Category Archives: Urban and Regional Planning

Know About Cities of India- Bhopal City

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The report is based on the evolution of Bhopal and the main aspects being covered are related to the Transportation system of Bhopal which links the city in a way making it easily accessible from every nook and corner and also the Environment which was affected by the Gas Tragedy which took place long time ago but till now has its adverse impact on the city.

 

 

 

History of Bhopal is one of the oldest in India and this city has a glorious past. The history of Bhopal narrates tales of interesting, heroic and amazing incidents. Bhopal takes pride in its excellent blend of Islamic and Hindu cultures. Various dynasties have ruled the city over the years, contributing to its architectural and historical richness.

The history of Bhopal starts with its foundation by the Parmara King Bhoj (1000-1055), who had his capital at Dhar. The city was initially known as Bhopal named after Bhoj and the dam (`pal`) that he is said to have constructed to form the lakes bounding Bhopal. The fortunes of Bhopal rose and fell with that of its reigning dynasty. As the Parmaras declined in power, the city was destroyed several times and finally faded away into obscurity.

 

Physical Features

Bhopal has an average elevation of 499 metres (1637 ft). Bhopal is located in the central part of India, and is just north of the upper limit of the Vindhya mountain ranges. Located on the Malwa plateau, it is higher than the north Indian plains and the land rises towards the Vindhya Range to the south. The city has uneven elevation and has small hills within its boundaries. The major hills in Bhopal comprise of Idgah hills and Shyamala hills in the northern region and Arera hills in the central region.

It has two very beautiful big lakes, collectively known as the Bhoj Wetland . These lakes are the Upper Lake (built by King Bhoj) and the Lower Lake. The catchment area of the Upper Lake is 361 km² while that of the Lower Lake is 9.6 km². The Upper Lake drains into the Kolar River. The Van Vihar National Park is a national park situated besides the Upper Lake.

Climate

Bhopal has a humid subtropical climate, with mild, dry winters, a hot summer and a humid monsoon season. Summers start in late March and go on till mid-June, the average temperature being around 30 °C (86 °F), with the peak of summer in May, when the highs regularly exceed 40 °C (104 °F). The monsoon starts in late June and ends in late September. The average temperature is around 25 °C (77 °F) and the humidity is quite high. Temperatures rise again up to late October when winter starts, which lasts up to early March. Winters in Bhopal are mild, sunny and dry, with average temperatures around 18 °C (64 °F) and little or no rain. The winter peaks in January when temperatures may drop close to freezing on some nights. Total annual rainfall is about 1146 mm (46 inches).

Transportation

Local Transport

Bhopal has been a railroad and highway transportation hub for a long time. Bhopal has its own city bus service: Bhopal City Link Limited(currently stopped), which operates larger Star Buses, which are under GPS navigation and smaller Metro Buses. In addition, around 600 mini-buses are run by private operators. Metro or Radio Taxis and auto-rickshaws are another major means of transport. In some parts in the old as well as new city, the new Tata Magic Vans are running successfully and have replaced the older and bigger diesel rickshaws — known as “Bhat”.

Bhopal is also implementing a “Bus Rapid Transit System”, projected to become functional from the year 2011.

Roadways

Apart from the long distance services, there are many services to nearby places within the state. The bus services are operated from 8 major bus stands in the city:

  • ISBT Terminal, Kasturba Nagar (to be functional from 2010)

  • Naadra Bus Stand, Old City

  • Jawahar Chowk Stand

  • Halalpura Bus Stand

  • Bharat Talkies Stand

  • Jyaneshwari Bus Stand, South

  • Piplani Bus Stand, East

  • Ayodhya Nagar Bus Stand

National Highway 12 passes through Bhopal which connects it to Jabalpur in the East and Jaipur in the West. National Highway 86 connects Bhopal to Sagar in the East to Dewas in the West. State Highway 17 connects the city with Indore. There are number of daily buses to Indore, Ujjain, Gwalior, Jabalpur, Khajuraho, Sanchi, Pachmarhi, Vidisha, and as well to Ahmedabad, Jodhpur, Kota, Nagpur, Jaipur, Agra, and Allahabad. An interstate bus terminus is near the Habibganj station.

Metro Train

On April 21, 2010, a panel was set up for Bhopal Metro Rail.

The Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) will carry out a survey to explore the possibility of running metro rail service in the city and will give a feasibility report soon to Madhya Pradesh Urban Administration Department (MPUAD).

The DMRC will complete the survey in six months for which it has received an amount of Rs 50 lakhs.

Railways

Bhopal lies in the West Central Railway Zone. Considering both North-South and East-West train routes, it is one of the best-connected city in India. Following are the railway stations in Bhopal:

  • Bhopal Junction Railway Station is the largest and most important railway station in the city. Being on the main North-South line, it is connected by rail to all parts of the country except North-Eastern states. More than 150 daily trains have stoppages in Bhopal.

  • Habibganj Railway Station is a major and the most developed station of Bhopal. It holds the distinction of being the first ISO 9000:2001 certified railway station in India.

  • Misrod Railway Station is located in the Misrod suburb of the city.

  • Mandideep Railway Station is located in the industrial town of Mandideep.

  • Sukhsewanagar

  • Bairagarhis located in the north-western Bairagarh suburb.

  • Nishatpura railway station

Airport

The Raja Bhoj Airport is located near the satellite suburb Bairagarh and has flights to most major cities in India. Expansion of the airport is underway to convert it into an international airport.

There are three routes ways to reach the airport:

(1) Via Bairagarh,

(2) Via Panchvati,

(3) Via Mahavir Tekri (also known as Manuabhaan Ki Tekri).

Demographics

According to the 2001 census the total Bhopal population is about 1,458,416.

The population consists of 71% Hindus and 24% Muslims, with the rest of the population including Christians, Sikhs, Jains, and, Buddhists.

The Old City of Bhopal is a predominantly conservative but New Bhopal is a demographically cosmopolitan area.

The chief languages are Hindi/Urdu (Hindustani) and English, but there are a substantial number of Marathi, Sindhi, Marwari speakers as well.

Places of interest

A few of the places of interest in Bhopal include

  • Upper Lake : The largest artificial lake in Asia.

  • Lake View : A stretch of road on the shore of the great or Upper Lake. It is a popular joint for people of all age groups, especially young. The road continues into Van Vihar National Park. The Boat Club is also located here and the club organizes national level water sporting events.

  • Van Vihar National Park : A zoological park with the status of a national park, it is situated south of the Upper Lake.

  • New Market : A shopping and commercial zone in the city housing a number of eateries, restaurants, cloth shops and showrooms, bakeries, mobile stores etc.

  • Taj-ul-Masjid : It is one of the largest mosque in Asia and is also used as a madrasah

  • Aquarium Building

  • Bharat Bhawan

  • Lal Parade Ground: The Independence Day and republic day parade are held in this ground. It is also the venue of large gatherings.

  • Museum of Natural History

  • Manbhawan ki tekri : A Jain temple, situated on a hill cliff, this place is popular for the scenic views it offers of the city below. A rope-way has been installed and people also have the option to reach the spot on foot.

  • Libraries :A number of libraries are operational including the regional library and Swami Vivekananda Library (formerly British Library)

Bhopal disaster

On December 3, 1984, a Union Carbide Corporation pesticide plant in Bhopal leaked around 32 tons of toxic gases, including methyl isocyanine gas which led to the worst industrial disaster to date. The official death toll was initially recorded around 5,000. Many figures suggest that 18,000 died within two weeks, and it is estimated that around 8,000 have died since then of gas-poisoning-related diseases. The Greenpeace organization cites a total casualty figure of 20,000 as its own conservative estimate. The Bhopal disaster is often cited as the world’s worst industrial disaster. December 3 is annually observed as the official day of mourning, and every year, all government offices in Bhopal remain closed on this day.

Impacts of the tragedy

The two ICMR projects on histopathology and toxicology have more than fulfilled the initial hopes and expectations. The sequence of pathological changes in the acute, sub-acute and chronic stages has been clearly delineated. Structurally, continuing respiratory impairment in a proportion of cases resulted in progressive pulmonary damage, including desquamate pneumonitis, fibroins alveoli is, or its variants, like DIPF and GIPF.

Life in Ruins: Fate of Old Structures

Time is an architect. It sculpts stone into any form it finds rational. It changes economies on a whim to transform buildings for new uses. And it lets war destroy the magnificent only to be replaced with the mundane.

Time also leaves us beautiful remnants from past cities: former temples and broken castles, roofless churches and silent grandstands.

The abandoned, the weeping, the mysterious; flights of fancy are let loose at the mere sight of them. We fascinate of the once upon a time palaces, where the kings and queens laughed, where our forefathers ate and slept, where those great builders created history. Thus begins the chase of the mysterious ruins that once were the mighty and divinely fashioned city of the emperors and their gods.

“For, indeed, the greatest glory of a building is not in its stones, not in its gold. Its glory is in its Age, and in that deep sense of voicefulness, of stern watching, of mysterious sympathy, nay, even of approval or condemnation, which we feel in walls that have long been washed by the passing waves of humanity… It is in that golden stain of time that we are to look for the real light, and color, and preciousness of architecture; and it is not until a building has assumed this character, till it has been entrusted with the fame, and hallowed by the deeds of men, till its walls have been witnesses of suffering, and its pillars rise out of the shadows of death, that its existence, more lasting as it is than that of the natural objects of the world around it, can be gifted with even so much as these possess of language and of life” [2]

To historians, buildings are particularly important since most are constructed of durable materials and tend to last for a long time, providing invaluable information about the past. Through architecture it’s possible to gauge many things about a culture, such as lifestyle, artistic sensibilities and social structure. For instance, early Western religious structures exhibit a general evolution toward more intricate and meaningful interiors, reflecting not only improvements in technical skills but also a growing interest in “inner spaces,” the spirit over the body. This tendency can be seen in several of the most famous holy monuments of Western Civilization: the Great Pyramid of Egypt, the Greek Parthenon, and the Pantheon in Rome and the Church of Hagia Sophia in Constantinople (Istanbul). This inclination toward interiority culminates in the cathedrals of Medieval Europe. Thus, buildings are not just brick and marble but windows into the soul. [3]

We build too! We make buildings for our families to live in, our fellowmen to work in, our children to play in; but how many times in this never ending process of building do we think about what we create. When we design buildings, we visualize them in the first, second and third dimensions, that is, we consider all that is tangible about the structure. But in reality, there is more to it than what meets the eye. The structure build by the people of a civilization are the most important factor in assessing its growth and development. Hence, beyond the three dimensions, there also exists an intangible dimension, the fourth dimension, that of time.

           Strolling down the streets of this city called Delhi, one is bound to encounter a mix of buildings belonging to various periods of time tailored together in its urban fabric. On one hand we would see a collection of ruins of the bygone civilizations, whereas on the other one would witness history being created.

While ruins take a visitor way back in time when the structure was a habitat for our forefathers, there are these structures that are being created and inhabited today by us that will eventually have a tryst with destiny in the times to come; their fate is yet to be decided, it is to be decided by time.

In a scenario like this, one is often left wondering whether fate would be the way ruins stand today, proud as ever, or whether they will fail to stand the test of time and that of the needs of our descendants. Whether they will be appreciated, conserved and looked up to or will they be brought down mercilessly to make way for their descendants.

Water Resource in Bhopal

Urban expansion indeed, has put enormous stress on various resources. The most fundamental necessities for urban expansion are space, raw materials, energy, water supply and waste disposal sites. The water resource development plays an important role in achieving the multifaceted growth.

The multi dimensional growth of any city without proper planning will lead to disaster as in the case of much hyped silicon city of India “Bangalore” which was in the recent news due to heavy rain fall. The proper urban sprawl and multidate analysis of satellite will help in future planning & help to restrict the occurrence of such events in future due to natural calamities. In past proper emphasis on water resources has not been given in planning of cities (urban area). Therefore, there is a need for planning of urban area with proper emphasis on water resources using GIS &remote sensing data. This will make planning water friendly and also our surroundings cleaner and healthier for a better future.

Water resources are extremely sensitive and once degraded would take hundreds and even thousand of years to revive. Urban planners will have to give priority to conserve, protect and economic use of water resources. Every planning should have the essence of being a “Water Resource Friendly”.

An attempt has been made through this paper to review the impact on water resources (surface and sub surface) of Bhopal Urban & suburban areas.

 

INTRODUCTION

 Urban development is synonymous to improved socio- economic upliftment but faulty planning leads to disaster, water is indispensable for mankind, and Ground water is one of the prime resources of fresh water. Water is a wonderful gift of nature. Many other things useful for life can be built, constructed, made or collected, but this treatment cannot be given to water moreover, for producing all the necessities of life water is a very important source.

The major objective of this paper is assessment of water resources for Bhopal city and its environs using remote sensing and GIS. The exploration and evaluation of water resources depends on various methods and criteria, geology, geomorphology, structures, hydrology and factors governing the development of water resources regime. An attempt has been made to assess the water resources of Bhopal city based on the above factors.

 

Looking to the crises in the Bhopal city the entire hydrogeomorphological study was proposed for the area, hence the study area lies in longitude 77o 11′ East to 77o38′ and latitude 23o 05′ North to23o26′ which is bound by Sehore district in the western part and Raisen in the eastern and Hoshangabad in the southern, in northern part it is surrounded by Berasia tehsil, administratively.

Physiographically the area can be divided in northern small hilly area and rest undulating sloping area. The general slope is towards North and south eastern side. In the North eastern side lies river Halali, south eastern side lies Kalisot River and to south western side small Nallas that drain out in Kolar river. Which ultimately joins River Narmada.

 

PRESENT STATUS

 It is an irony that even the “city of lakes” is no exception to water crisis that is fast becoming a global phenomenon. The water crisis in Bhopal has made headlines over the last few years

Bhopal, the capital of the state of Madhya Pradesh in India has been facing a fast rate of urban development and industrialization, over the last decade population growth was about per year 3.5%, quite higher than the national average of 2%. This has brought about an adverse impact on the available precious water resource.

Bhopal, which is endowed with a number of water bodies developed over a period of about 900 years, is yet facing the problem of decline of water bodies; there is need of a serious thought to this issue.

 

WATER BODIES OF BHOPAL

 The identified study area for Bhopal has 16 major water bodies covering an area of 7019.49 hectares. These water bodies are being put to different uses such as water supply, Irrigation, washing, recreation and fisheries etc. water bodies are presently in different ecological status. Detailed information about these water bodies are presented in table -1

Table -1 Water bodies of Bhopal – area, status and use

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WATER SUPPLY AND DEMAND

 The water supply schemes in Bhopal have been developed in different phases depending on the projected requirement from time to time. The three land mark decisions for augmenting the supply where:

  • 1970’s – Increase in upper lake capacity (local)

  • 1980’s – Kolar scheme —32K.M. away from Bhopal

  • 2005 – Narmada water scheme—67.3K.M. Away from Bhopal

The future water demand projection depending on the population growth rates indicates that water demand in year 2031 for Bhopal city would increased to118MGD. The present identified schemes would not be able to meet such high demand thus there is a need to look for alternative options such as:

  • Development of possible resources within the area.

  • Ground water recharge

  • Conservation of existing water bodies

The urban expansion indeed has put enormous stress on various resources. The most fundamental are space, raw materials, energy, water supply and waste disposal sites. The water resource assessment, availability and development plays an important role in shaping the cities. The gap between supply and demand is increasing, seeing the fact the methodology adopted in the study area involves thematic map generation from Remote sensing data and their integration through GIS. Geological map, Geomorphologic map, Structural map and Lineament maps are prepared (Fig.1,2and3).Using visual interpretation of satellite data followed by selective field checks. Drainage map is also prepared giving an idea of slope and drainage pattern. For integration all the maps are converted into digital format in GIS and final output map of Hydrogeomorpholoy is prepared, based on class and various combinations a final out put map is generated. With various structures and other features marked on it.

Depending upon class, intervals and underlying Lithology the structures are proposed such as Nalla bund, stop dam, check dam, sub surface dykes, percolation tanks and recharge pits, that can be used by the planners while taking planning decisions.

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Figure-1

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Figure-2

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Figure-3

DISCUSSION AND RESULTS

 Water resources have become the casualty of intensive urbanization. Pollution of water bodies, lakes, rivers and contamination of precious groundwater. The Bhopal city is no exception to this and over a period of time, grave situation has cropped in. The high nitrate concentration is due to disposal of untreated sewage through open and unlined drains / Nallas and indiscriminately dumping of solid wastes without considering Hydrogeological situations.

The important part of urban development is sanitary system that is being given least priority. This can be achieved by designing better sewerage system for the entire city with provision of sewage treatment plants.

The water level has gone up to 150 meters below ground level. The reason is not very far to seek. The main trouble is that we have been siphoning the water out and we have forgotten to give back what we have drawn by means of recharging the water sources.

A considerable portion of the ground is covered with relatively impermeable layers of various paving materials; infiltration and evaporation are almost nil and most precipitation runs off.

In fact we should store at least 90%, if not the full amount of water which nature give us. To full fill the ever-increasing demand of water it is necessary to collect the water in water bodies and recharging the ground water sources. This is the only Mantra to improve the water level.

The main factors responsible for ground water resource development assessments are geology, geomorphology, lineaments; hydrology etc. Water potential zones are demarcated as high low and medium, sewage system for entire city has been identified. Rain water harvesting and water resource action plan is also proposed and characteristics of suitable land fill sites have been discussed (Fig. 4).

The drainage system of an area gives important clues of the sub surface conditions, which helps in deciphering ground water condition of that area. Water divide zones are delineated with the help of drainage map because; the zones where no percolation of water takes place are not suited for ground water storage.

The solid waste management is also an important aspect. Wherein best suitable land has been selected looking to the available topography and geological condition of the city. Safe distance from habited area suitability of treated affluent.

Rainwater harvesting is very important for urban development as the soil surface exposed to recharge gets drastically reduced and hence recharge gets diminished.

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Figure-4

CONCLUSION

 Water resources are extremely sensitive and once degraded would take hundreds and even thousand of years to revive. Urban planners will have to give priority to conserve, protect and economic use of water resources. Every planning should have the essence of being a “Water Resource Friendly”.

Study of geology, geomorphology, lineaments, hydrology and Preparation water resource action plan with the help of remote sensing data and GIS application will give immense help to urban planners in preparation of master plan of any city, viz. location of recharge structures, land use, to tap surface run off and water potential zones. Solution of water is with in the development area itself.

It is expected that the study results if implemented would shape up the water scenario of Bhopal in an eco-friendly direction and scale down the overall exploitation thereby maintaining the equilibrium between the recharge and discharge.

 

Ghaziabad: Potential Untapped

About the City

Ghaziabad is a fast growing city in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is 19 km east of Delhi and 46 km southwest of Meerut. It is the western most district of U.P. On the north it is bound by the district of Meerut, on the south by that of Bulandshahar and Gautambudh Nagar, on the south-west by Delhi and on the east by the newly formed district of Hapur. As its boundary is adjacent to Delhi, it acts as the main entrance to Uttar Pradesh and hence is also called the Gateway of Uttar Pradesh.

Ghaziabad as a district was declared on 14th November 1976. Hindon, a tributary of the Yamuna River, originating in the Upper Shivaliks is the main river flowing through the city. The Upper Ganges Canal flows through the northern part of the city, catering to the irrigation and drinking water needs of people of Ghaziabad and Delhi. The total municipal area of the city is 210 km2.

Demography of the Town

River Hindon flows through the city dividing it into east of Hindon (Cis Hindon Area i.e. CHA) and west of Hindon (Trans Hindon Area i.e. THA). CHA constitutes 2/3rd in area and population while THA constitutes 1/3rd area and population. The urban development of the city has been achieved through master plan 1981 and master plan 2001 from a population base of 70000 (1961) to 2.72 (1981) lakh , 9.68 lakh (2001) and 17.28 lak (app)(2011) . The provisional data derived from the 2011 census shows that Ghaziabad urban agglomeration had a population of 2,358,525.

If we look at the population growth trend, it will be amazing to note that it is almost doubling every decade. The city infrastructure is insufficient to accommodate such a fast growing population due to its proximity with Delhi and Noida which has a large number of floating population coming from the adjoin areas.

City Administration and Planning

The status of Ghaziabad was upgraded from Municipal Board to Municipal Corporation, known as Ghaziabad Nagar Nigam (GNN) on 31 August 1994 following 74th constitution Amendment Act 1992 and conformity legislation by state government. This was converted to Nagar Nigam in 2000. Jal Nigam is the prime authority which deals with water supply and sewerage works in Ghaziabad.

The development of the city is guided by the Master Plan 1981 and master plan 2001 under the Ghaziabad Nagar Nigam.

Business and Industries

There are manufacturers of railway wagons at Modern Industry, Sahibabad, and Indian Railways has an Electric Locomotive & EMU Car Maintenance Shed in the city. Other industries include the manufacture of diesel engines, electroplating, bicycles, picture tubes, tapestries, glassware, pottery, vegetable oil, paint and varnish, heavy chains, automobile pistons and rings, steel pharmaceuticals, and liquor. It is one of the most industrialized cities in Uttar Pradesh.

The number of small-scale industries functioning in the district is around  14,160 and have a capital investment of Rs. 270.00 crores, employing about 73,130 workers.

The number of medium/heavy industries functioning in the district is around 145 and have a capital investment of Rs. 2,930.86 crores, giving employment to about 31,200 workers.

There are a number of private hospitals and healthcare centres in Ghaziabad that provide healthcare services to the residents in nearby villages and towns such as Pilkhuwa, Hapur, and Dasna.

There are a number of malls dotting the city. Pacific and Shipra malls are amongst the largest in the National Capital Region.

Ghaziabad is one of the largest railway junctions, handling more than 100 long distance trains every day, in addition to the numerous suburban trains to Delhi.

Ghaziabad is the city that gives highest revenue in the state of Uttar Pradesh and second maximum in India.  Indirapuram and Crossings Republik are the two big sub cities of Ghaziabad.

Transportation and Connectivity

The city is well-connected by roads and railways to the adjoin towns and this has led to the unprecedented growth of the industries and residential development to cater to the needs of the floating population in Delhi and Noida. Ghaziabad has been tagged the second fastest growing city in the world due to the construction boom it has been experiencing off-late, by a City Mayors Foundation survey.

Ghaziabad can be reached by air, road and rail. The nearest airport is the Indira Gandhi International airport which is about 45 km away. By road, Ghaziabad is well-connected on all sides to Delhi, NOIDA, Hapur, Modinagar, Bulandshahr, Meerut, Saharanpur, Haridwar, etc. A large number of people commute to Delhi, Noida, Greater Noida and Gurgaon every day for work.

Bus

There are bus terminals at Mohan Nagar, Lohia Nagar,Loni, Vasundhara and close to Meerut Road from where Uttar Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation (UPSRTC) buses serve cities all over the state. The Anand Vihar bus terminal of DTC is located on city’s border.

Rail

Ghaziabad is a railway junction and several lines pass through the city. The main railway station is situated in the middle of the city. The city is well connected to Delhi and other neighbouring cities through Fast Moving Local Trains called EMU. Several trains connect Ghaziabad to Meerut, Aligarh, Delhi, New Delhi, Faridabad, Palwal, Mathura, Allahabad, Indore, Ujjain, Loni and others.

Delhi Metro

The Metro extends to Dilshad Garden station which is situated at the Apsara Border on the outskirts of the city. At present it serves the areas of Shalimar Garden and other neighbouring colonies. This Line will be further extended to Old Bus Stand, Ghaziabad by 2014. Now the metro has also been extended to vasihali which serves an important station for those living in vasundhara, vasihali and indirapuram.

There are two Metro stations in Ghaziabad, namely Kaushambi and Vaishali (Delhi Metro), which have been opened to public on 14 July 2011.[13] Besides, GDA and DMRC have jointly planned to extend the Blue Line Metro to Indirapuram and complete the Blue Line Circle by the year 2017.

Education and Health

There are a number of private and government Engineering, PG Degree, Law colleges and Management institutes in Ghaziabad. There are about 80-100 Medical, Dental, Pharmacy colleges, and Physiotherapy institutes which makes Ghaziabad one of the most education friendly city in India.

Some notable examples are ABES Engineering College, Institute of Management Technology, Ghaziabad, Ideal Institute of Technology, Ajay Kumar Garg Engineering College, Shree Ganpati Institute Of Technology, Krishna Institute Of Engineering And Technology, Raj Kumar Goel Institute of Technology, H.R institute of technology, Lord Krishna College Of Engineering, Saraswati Institute of Engineering and Technology, and many more.

Schools in Ghaziabad notably include Deep Memorial Public School,Rose Bell Public School, Dehradun Public School, Delhi Public School, D.A.V Public School and Nehru World School among many others.

There are a number of private hospitals and healthcare centres in Ghaziabad that provide healthcare services to the residents in nearby villages and towns such as Pilkhuwa, Hapur, and Dasna. As on March, 2008, around 318 Sub-centre (SCs) and 46 Primary Health Centres (PHCs) (6 of them working on 24×7 basis) are functioning in the district. Besides this, there are 6 Community Health Centres (CHCs), with 3 First Referral Units (FRUs) and 3 District Hospital to provide health care services to the people of the district. The district Hospital is located in the district headquarter. Besides these, there are 164 private hospitals with more than30 bedded or private nursing homes with less than 30 beds.

Residential Development

There has been an unprecedented increase in the upcoming residential development projects in Ghaziabad. The increasing population primarily of the middle income group has led to increased unplanned development in the rural areas. The real concern arises when a large segment of the population is deprived of the basic urban amenities like mettled road, good drainage and sewerage system, educational and health infrastructure. There is a wide gap in the look and character of the planned and unplanned residential growth which Ghaziabad is witnessing.

There are planned and say posh areas like the Inderapuram and Kaushambi having all the modern urban amenites and on the other hand there are many residential areas mushrooming along the NH- 24 leading to Meerat and Hapur. The unplanned and unorganized settlement has made it very difficult to make available the urban amenities like road, drainage and sewerage networks. The narrow lanes and congested settlements has lead to the deterioration of the living condition of the people there.  This in turn has lead to the worsening of the health and educational system of these developing areas. The non-proactive attitude of the urban development and management agency namely the Ghaziabad Nagar Nigam has lead to this situation. The unavailability of development controls and in case there is some form of Master Plan then their effective implementation in the area is lacking.

There unplanned areas area becoming the home of the unsocial elements and petty land mafias. For gaining the political mileage and use the areas as vote bank, local politician and ward members are taking some initiative to make roads and drains. But due to the lack of planning and development coordination between various areas, these small scale improvement schemes are bearing no good fruits. The un-covered drains and unconnected drains are becoming a source of creating unhealthy living environment where mosquitoes breed and lead to making the poor pay for health in long term.

Amendment in the Highway Safety and Allied Civil Laws in India

There is a serious drawback in our legal system which hinders the initiatives of the Good Samaritans during any mishaps.  Have you ever thought why few people come forward to help an injured man on the road? You might have seen a crowd surrounding such affected people but none really helping him in reaching to the hospital and other care units. And do you know why this happens? You might think that people are becoming more unsocial and there is decrease in humane volunteerism in human. But this is a part of the truth and probably not the real reason and then what is the real reason? You must be curious to know it.

Let me give you a brief of the present legal provisions that has created such a bad taste in usually good Indian citizens. The act says that a man helping an injured person will become the first evidence of the incidence. And the police man will make you do this through various means. They will make you witness without your consent and will ask you to come to police station when called to do so.

Do you think this is a fair practice of law? A man meets an accident and it is not necessary that the man who comes forward for helping is a witness to the incidence. He might be a busy person who would not like to come to police station for giving his statement.

I have seen many good Samaritans getting harassed due to the age old laws governing highway accidents. This has created a fear that you will get into trouble if you help a man who met an accident. This is not what is portrayed in movies and serials. It is a fact which gets captured by the imaginations of directors in movies.

There is a need for making modification in the laws governing highway accidents so that people come forward to help the needy person without fearing the laws of the land. The good Samaritans should be made free to choose whether he like to be a witness or not. It should not be binding on him to come to police station for giving statement. Policemen indulging in such practices of harassing the good Samaritans should be treated as culprit.

Jai Hind…!

Urban Decay and the Scope of Urban Regeneration

Human civilization is marked my the form and structures of the cities and town. The physical advancement of the cities represent the civilization of the era. Cities are dynamic symbol of growth, the point of civilization’s most exuberant vitality. Cities behave like living organisms. The internal dynamics of a city cause it to develop, growing outward until its supply of developable land diminishes.Urban Decay and Urban Regeneration

The city then starts getting intensely developed or starts recycling land, if the economy permits. A stagnant economy can start the aging process resulting in areas of the blight. The old cores of traditional of inner city areas of a city, which now developed as from the response to the culture, and lifestyle of the people are adversely affected.

At the present time, most cities are trying to take an international position and become global cities. On the other hand of our ever dual society, we find the cities that once were the symbol of society and nowadays lay abandoned and useless, suffering from serious problems of decay.

For these cities, good governance and good city planning are essential to survive and stop their decline. Nevertheless, the processes of urban decay have usually been dealt with an economic approach; the reversibility of urban decadence is linked to the restitution of economic value, improvement of the quality of life or to the amelioration of urban or social conditions.

Our increasingly urbanized civilization must pay attention to its Cities and Towns, which are growing in size and complexity. One of the major challenges of our time is how to ensure that cities have operationally and economically efficient services, which enhance their environment, their social and cultural values. Cities have always been centers of human activities. The founding, shaping, and growth of human agglomerations throughout history have been products of complex interactions of many forces.

In modern day, with advancement in the real estate development the growth poles are shifting outward and leaving the core of the town in position of getting further urban decay due to over crowding and decaying build environment. The urban local bodies do not get enough revenue from such areas and thus they don’t care to restore vitality in the area through augmentation of the infrastructure and conservation of the ancient and architectural heritage lying all around Delhi.

If we visit Delhi and go to the old Delhi then you will realize that pages of history getting unfolded in a systematic manner and you will feel that the history has once again got alive in the canvass of your mind. It is high time that city planning and maintenance authorities take immediate steps and be a part of the great tradition of the India culture and heritage. Try to revitalize the decaying urban core through measures of urban regeneration and renewal of the urban core.

Urban Infrastructure Development Scheme for Small & Medium towns (UIDSSMT)

Massive urban growth has led to complex problems of inadequacy of basic urban services. About 21% of urban population is living in squatter settlements where access to the basic services is very poor or very substandard. About 80% of population leaving in urban areas though has access to safe drinking water but there are severe deficiencies in regard to equitable distribution of water. As per estimates about 46% of households have water borne toilets while only 36% are connected with public sewerage system. Almost half of the solid waste generated in towns & cities remains uncollected. The town roads are inadequate to meet the growing traffic demand which in turn leads to traffic congestion. Inadequacy of minimum basic services in urban areas has resulted in deterioration of quality of life. The infrastructure development could not keep pace with rate of urbanization. The Urban Local Bodies (ULB) and Municipal Corporation are primarily responsible for providing minimum basic services to the inhabitants. The ULBs/Municipal Corporations are unable to cope up with the increasing demand of providing quality urban services in towns and cities due to lack of resources. From time to time Government of India provided central assistance through number of centrally sponsored schemes like Accelerated Urban Water Supply Programme, Low Cost Sanitation Programme, Mega City Scheme, 3 National Slum Development Prorgramme, Swarna Jayanthi Shahari Rozgar Yojana, Valmiki Ambedkar Awas Yojna and Scheme for Integrated Development of Small and Medium Towns.

· Enhance public-private-partnership in infrastructural development and

· Promote planned integrated development of towns and cities.

OPERATIONAL MECHANISM

As per UIDSSMT Guidelines, Urban Local Bodies are required to prepare the Detailed Project Reports (DPRs) keeping in view the priorities of development and critical problem in the respective town and submit the same to the identified State Level Nodal Agency (SLNA). The SLNA is required to appraise the DPR either in house or through outsourcing or through State Level Technical Agencies. After appraisal, SLNA will submit the Appraised Reports to the State Level Sanctioning Committee (SLSC). The SLNA/SLSC will send copies of the Appraised Reports to all the members of the SLSC including Ministry and TCPO for their views 15 days in advance to the meeting of the SLSC. All the projects are considered by the SLSC and approved. On approval by SLSC, the minutes along with recommendation are sent by the State Govt. to the Ministry of Urban Development. On receipt of Minutes from SLSC the MOUD process the proposal for release of central assistance, sign the Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) for urban reforms with State Govt. and send the release proposal to Ministry of Finance. The sharing of funds is in the ratio of 80:10 between Central Government & State Government and the balance 10% could be raised by the nodal / implementing agencies including ULBs from the internal resources or from financial institutions. However, in case of cities / towns in North Eastern States and Jammu & Kashmir sharing of funds would be in the ratio of 90:10 between Central & State Government. Fifty percent of the Central share (Additional Central Assistance) is released on signing of Memorandum of Agreement with the State Government / State Level Nodal Agency, after ascertaining availability of state share. Balance 50% of the central share is released on submission of Utilization Certificates by nodal agency for 70% of funds (Central & State grants) released earlier.

GUIDELINES- Salient Features

 

2.1. Introduction

Urban infrastructure Development Scheme for Small & Medium Towns was launched on 3.12.2005 for improvement in urban infrastructure in towns and cities in a planned manner. It subsumed the erstwhile schemes of Integrated Development of Small and Medium Towns (IDSMT) and Accelerated Urban Water Supply Programme (AUWSP).

2.2. Objectives

The objectives of the scheme are to:

· Improve infrastructural facilities and help create durable public assets and quality oriented services in cities & towns

· Enhance public-private-partnership in infrastructural development and

· Promote planned integrated development of towns and cities.

2.3. Duration of the Scheme

The duration of the Scheme will be for seven years beginning from 2005-06.

2.4. Coverage

The scheme will apply to all cities/towns as per 2001 census, excepting cities/towns covered under Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM)

2.5. Components

The components for assistance under the scheme includes all urban infrastructure development projects including water supply and sewerage. Land cost is not financed except for acquisition of private land for schemes/ projects in the North Eastern States & hilly States viz. Himachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal and Jammu & Kashmir. 

Admissible Components:- The Scheme cover the following areas

:-

i) Urban Renewal i.e redevelopment of inner (old) city areas [this would include items like widening of narrow streets, shifting of industrial/commercial establishments from non-conforming (inner-city) to conforming’ (outer-city) areas to reduce congestion, replacement of old and worn-out water pipes by new/higher capacity ones, renewal of sewerage/drainage/solid waste disposal systems, etc.

ii) Water Supply (including de-salination plants) and sanitation

iii) Sewerage and Solid Waste Management

iv) Construction and improvement of drains/storm water drains

v) Construction/Upgradation of roads, highways/expressways

vi) Parking lots / spaces on Public Private Partnership basis

vii) Development of heritage areas

viii) Prevention & rehabilitation of soil erosion/landslides only in case of Special Category States where such problems are common and,

ix) Preservation of water bodies.

Inadmissible Items

i) Power and telecommunication works,

ii) Rolling stock like buses and trams,

iii) Health and educational institutions,

iv) Urban Transport (MRTS, LRTS etc.)

v) Wage employment programme and staff component

vi) Maintenance works While sanctioning projects for slum improvement, State Level Sanctioning Committee would ensure that there has not been any duplication of efforts from other sources. For this purpose the implementing agencies are required to submit requisite certificate.

2.6. Financing Pattern

The sharing of funds would be in the ratio of 80:10 between Central Government & State Government and the balance 10% could be raised by the nodal/implementing agencies from the financial institutions. Implementing agencies may substitute internal resources for funds to be raised from financial institutions. However, in case of cities/towns in North Eastern States and Jammu & Kashmir sharing of funds would be in the ratio of 90:10 between Central & State Government.

2.7. Release of Central Assistance

Central assistance (grant) released will go directly to the nodal agencies identified by the State government as Additional Central Assistance. Release of Central share to nodal agency will be in two installments and will depend on availability of State share and submission of utilization certificates within 12 months of the closure of the financial year in accordance with the provisions of General Financial Rules. The criteria for release of funds will be as under:-

· 50% of the Central share will be released on signing of Memorandum of Agreement to the State nodal agency, after ascertaining availability of State share.

· Balance 50% of the central share would be released on submission of Utilisation Certificates by nodal agency for 70% of funds (Central & State grants) released earlier.

· State level nodal agency will, however, release funds in the following manner:

· 25% of Central grant on ascertaining availability of State share;

· Balance Central grant after release of State grant and after assessment of progress of implementation of reforms.

2.8 Revolving Fund

The grant from Government of India and State Government will flow to the nodal agency designated by State Government. The nodal agency will disburse central assistance to ULBs or para-statal agencies as the case may be, as soft loan or grant-cum-loan or grant. However, in case of sanction of loan or grant-cum-loan, the same may be sanctioned in such a manner that 25% of central and state grant put together is recovered and ploughed into Revolving Fund to leverage market funds for financing further investment in infrastructure projects. At the end of the Scheme period, the Revolving Fund may be graduated to a State Urban Infrastructure Fund.

2.9. Incentives

After due assessment of status of implementation of activities for which incentives are sought, State Level Sanctioning Committee may sanction additional central grant upto a maximum of 5% to incentivise implementing agencies as indicated below:

· 1.5% for preparation of Detailed Project Report

· 1.5% for training and capacity building relating to project/ scheme

· 1% for bringing about efficiencies in the projects

· 1% for adoption of innovative approaches and adoption of proven and appropriate technologies

2.10 State Level Nodal Agency

The State Government may designate any existing institution as nodal agency for implementation of the scheme. The nodal agency will be responsible for the following:-

I. Inviting project proposals from ULBs / Para-statal / Implementing Agencies.

II. Techno-economic appraisal of the projects either through in-house expertise or by outside agencies through outsourcing;

III. Management of funds received from Central and State Governments; Disbursement of the funds as per the financing pattern given in the guidelines;

IV. Furnishing of utilization certificates within 12 months of the closure of the financial year and quarterly physical & financial progress reports to the Ministry of Urban Development;

V. Maintenance of audited accounts of funds released to ULBs and implementing agencies. vi) Monitoring of implementation of reforms and infrastructure projects

2.11. Project Appraisal

Urban Local Bodies and implementing agencies including para-statal agencies, will submit detailed project reports to the designated State Level nodal agencies for appraisal. The State Level nodal agency will forward the appraised projects to MOUD, Planning Commission and TCPO so as to reach at least 15 days before the meeting of State Level Sanctioning Committee for enabling their representatives to offer their comments/views on the projects in the meeting.

2.12 State Level Sanctioning Committee (SLSC):

The composition of the State Level Sanctioning Committee (SLSC) may be as follows: Secretary, Urban Development / Municipal – Chairman

Admn./ Local Self Governments

Secretary, Finance, – Member

Secretary, Planning – Member

Secretary, Works / Engineer-in-Chief of PWD – Member

Director (Town & Country Planning)/ Chief Town Planner of the state – Member

Director, Municipal Administration – Member

Representative of M/o Urban Development – Member

Representative of I.F. Division, M/o Urban Dev. – Member

Representative of Planning Commission – Member

Representative of TCPO – Member

Representative of NCR Planning Board, New Delhi – Member

(in case of States of Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan) Chief Executive of the State Level Nodal Agency – Member- Secretary

SLSC shall meet as often as required but shall meet at least thrice in a year and would examine and approve project reports, periodically monitor the progress ofsanctioned projects, review the implementation of the scheme, review progress of urban reforms.

2.13 Urban Reforms

As per the Scheme Guidelines State Governments have to commit to undertake urban reforms both at state level and Urban Local body level. The urban reforms to be carried out by the State Governments are as under:

(A) Mandatory Reforms

(I) Reforms at Urban Local Body / Parastatal

(i) Adoption of modern, accrual – based double entry system of accounting.

(ii) Introduction of system of e-governance.

(iii) Increase Property Tax collection to at least 85% within next seven years.

(iv) Collection of full cost of operation and maintenance or recurring cost within next seven years. However, cities / towns in North East and other special category States may recover at least 50% of operation & maintenance charges initially. These cities / towns should graduate to full O&M cost recovery in a phased manner.

(v) Internal earmarking within local body, budgets for basic services to the urban poor.

(vi) Provision of basic services to urban poor including security of tenure at affordable prices, improved housing, water supply, sanitation and ensuring delivery of other already existing universal services of the Government for education, health and social security

(II) Reforms at State Level

(i) Implementation of 74th Constitution Amendment Act. 1992

(ii) Repeal of Urban Land Ceiling and Regulation Act.

(iii) Reform of Rent Control Laws balancing the interests of landlords and tenants.

(iv) Rationalisation of Stamp Duty to bring it down to no more than 5% within next seven years.

(v) Enactment of Public Disclosure Law to ensure preparation of medium-term fiscal plan of ULBs / Parastatals and release of quarterly performance information to all stakeholders.

(vi) Enactment of Community Participation law to institutionalize citizen participation and introducing the concept of Area Sabha in urban areas.

(vii) Assigning or associating elected ULBs with “city planning function”. Over a period of seven years, transferring all special agencies that deliver civic services in urban areas to ULBs and creating accountability platforms for all urban civic service providers in transition.

(B) Optional Reforms (State and ULB / Para-statal level)

(i) Revision of bye-laws to streamline the approval process for construction of buildings, development of sites etc.

(ii) Simplification of conversion of agricultural land for non-agricultural purposes.

(iii) Introduction of Property Title Certification System in ULBs.

(iv) Earmarking at least 20-25% of developed land in all housing projects (both Public and Private Agencies) for EWS / LIG category with a system of cross subsidization.

(v) Introduction of computerized process of registration of land and property.

(vi) To make rain water harvesting mandatory in all buildings and adoption of water conservation measures.

(vii) Bye-laws for reuse of recycled water.

(viii) Administrative reforms

(ix) Structural reforms

(x) Encouraging Public Private Partnership.

All the mandatory and optional reforms shall be implemented by the State/ULB/Para-Statal within the Scheme period (list of reforms as mentioned in guidelines).

2.14 Monitoring

· Ministry of Urban Development will periodically monitor the scheme through designated Officer of this Ministry for each State/UT.

· State level nodal agency would send quarterly progress report to the Ministry of Urban Development through TCPO.

· SLSC would ensure quarterly monitoring of various projects sanctioned under the programme.

· A Monitoring Committee under the chairmanship of Joint Secretary (Urban Development) in the Ministry of Urban Development would monitor the progress every quarter.

· Secretary (UD) would review progress of the programme twice a year.

· TCPO will be responsible for preparing a status report on the scheme in consultation with MOUD every year (by 31st May).All the mandatory and optional reforms shall be implemented by the State / ULB / Para-Statals within the Scheme period.

2.15 Training and Capacity Building

The Central and State Governments will make continuous efforts for training and up-gradation of the skills of the personnel responsible for the project and the elected representatives. State Government may organize suitable training as well as capacity building programmes through reputed institutions in the field. The same will form part of DPR to be submitted by implementing agency.

2.16 Memorandum of Agreement (MoA)

Implementation of all mandatory and at least two optional reforms in each year of the Scheme by cities/towns will be a condition precedent to access central grant under the scheme. All the reforms (mandatory as well as optional) shall be required to be implemented during the scheme period i.e seven years. The State Governments/ State level nodal agencies will execute Memorandum of Agreement (MoA) with Government of India indicating their commitment to implement identified reforms. MoA would spell out specific milestones to be achieved for each item of reform. Signing of MoA will be a necessary condition to access Central assistance. ULBs/Para-statals will sign MoA with State Level Nodal Agency. The MoA shall be submitted along with the Detailed Project Report.

2.17 Outcome of the schemes

On completion of the Scheme period of seven years, it is expected that ULBs / Parastatals will achieve the following outcomes:-

· Modern and transparent budgeting, accounting, financial management systems, designed and adopted for all urban services and governance functions

· City-wide framework for planning and governance will be established and become operational

· All urban residents will be able to obtain access to a basic level of urban services

· Financially self-sustaining agencies for urban governance and service delivery will be established, through reforms to major revenue instruments

· Local services and governance will be conducted in a manner that is transparent and accountable to citizens

· e-Governance applications will be introduced in core functions of ULBs/para-statals resulting in reduced cost and time of service delivery processes.

Miscellaneous

It will be the responsibility of Urban Local Bodies/Para-statals and implementing agencies to keep an inventory of assets created and also to maintain and operate the assets and facilities created.

The implementing agencies at the ULB/Para-statal level will be required to open and maintain separate bank account for each project in a commercial bank for receipt and expenditure of all money to be received and spent. ULBs/Parastatal/implementing agencies should maintain registers for utilization of funds separately for Central and State share and loan from financial institutions. The nodal agency will maintain institution-wise and project-wise accounts under the scheme. Ministry of Urban Development in consultation with Ministry of Finance and Planning Commission may effect changes in the scheme guidelines, other than those affecting the financing pattern as the scheme progress, if such changes are considered necessary.