All posts by shriyaagrawal12

MOTIVATION

Motivation is a powerful, yet tricky beast. Sometimes it is really easy to get motivated, and you find yourself wrapped up in a whirlwind of excitement. Other times, it is nearly impossible to figure out how to motivate yourself and you’re trapped in a death spiral of procrastination. 

One of the most surprising things about motivation is that it often comes after starting a new behavior, not before. We have this common misconception that motivation arrives as a result of passively consuming a motivational video or reading an inspirational book. However, active inspiration can be a far more powerful motivator.

Motivation is often the result of action, not the cause of it. Getting started, even in very small ways, is a form of active inspiration that naturally produces momentum.

  • If your workout doesn’t have a time when it usually occurs, then each day you’ll wake up thinking, “I hope I feel motivated to exercise today.”
  • If your business doesn’t have a system for marketing, then you’ll show up at work crossing your fingers that you’ll find a way to get the word out (in addition to everything else you have to do).
  • If you don’t have a scheduled time when you write every week, then you’ll find yourself saying things like, “I just need to find the willpower to do it.”

Here are some examples of how you can apply ritual and routine to get motivated:

  • Exercise more consistently: Use the same warm up routine in the gym.
  • Become more creative: Follow a creative ritual before you start writing or painting or singing.
  • Start each day stress-free: Create a five-minute morning meditation ritual.
  • Sleep better: Follow a “power down” routine before bed.

Human beings love challenges, but only if they are within the optimal zone of difficulty. Tasks that are significantly below your current abilities are boring. Tasks that are significantly beyond your current abilities are discouraging. But tasks that are right on the border of success and failure are incredibly motivating to our human brains. We want nothing more than to master a skill just beyond our current horizon.

We can call this phenomenon The Goldilocks Rule. The Goldilocks Rule states that humans experience peak motivation when working on tasks that are right on the edge of their current abilities. Not too hard. Not too easy. Just right.

Working on tasks that adhere to the Goldilocks Rule is one of the keys to maintaining long-term motivation. If you find yourself feeling unmotivated to work on a task, it is often because it has drifted into an area of boredom or been shoved into an area of great difficulty. You need to find a way to pull your tasks back to the border of your abilities where you feel challenged, but capable.

Theodore Roosevelt famously said, “Far and away the best prize that life has to offer is the chance to work hard at work worth doing.” So often it seems that we want to work easily at work worth doing. We want our work to be helpful and respected, but we do not want to struggle through our work. We want our stomachs to be flat and our arms to be strong, but we do not want to grind through another workout. We want the final result, but not the failed attempts that precede it. We want the gold, but not the grind.

CANCER

Cancer is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells anywhere in a body. These abnormal cells are termed cancer cells, malignant cells, or tumor cells. These cells can infiltrate normal body tissues.

SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS

  • Change in bowel or bladder habits
  • sore throat that does not heal
  • Unusual bleeding or discharge (for example, nipple secretions or a “sore” that will not heal that oozes material)
  • Thickening or lump in the breast, testicles, or elsewhere
  • Indigestion (usually chronic) or difficulty swallowing
  • Obvious change in the size, color, shape, or thickness of a wart or mole
  • Nagging cough or hoarseness
  • Unexplained loss of weight or loss of appetite
  • A new type of pain in the bones or other parts of the body that may be steadily worsening, or come and go, but is unlike previous pains one has had before
  • Persistent fatiguenausea, or vomiting
  • Unexplained low-grade fevers with may be either persistent or come and go
  • Recurring infections which will not clear with usual treatment

TYPES OF CANCER

  • Carcinoma: Cancer that begins in the skin or in tissues that line or cover internal organs — “skin, lung, colon, pancreatic, ovarian cancers,” epithelial, squamous and basal cell carcinomas, melanomas, papillomas, and adenomas
  • Sarcoma: Cancer that begins in bone, cartilage, fat, muscle, blood vessels, or other connective or supportive tissue — “bone, soft tissue cancers,” osteosarcoma, synovial sarcoma, liposarcoma, angiosarcoma, rhabdosarcoma, and fibrosarcoma
  • Leukemia: Cancer that starts in blood-forming tissue such as the bone marrow and causes large numbers of abnormal blood cells to be produced and enter the blood — “leukemia,” lymphoblastic leukemias (ALL and CLL), myelogenous leukemias (AML and CML), T-cell leukemia, and hairy-cell leukemia
  • Lymphoma and myeloma: Cancers that begin in the cells of the immune system — “lymphoma,” T-cell lymphomas, B-cell lymphomas, Hodgkin lymphomas, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and lymphoproliferative lymphomas
  • Central nervous system cancers: Cancers that begin in the tissues of the brain and spinal cord — “brain and spinal cord tumors,” gliomas, meningiomas, pituitary adenomas, vestibular schwannomas, primary CNS lymphomas, and primitive neuroectodermal tumors

CANCER STAGING

  • Site of the primary tumor
  • Tumor size and number of tumors
  • Lymph node involvement (spread of cancer into lymph nodes)
  • Cell type and tumor grade (how closely the cancer cells resemble normal tissue cells)
  • The presence or absence of metastasis

CANCER PREVENTION

Cancer prevention, by avoiding its potential causes, is the simplest method. First on most clinicians and researchers list is to stop (or better, never start) smoking tobacco. Avoiding excess sunlight (by decreasing exposure or applying sunscreen) and many of the chemicals and toxins are excellent ways to avoid cancers. Avoiding contact with certain viruses and other pathogens also are likely to prevent some cancers. People who have to work close to cancer-causing agents (chemical workers, X-ray technicians, ionizing radiation researchers, asbestos workers) should follow all safety precautions and minimize any exposure to such compounds. Although the FDA and the CDC suggests that there is no scientific evidence that definitively says cell phones cause cancer, other agencies call for more research or indicate the risk is very low. Individuals who are concerned can limit exposure to cell phones by using an earpiece and simply make as few cell phone calls as possible.

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

Artificial intelligence (AI) makes it possible for machines to learn from experience, adjust to new inputs and perform human-like tasks. Most AI examples that you hear about today – from chess-playing computers to self-driving cars – rely heavily on deep learning and natural language processing. Using these technologies, computers can be trained to accomplish specific tasks by processing large amounts of data and recognizing patterns in the data.

HISTORY

The term artificial intelligence was coined in 1956, but AI has become more popular today thanks to increased data volumes, advanced algorithms, and improvements in computing power and storage. Early AI research in the 1950s explored topics like problem solving and symbolic methods. In the 1960s, the US Department of Defense took interest in this type of work and began training computers to mimic basic human reasoning. For example, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) completed street mapping projects in the 1970s. And DARPA produced intelligent personal assistants in 2003, long before Siri, Alexa or Cortana were household names. This early work paved the way for the automation and formal reasoning that we see in computers today, including decision support systems and smart search systems that can be designed to complement and augment human abilities.

I MPORTANCE

  • AI automates repetitive learning and discovery through data. But AI is different from hardware-driven, robotic automation. Instead of automating manual tasks, AI performs frequent, high-volume, computerized tasks reliably and without fatigue. For this type of automation, human inquiry is still essential to set up the system and ask the right questions.
  • AI adds intelligence to existing products. In most cases, AI will not be sold as an individual application. Rather, products you already use will be improved with AI capabilities, much like Siri was added as a feature to a new generation of Apple products. Automation, conversational platforms, bots and smart machines can be combined with large amounts of data to improve many technologies at home and in the workplace, from security intelligence to investment analysis.
  • AI adapts through progressive learning algorithms to let the data do the programming. AI finds structure and regularities in data so that the algorithm acquires a skill: The algorithm becomes a classifier or a predictor. So, just as the algorithm can teach itself how to play chess, it can teach itself what product to recommend next online. And the models adapt when given new data. Back propagation is an AI technique that allows the model to adjust, through training and added data, when the first answer is not quite right.
  • AI analyzes more and deeper data using neural networks that have many hidden layers. Building a fraud detection system with five hidden layers was almost impossible a few years ago. All that has changed with incredible computer power and big data. You need lots of data to train deep learning models because they learn directly from the data. The more data you can feed them, the more accurate they become.
  • AI achieves incredible accuracy through deep neural networks – which was previously impossible. For example, your interactions with Alexa, Google Search and Google Photos are all based on deep learning – and they keep getting more accurate the more we use them. In the medical field, AI techniques from deep learning, image classification and object recognition can now be used to find cancer on MRIs with the same accuracy as highly trained radiologists.
  • AI gets the most out of data. When algorithms are self-learning, the data itself can become intellectual property. The answers are in the data; you just have to apply AI to get them out. Since the role of the data is now more important than ever before, it can create a competitive advantage. If you have the best data in a competitive industry, even if everyone is applying similar techniques, the best data will win.

CHALLENGES

Artificial intelligence is going to change every industry, but we have to understand its limits. The principle limitation of AI is that it learns from the data. There is no other way in which knowledge can be incorporated. That means any inaccuracies in the data will be reflected in the results. And any additional layers of prediction or analysis have to be added separately. Today’s AI systems are trained to do a clearly defined task. The system that plays poker cannot play solitaire or chess. The system that detects fraud cannot drive a car or give you legal advice. In fact, an AI system that detects health care fraud cannot accurately detect tax fraud or warranty claims fraud. In other words, these systems are very, very specialized. They are focused on a single task and are far from behaving like humans.

SUICIDE

 The act of intentionally causing one’s own death is called suicide. Suicidal behavior refers to talking about or taking actions related to ending one’s own life. Suicidal thoughts and behaviors should be considered a psychiatric emergency.

Warning signs that a person may commit suicide include:

  • talking about feeling hopeless, trapped, or alone
  • saying they have no reason to go on living
  • making a will or giving away personal possessions
  • searching for a means of doing personal harm, such as buying a gun
  • sleeping too much or too little
  • eating too little or eating too much, resulting in significant weight gain or loss
  • engaging in reckless behaviors, including excessive alcohol or drug consumption
  • avoiding social interactions with others
  • expressing rage or intentions to seek revenge
  • showing signs of extreme anxiousness or agitation
  • having dramatic mood swings
  • talking about suicide as a way out

Talk to someone who is feeling suicidal in the following manner:

  • stay calm and speak in a reassuring tone
  • acknowledge that their feelings are legitimate
  • offer support and encouragement
  • tell them that help is available and that they can feel better with treatment

Danger alarm:

  • putting their affairs in order or giving away their possessions
  • saying goodbyes to friends and family
  • having a mood shift from despair to calm
  • planning, looking to buy, steal, or borrow the tools to complete a suicide, such as a firearm or medication

Help the person by:

  • Call 911 or your local emergency number.
  • Stay with the person until help arrives.
  • Remove any guns, knives, medications, or other things that may cause harm.
  • Listen, but don’t judge, argue, threaten, or yell.

Factors that increase the risk of suicide:

  • incarceration
  • mental illness
  • previous attempts and self-harm
  • psychoocial factors
  • poor job security or low levels of job satisfaction
  • history of being abused or witnessing continuous abuse
  • being diagnosed with a serious medical condition, such as cancer or HIV
  • being socially isolated or a victim of bullying or harassment
  • substance use disorder
  • childhood abuse or trauma
  • family history of suicide
  • previous suicide attempts
  • having a chronic disease
  • social loss, such as the loss of a significant relationship
  • loss of a job
  • access to lethal means, including firearms and drugs
  • being exposed to suicide
  • difficulty seeking help or support
  • lack of access to mental health or substance use treatment
  • following belief systems that accept suicide as a solution to personal problems

People are at risk because of the following:

  • medications
  • mental health
  • substance abuse

Treatment of people at risk:

  • talk therapy
  • medications ( antidepressants, antipsychotic medications, anti-anxiety medications)
  • avoiding alcohol and drugs
  • sleeping well
  • exercising regularly

Ways to prevent suicidal thoughts:

  • talk to someone
  • take medications as directed
  • never skip an appointment
  • pay attention to warning signs
  • eliminate access to lethal methods of suicide

WHO recommends four key interventions which have proven to be effective:

  • restricting access to means
  • working with the media to ensure responsible reporting of suicide.
  • helping young people develop skills to cope with life’s pressures
  • early identification and management of people who are thinking about suicide or who have made a suicide attempt, keeping follow-up contact in the short and longer-term

SELF LOVE

Self-love is a state of appreciation for oneself that grows from actions that support our physical, psychological and spiritual growth. Self-love means having a high regard for your own well-being and happiness. Self-love means taking care of your own needs and not sacrificing your well-being to please others. Self-love means not settling for less than you deserve. Self-love means accepting yourself as you are in this very moment for everything that you are. It means accepting your emotions for what they are and putting your physical, emotional and mental well-being first.

Loving yourself doesn’t mean you think you’re the smartest, most talented, and most beautiful person in the world. Instead, when you love yourself you accept your so-called weaknesses, appreciate these so-called shortcomings as something that makes you who you are. When you love yourself you have compassion for yourself.

It can mean:

  • Talking to and about yourself with love
  • Prioritizing yourself
  • Giving yourself a break from self-judgement
  • Trusting yourself
  • Being true to yourself
  • Being nice to yourself
  • Setting healthy boundaries
  • Forgiving yourself when you aren’t being true or nice to yourself

To practice self-care, we often need to go back to the basics and

  • Listen to our bodies
  • Take breaks from work and move/stretch.
  • Put the phone down and connect to yourself or others, or do something creative.
  • Eating healthily, but sometimes indulge in your favorite foods.

WAYS TO PRACTICE SELF LOVE

  1. Start each day by telling yourself something really positive. How well you handled a situation, how lovely you look today. Anything that will make you smile.
  2. Fill your body with food and drink that nourishes it and makes it thrive.
  3. Move that gorgeous body of yours every single day and learn to love the skin you’re in. You can’t hate your way into loving yourself.
  4. Don’t believe everything you think. There is an inner critic inside of us trying to keep us small and safe. The downside is this also stops us from living a full life.
  5. Surround yourself with people who love and encourage you. Let them remind you just how amazing you are.
  6. Stop the comparisons. There is no one on this planet like you, so you cannot fairly compare yourself to someone else. The only person you should compare yourself to is you.
  7. End all toxic relationships. Seriously. Anyone who makes you feel anything less than amazing doesn’t deserve to be a part of your life.
  8. Celebrate your wins no matter how big or small. Pat yourself on the back and be proud of what you have achieved.
  9. Step outside of your comfort zone and try something new. It’s incredible the feeling we get when we realize we have achieved something we didn’t know or think we could do before.
  10. Embrace and love the things that make you different. This is what makes you special.
  11. Realize that beauty cannot be defined. It is what you see it as. Don’t let any of those Photoshopped magazines make you feel like your body isn’t perfect. Even those models don’t look like that in real life.
  12. Take time out to calm your mind every day. Breathe in and out, clear your mind of your thoughts and just be.
  13. Follow your passion. You know that thing that gets you so excited but scares you at the same time. The thing you really want to do but have convinced yourself it won’t work. You should go do that!
  14. Be patient but persistent. Self-love is ever evolving. It’s something that needs to be practiced daily but can take a lifetime to master. So be kind and support yourself through the hard times.
  15. Be mindful of what you think, feel and want. Live your life in ways that truly reflect this.

smoking

Smoking is a practice in which a substance is burned and the resulting smoke is breathed in to be tasted and absorbed into the bloodstream. Most commonly, the substance used is the dried leaves of the tobacco plant, which have been rolled into a small square of rice paper to create a small, round cylinder called a “cigarette”. Smoking is one of the most common forms of recreational drug use. Smoking generally has negative health effects, because smoke inhalation inherently poses challenges to various physiologic processes such as respiration. Diseases related to tobacco smoking have been shown to kill approximately half of long-term smokers when compared to average mortality rates faced by non-smokers.

HEALTH EFFECTS

  • Heart disease
  • Stroke
  • Lung cancer
  • Throat cancer
  • Stomach cancer
  • Bladder cancer
  • Gum disease
  • Yellow teeth
  • Eye disease
  • Ulcers
  • Skin problems like psoriasis
  • Greater risk of injury and slower healing time
  • Asthma
  • Smoking damages blood vessels and can make them thicken and grow narrower
  • Blockages caused by smoking can also reduce blood flow to your legs and skin
  • Emphysema and chronic bronchitis
  • Oropharynx cancer
  • Cervix cancer
  • Colon and rectum cancer
  • Esophagus cancer
  • Preterm (early) delivery
  • Stillbirth (death of the baby before birth)
  • Low birth weight
  • Sudden infant death syndrome
  • Ectopic pregnancy
  • Orofacial clefts in infants
  • Mood stimulation
  • Anxiety and irritability
  • Early menopause
  • Dull sense of smell and taste
  • Bronchitis
  • Platelet aggregation

SYMPTOMS OF CIGARETTE ADDICTION

  • Smoking more than seven cigarettes per day
  • Inhaling deeply and frequently
  • Smoking cigarettes containing nicotine levels more than 0.9mg
  • Smoking within 30 minutes of awakening in the morning
  • Finding it difficult to eliminate the first cigarette in the morning
  • Smoking frequently during the morning
  • Finding it difficult to avoid smoking in smoking-restricted areas
  • Needing to smoke even if sick and in bed

REASONS WHY PEOPLE START SMOKING

  • Stress relief
  • Pleasure
  • Social situations
  • Post-traumatic stress disorder
  • Just for trying
  • Peer pressure
  • Have parents or friends that smoke

WITHDRAWAL SYMPTOMS

  • Dizziness (which may last a day or 2 after quitting)
  • Depression
  • Feelings of frustration, impatience, and anger
  • Anxiety
  • Irritability
  • Trouble sleeping, including trouble falling asleep and staying asleep, and having bad dreams or even nightmares
  • Trouble concentrating
  • Restlessness or boredom
  • Headaches
  • Tiredness
  • Increased appetite
  • Weight gain
  • Slower heart rate
  • Constipation and gas
  • Cough, dry mouth, sore throat, and nasal drip
  • Chest tightness
  • Feeling more hungry or gaining weight
  • Having trouble thinking clearly and concentrating

WHY SHOULD A PERSON QUIT SMOKING?

  • Lower heart rate and blood pressure
  • Less carbon monoxide in the blood
  • Better circulation
  • Less coughing and wheezing

QUIT SMOKING

  • Get rid of all your cigarettes. Put away your ashtrays
  • Change your morning routine. When you eat breakfast, don’t sit in the same place at the kitchen table. Stay busy.
  • When you get the urge to smoke, do something else instead.
  • Carry other things to put in your mouth, such as gum, hard candy, or a toothpick.
  • Reward yourself at the end of the day for not smoking. See a movie or go out and enjoy your favorite meal.
  • Tell your friends and family members about your decision to quit smoking, and ask for their support.

LAW

It is the discipline and profession concerned with the customs, practices, and rules of conduct of a community that are recognized as binding by the community. Enforcement of the body of rules is through a controlling authority. Articles that delineate the relationship of law to political structures are constitution; ideology; political party; and political system. Law can be divided into two main domains. Public law concerns government and society, including constitutional law, administrative law, and criminal law. Private law deals with legal disputes between individuals and/or organisations in areas such as contracts, property, torts/delicts and commercial law.

LEGAL METHODS

There are distinguished methods of legal reasoning and methods of interpreting the law.

JUDICIARY

A judiciary is a number of judges mediating disputes to determine outcome. Most countries have systems of appeal courts, with an apex court as the ultimate judicial authority. Some countries allow their highest judicial authority to overrule legislation they determine to be unconstitutional.

LEGAL PROFESSION

Legal profession, vocation that is based on expertise in the law and in its applications.

CHARACTERISTICS OF LEGAL PROFESSION

  • Social role
  • Private practice
  • Public-directed practice

CONTEMPORARY TRENDS

The prevalence of mergers between law firms of different countries is indicative of the profound changes in the legal profession brought about by globalization—the increasing exchange across international boundaries of capital, goods, technology, services, personnel, and ideas. Law firms have also taken advantage of technological advances in computers and the Internet to avail themselves of electronic databases for legal research, to provide legal advice to clients far from their home offices, and even to develop software that can be used to reduce the human element in the preparation of contracts, licensing agreements, wills, and other documentation. Supporters of these changes suggest that they will better equip law firms to compete with large accounting firms and other organizations that offer legal services, while opponents worry that they are helping to erode the distinction between law and business.

AREAS OF LAW

  • International law
  • Constitutional law
  • Administrative law
  • Criminal law
  • Contract law
  • Tort law
  • Property law
  • Equity and trusts
  • Labour law
  • Evidence law
  • Family law
  • Transactional law
  • Intellectual property law
  • Commercial law
  • Admiralty law
  • Space law
  • Immigration law
  • Tax law
  • Banking law
  • Consumer law
  • Environmental law
  • Air law
  • Competition law

LEGAL ETHICS

Principles of conduct that members of the legal profession are expected to observe in their practice. In India, under the Advocates Act of 1961, the Bar Council of India is responsible for creating rules for registering advocates, regulation of legal ethics, and for administering disciplinary action.

Principles of legal ethics, whether written or unwritten, not only regulate the conduct of legal practice but also reflect the basic assumptions, premises, and methods of the legal system within which the lawyer operates. They reflect as well the profession’s conception of its own role in the administration of justice.

A system in which a lawyer presents a client’s case in the most favourable light permitted by law and in which the court must decide the merits of the case may well produce different answers than those produced in a system that assigns a higher priority to the lawyer’s duty to the state to assure proper administration of justice.

AREAS OF APPLICATION

  • Conflict of interest
  • Confidential communications
  • Advertising and solicitation
  • Fees
  • Criminal cases
  • globalization

BUSINESS

It is the activity of making money by producing or buying and selling products for the sole purpose of making profit.

FORMS OF BUSINESS

  • Sole proprietorship
  • Partnership
  • Corporation
  • Cooperative
  • Limited liability partnership
  • Franchise
  • A company limited by guarantee
  • A company limited by shares
  • A company limited by guarantee with a share capital
  • A limited liability company
  • An unlimited company with or without a share capital
  • Companies formed by letters patent
  • Charter corporations
  • Statutory companies

CAPITAL

When businesses need to raise money they sometimes offer securities for sale. Capital may be raised through private means, by an initial public offering or IPO on a stock exchange, or in other ways.

CLASSIFICATIONS OF BUSINESS             

  • Agriculture
  • Financial services which  include banks, brokerage firms, credit unions, credit cards, insurance companies, asset and investment companies such as private equity firms, private equity funds, real estate investment trusts, sovereign wealth funds, pension funds, mutual funds, index funds, and hedge funds, stock exchanges, and other companies that generate profits through investment and management of capital.
  • Entertainment companies
  • Industrial manufacturers
  • Real estate
  • Retailers, wholesalers, and distributors act as middlemen and get goods produced by manufacturers
  • Transportation business
  • Sports
  • Utilities produce public services such as water, electricity, waste management or sewage treatment.
  • Service businesses

ACTIVITIES IN A BUSINESS

  • Accounting
  • Finance
  • Manufacturing
  • Marketing
  • Research and development
  • Safety
  • Sales

TRADE UNION (LABOUR UNION)

A trade union  is an organization of workers who have come together to achieve common goals such as protecting the integrity of its trade, improving safety standards, achieving higher pay and benefits such as health care and retirement, increasing the number of employees an employer assigns to complete the work, and better working conditions. The trade union, through its leadership, bargains with the employer on behalf of union members and negotiates labor contracts with employers. The most common purpose of these associations or unions is “maintaining or improving the conditions of their employment”. This may include the negotiation of wages, work rules, complaint procedures, rules governing hiring, firing, and promotion of workers, benefits, workplace safety and policies.

COMMERCIAL LAW

A very detailed and well-established body of rules that evolved over a very long period of time applies to commercial transactions. The need to regulate trade and commerce and resolve business disputes helped shape the creation of law and courts.

INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY

Businesses often have important “intellectual property” that needs protection from competitors for the company to stay profitable. This could require patents, copyrights, trademarks, or preservation of trade secrets. Most businesses have names, logos, and similar branding techniques that could benefit from trademarking.

BUSINESS MANAGEMENT

Business and Management are the disciplines devoted to organizing, analyzing, and planning various types of business operations.

Fields of business management include-:

  • Advertising
  • Entrepreneurship
  • Hospitality Management
  • Information Systems Management
  • International Business
  • Nonprofit Management
  • Operations Management
  • Public Administration
  • Sales Management
  • Supply Chain Management

Business and Management is feeling the impact of technological advances and changes. With big data and artificial intelligence allowing many tasks to be automated, the nature of business is changing every day.

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

Sustainable development aims at meeting the needs of present without compromising with the future generations to meet their own need. Sustainability can be defined as the practice of maintaining world processes of productivity indefinitely—natural or human-made—by replacing resources used with resources of equal or greater value without degrading or endangering natural biotic systems. Sustainable development ties together concern for the carrying capacity of natural systems with the social, political, and economic challenges faced by humanity. Sustainability Science is the study of the concepts of sustainable development and environmental science. There is an additional focus on the present generations’ responsibility to regenerate, maintain and improve planetary resources for use by future generations.

ECOLOGICAL STABILITY                

The ecological stability of human settlements is part of the relationship between humans and their natural, social and built environments. Also termed human ecology, this broadens the focus of sustainable development to include the domain of human health. Fundamental human needs such as the availability and quality of air, water, food and shelter are also the ecological foundations for sustainable development; addressing public health risk through investments in ecosystem services can be a powerful and transformative force for sustainable development which, in this sense, extends to all species.

ECONOMICS

Because of rural poverty and overexploitation, environmental resources should be treated as important economic assets, called natural capital. Economic development has traditionally required a growth in the gross domestic product. This model of unlimited personal and GDP growth may be over. Sustainable development may involve improvements in the quality of life for many but may necessitate a decrease in resource consumption.

POLITICS

Sustainable Development has similarly developed a political policy framework, linked to a sustainability index for establishing measurable entities and metrics. The framework consists of six core areas:

  • International trade and investment
  • Economic policy
  • Climate change and energy
  • Measurement and assessment
  • Natural resource management
  • Communication technologies.

AGRICULTURE

Agriculture depends on the conservation of our most precious natural resources: water, land, and biodiversity. That’s why every investment in innovation also needs to be an investment in sustainability.As a leader in agriculture, we have the opportunity and responsibility to address our most pressing challenges —like climate change, biodiversity loss, food security, and natural resource conservation. And believe, agriculture is part of the solution. Innovations like digital tools, biotechnology, plant breeding, and crop protection combined with sustainable agricultural practices help farmers use fewer natural resources.

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS

The Sustainable Development Goals are:

  • No Poverty
  • Zero Hunger
  • Good Health and Well-being
  • Quality Education
  • Gender Equality
  • Clean Water and Sanitation
  • Affordable and Clean Energy
  • Decent Work and Economic Growth
  • Industry, Innovation, and Infrastructure
  • Reducing Inequality
  • Sustainable Cities and Communities
  • Responsible Consumption and Production
  • Climate Action
  • Life Below Water
  • Life On Land
  • Peace, Justice, and Strong Institutions
  • Partnerships for the Goals

CRITICISMS

  • Competing goals
  • Too many goals
  • Weak on environmental sustainability
  • Comparison with Millennium Development Goals

Global Goals Week is an annual week-long event in September for action, awareness, and accountability for the Sustainable Development Goals.  It first took place in 2016. It is often held concurrently with Climate Week NYC.

MURDER

In India according to Section 300 of the Indian Penal Code, 1860, murder is defined as follows:

Murder.–Except in the cases hereinafter excepted, culpable homicide is murder, if the act by which the death is caused is done with the intention of causing death, or- 167 2ndly.-If it is done with the intention of causing such bodily injury as the offender knows to be likely to cause the death of the person to whom the harm is caused. or- 3rdly.-If it is done with the intention of causing bodily injury to any person and the bodily injury intended to be inflicted is sufficient in the ordinary course of nature to cause death, or- 4thly.-If the person committing the act knows that it is so imminently dangerous that it must, in all probability, cause death, or such bodily injury as is likely to cause death, and commits such act without any e

Culpable homicide (section 299 of Indian Penal Code, 1860)is defined as

By causing death of person other than person whose death was intended.–If a person, by doing anything which he intends or knows to be likely to cause death, commits culpable homicide by causing the death of any person, whose death he neither intends nor knows himself to be likely to cause, the culpable homicide committed by the offender is of the description of which it would have been if he had caused the death of the person whose death he intended or knew himself to be likely to cause for incurring the risk of causing death or such injury as aforesaid.

Culpable homicide is a term wider than murder. Therefore, Culpable homicide is considered as the genus while murder is regarded as a species. Murder is an aggravated form of culpable homicide. In culpable homicide the knowledge is not so definite, while in murder the offender has a definite knowledge that the act would be resulting in death. Thus, the probability of causing death is higher in murder than in culpable homicide.

CAUSES OF MURDER

  • Lust
  • Love
  • Loathing
  • Loot

CIRCUMSTANCES IN AWARDING DEATH SENTENCE

Supreme Court held that following mitigating circumstances are relevant and must be given weightage in determination of sentence.

  • The age of the accused.
  • The probability that the accused would not commit criminal acts of violence as would constitute a continuing threat to the society.
  • The probability that the accused can be reformed and rehabilitated.
  • That in the facts and circumstances of the case the accused believed that he was morally justified in committing the offence.
  • That the accused acted under the duress or domination of another person.
  • That to condition of the accused showed that he was mentally defective and that the said defect impaired his capacity to appreciate the criminality of his conduct.

NAME OF CASES

  • State of Tamil Nadu v. T. Suthanthiraraja
  • State v. Sushil Sharma
  • Swamy Sharaddananda @ Murli Manohar Mishra v. State of Karnataka
  • Prajeet Kumar Singh v. State of Bihar
  • State of Tamil Nadu v. Rajendran

ITS ONLY MURDER IF THEY FIND A BODY OTHERWISE ITS JUST A MISSING PERSON.