazeer concluded that The Muslim Personal Law (Shariat) Application Act, 1937 was not a law in force within the meaning of Article 13(3)(b) of the Constitution but was made to “preserve Muslim personal law – Shariat, as it existed from time immemorial.” The order sought to explain how the customary practice was “integral” to the Sunni sect, saying it had “been in vogue since the period of Caliph Umar (a senior companion of Prophet Mohanned) which is roughly more than 1400 years ago”.

                                              Justice Kurian Joseph in his separate judgment along with the majority stated that the practice of triple talaq does not have the protection of Article 25 of the Constitution guaranteeing freedom of religion. He very rightly said “Merely because a practice has continued for long, that itself cannot make it valid if it has been expressly declared to be impermissible. The whole purpose of the 1937 Act was to declare Shariat as the rule of decision and to discontinue anti-Shariat practices with respect to subjects enumerated in Section 2 which include talaq. Therefore, in any case, after the introduction of the 1937 Act, no practice against the tenets of Quran is permissible. Hence, there cannot be any Constitutional protection to such a practice and thus, my disagreement with the learned Chief Justice for the constitutional protection given to triple talaq. I expressly endorse and reiterate the law declared in Shamim Ara. What is held to be bad in the Holy Quran cannot be good in Shariat and, in that sense, what is bad in theology is bad in law as well.”

                                             Truth be told, malpractices like Sati, human sacrifice, polygamy etc prevailed in Hinduism since many thousand of years till they were finally outlawed! Lord Krishna it is said had married 16,108 women but did that stop Jawaharlal Nehru from forbidding Hindus to marry more than once? Even the father of Lord Rama had many wives! Shivaji who is the greatest Maratha hero too had many wives and his chief queen was Sai Bai Nimbalkar!

                                           Truly speaking, all Hindus must be grateful to Nehruji for the great courage he showed in outlawing polygamy among Hindus! He exempted Muslims because they were then still heeling from the fresh wounds of partition. But now 70 years later Muslims too must be covered and malpractices like Halala whereby if a Muslim man divorces her wife and if he wants to marry her again after realizing his mistake he cannot do so until she marries another man and then obtain divorce from him!

                                            In other words, Nikah halala is the practice that requires divorced Muslim women to marry another men and consummate the marriage with him and then seek divorce from him in order to make her eligible to remarry her previous husband who gave her talaq! This is certainly most reprehensible! It makes a complete mockery of the dignity of Muslim women and does not affect Muslim men in any manner even though it is Muslim men who arbitrarily divorces her!

                                           Let me be direct in asking: Does this malpractice not make a complete mockery of women? Why then should it not be outlawed? This is exactly what Shayara Bano has very rightly prayed in her petition wherein she also wants an end to polygamy and halala!

                                           Even the majority opinion in this landmark case took two different approaches to reach the conclusion that talaq-e-biddat is unconstitutional. While Justice Nariman and Justice Lalit tested the constitutional validity of triple talaq on the touchstone of Article 14 (equality and non-discrimination), Justice Kurian put triple talaq to the theological test! Justice Kurian said: “On the pure question of law that a legislation, be it plenary or subordinate, can be challenged on the ground of arbitrariness. I agree with the illuminating exposition of law by Justice Nariman. I am also of the strong view that the constitutional democracy of India cannot conceive of a legislation which is arbitrary.”

                                       Justice Kurian also underlined that the court cannot direct lawmakers to pass a legislation. The common judgment of Justice Nariman and Justice Lalit stated after quoting religious texts and scholarly interpretations that, “Triple talaq was an irregular and heretical form of talaq”. They also made it clear that, “Given the fact that Triple Talaq is instant and irrevocable, it is obvious that any attempt at reconciliation between the husband and wife by two arbiters from their families, which is essential to save the marital tie, cannot ever take place. Also, as understood by the Privy Council in Rashid Ahmad (supra), such Triple Talaq is valid even if it is not for any reasonable cause, which view of the law no longer holds good after Shamim Ara (supra). This being the case, it is clear that this form of Talaq is manifestly arbitrary in the sense that the marital tie can be broken capriciously and whimsically by a Muslim man without any attempt at reconciliation so as to save it. This form of Talaq must, therefore, be held to be violative of the fundamental right contained under Article 14 of the Constitution of India. In our opinion, therefore, the 1937 Act in so far as it seeks to enforce Triple Talaq is within the meaning of the expression “laws in force” in Article 13(1) and must be struck down as being void to the extent that it recognizes and enforces Triple Talaq.”

                                          Justice RF Nariman and Justice UU Lalit also concluded that, “As we have concluded that the 1937 Act is a law made by the legislature before the Constitution came into force, it would fall squarely within the expression “laws in force” in Article 13(3)(b) and would be hit by Article 13(1) if found to be inconsistent with the provisions of Part III of the Constitution, to the extent of such inconsistency. It is thus clear that it is this view of the law which the 1937 Act both recognizes and enforces so as to come within the purview of Article 13(1) of the Constitution. Applying the aforesaid tests, it is clear that Triple Talaq is only a form of Talaq which is permissible in law, but at the same time, stated to be sinful by the very Hanafi school which tolerates it. According to Javed (supra), therefore, this would not form part of any essential religious practice.”

                                        They also rightly pointed out that, “The thread of reasonableness runs through the entire fundamental rights Chapter. What is manifestly arbitrary is obviously unreasonable and being contrary to the rule of law, would violate Article 14.”  It also cannot be lost upon us that Muslim theologists have themselves dubbed it as sinful, inviting the wrath of God! Many have even called for social boycott of those who indulge in triple talaq.

                                                 But Shahi Imam Bukhari of Jama Masjid, New Delhi rightly asked just recently in a newschannel  that how many have been socially boycotted till now? Therefore, it was imperative that this evil practice of triple talaq be ended once and for all! That is exactly what the Supreme Court has done in this landmark case! It rightly said that the practice violated women’s right to equality and was not integral to Islam.

                                          All political parties and leaders have welcomed the Supreme Court order. Kapil Sibal who is the lawyer for the All India Muslim Personal Law Board (AIMPLB) which argued against judicial intervention in triple talaq said that, “We hail the judgment, it protects personal laws and at the same time deprecates the practice of triple talaq.” Randeep Surjewala who is Congress’s chief spokesperson said: “This verdict is an affirmation of the rights of women and gives relief to them against being subjected to discrimination by a practice that had been perverted over the years.”

                                       Congress party leader and senior lawyer P Chidambaram while hailing the landmark judgment said that, “The judgment was a resounding affirmation of gender justice and equality of spouses. Triple talaq was a distortion of original Quranic legal principles. Good it has been declared unconstitutional.” Former Chief Election Commissioner SY Qureshi said: “AIMPLB lost an opportunity to introduce this reform itself.” Pinky Anand who is Additional Solicitor General says “It is a very progressive judgment. Triple talaq is something which is being looked down upon as derogatory within the entire community.”

                                  Union Law Minister Ravi Shankar Prasad while welcoming the landmark judgment said “The issue is not of faith, religion or worship; it is solely about gender justice, dignity and equality. It is a great dawn for women in the country. More than 22 countries have either abolished triple talaq or regulated it or laid down stringent pre-conditions.” He also said that the government strongly backs the judgment and will “consider the issue in a structured manner”.

                                       A top government source told the media that the government will not bring any legislation to ban triple talaq as the five-Judge Supreme Court Bench by a majority verdict had held instant divorce as unconstitutional and illegal. Anyone continuing with the practice of instant talaq by uttering the word thrice can be subjected to domestic violence laws and can be sent to jail if a woman approaches the police for harassment on these grounds. From now onwards Muslim men cannot arbitrarily pronounce triple talaq and will always have to keep this landmark ruling in mind which palpably completely bans instant triple talaq!

                                       Speaking for myself, no religion and no tradition can ever justify social malpractices like child marriages, Sati, triple talaq, human sacrifices, nikah halala, polygamy etc. Just because a malpractice has thrived for more than 1400 or 1500 years in any particular religion or tribal group or any other group or community is no ground to make it final! In a democratic country like ours all such malpractices must be shown the outdoor!  In 22 countries triple talaq has been completely banned and this includes Pakistan, Syria, Qatar, Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Sudan, Malaysia, Jordan, Egypt, Bangladesh, Indonesia which has maximum Muslims among others! Needless to say, Supreme Court in this landmark case very rightly annuls unconstitutional and arbitrary instant divorce by pronouncing triple talaq in one go!

Sanjeev Sirohi, Advocate,

s/o Col BPS Sirohi,

A 82, Defence Enclave,

Sardhana Road, Kankerkhera,

Meerut – 250001, Uttar Pradesh.