Jegede Charles Temitope
Tourism entrepreneurship has become an important sector to both advanced and developing nations including Nigeria. It is seen as capable of being an agent of change in the landscape of economic, social and environment of a tourist destination. It has also generated employment opportunities to the communities and a major driver of infrastructural development in all countries of the world. This paper x-rayed tourism entrepreneurship in Osun Osogbo Sacred Grove of Osun State, Nigeria with a view to examining correlation between tourism entrepreneurship and employment opportunities and tourism entrepreneurship and infrastructural facilities improvement. The Correlational research design was adopted. Two null hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level significance. The questionnaires were administered using multistage stratified random sampling technique to select the one hundred and fifty (150) respondents adopted for the study. Data were collected using fifteen (15) items four points likert scale questionnaires while Pearson product moment correlation statistical analysis was used for data analysis .The Result revealed that there is significant relationship between tourism entrepreneurship and employment opportunities and tourism entrepreneurship and improvement in infrastructural facilities. The study concluded that tourism entrepreneurship is an agent of employment opportunities and infrastructural development. Government and private investors should fund this sector in order to attract foreign visitors like it does in countries like Jerusalem (by Christians) Tibet (by Buddhists) and mecca (by Muslims).
Keywords: Employment Opportunities, Correlation, Infrastructural Facilities, Sacred Grove, Tourism Entrepreneurship
Tourism entrepreneurship is the most attractive and the fastest growing entrepreneurial industry in the world. Tourism entrepreneurship in 2005 turned out to be the second largest entrepreneurial industry and accounted for global Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (Rosli & Azhar, 2007).
In Malaysia the tourism entrepreneurship has experienced impressive growth as it contributes to foreign exchange, investment and employment opportunities as well as strengthening the services account of the balances of payment (Sheldon and Var, 1989).
According to UNCSP (1999) tourism entrepreneurship is the world’s largest entrepreneurship industry and creator of jobs across national and regional economics. It stated further that net has been significantly improved through contribution of tourism entrepreneurship.
Elliott and Mann (2005) asserted that tourism entrepreneurship’s role in development has evolved significantly, providing not just foreign exchange economic growth and employment but also an opportunity for host community participation in biodiversity conservation, urban growth, infrastructure overhaul and planning urban and rural development, environmental restoration, coastal protection and cultural heritage preservation.
Glasson Godfrey & Goodey (1995) argued that tourism can be a catalyst for socio-economic development by means of providing and generating employment, exchange earnings, balance of payment and infrastructure benefiting both local and tourists.
In a field study conducted by Mbaiwa (2003), he found out that people were employed in tourism related businesses, such as lodges hotels financial institutions and the handicraft industry in the Okavango, Bostwana.
According to Sam et al. (2014) tourism entrepreneurship has been regarded as a means of economic modernization in various indicators including living conditions, ability of life and well-being of population.
In Nigeria for instance tourism sector has been neglected until recently when the new government identified tourism entrepreneurship as an employment venture that can boost the economy and reduce the unemployment rate in the economy and reduce the unemployment rate in the country.
It is against this backdrop that this paper examines tourism entrepreneurship as correlate of employment opportunities and infrastructural improvement in Osun Osogbo Sacred Grove of Osun State, Nigeria.
Objectives of Study
The objectives of the study are to
- examine the correlation between employment opportunities and tourism entrepreneurship development in Osun Osogbo Sacred Grove of Osun State, Nigeria.
- assess the correlation between improvement in infrastructural facilities and tourism entrepreneurship development in Osun Osogbo Sacred Grove of Osun State, Nigeria.
- make appropriate recommendation to improve tourism entrepreneurship for socio-economic development in Osun Osogbo Sacred Group of Osun State, Nigeria.
Concept and Challenges of Tourism Entrepreneurship
Sinclair and Stabler (1997) defined tourism entrepreneurship as the professional application of knowledge, skills and competencies or monetizing a tourism related new ideas, by an individual or a set of people by launching an enterprise or diversifying from existing in order to pursue growth while generating wealth employment and social good.
Morrison et al. (2001) also defined tourism entrepreneurship as activities concerned with the survival and securing sufficient income in the hospitality business.
Saaymon & Saaymon (1998) regarded tourism entrepreneurship as activities related to creating and operating a legal tourism tourist’s enterprise. It also includes all activities and interplay that happens in a period of tourist journey.
Seyed et al. (2013) identified the challenges of tourism entrepreneurship in Mazandaran.
- Financial constraint
- Lack of infrastructural development
- Barrier cause by international sanction
- Cultural barriers
- Tourism entrepreneurship inertness
- Insufficient tourism marketing; and
Ijason and Izobo (2012) argued that many obstacles to tourism entrepreneurship are in efficient publicity, political instability, lack of interest, financial constraint, inadequate government intervention, emigration of the youth and communal conflict among others.
Tourism Entrepreneurship Development and Employment Opportunities
Tourism Entrepreneurship is one of the leading job creators in the world The industry employs more than 98 million people directly representing over 3 percent of all employment. When indirect and induced impacts are included the industry contributes to around one in eleven jobs worldwide.
For instance in Nigeria, tourism entrepreneurship plays significant roles in socio-economic development of the country. This is because it contributes towards alleviating the major political social and economic problems that characterize the rural and urban centers (Ojo, 2014).
In Nigeria, the contribution to government revenue from levies on Hospitality Sector (registration and other charges) recorded N179m in 2004 while N190m was generated by company tax (National Bureau of Statistics, NBS). In 2011, the industry contributed about N1,232 billion (3.3 percent) to the GDP in Nigeria (Sam et al, 2014). From the foregoing, the only way to have sustainable tourism is through the development of the entire neglected tourist sites in the country. This would translate to increased contribution towards gross domestic
product, employment generation, improved economic and social progress within Nigeria and
Africa as a whole.
Elochukwu (2012) maintained that tourism industry offers opportunities in jobs creation and strengthening of the nation’s economy. According to WTO (1998), Nigeria will gain a rise in employment of 897,500 which will translate to N252bn in investment equivalent to 1.6 percent increment and 1.4 percent annually with the aim of hitting 5.4 percent in 2022.
Munzali (2011) also agreed tourism entrepreneurship development generated 838,500 jobs directly in 2011 (1.4 percent of total employment) and this was forecast to grow by 7.0 percent in 2016 to 897,500 jobs.
Tourism Entrepreneurship Development and Infrastructure
The strong link between tourism entrepreneurship development and infrastructure has been
theoretically established by a numbers of scholars including Gunn (1998) and Inskeep (1991). They cited the infrastructure potential determinant of the attractiveness of a tourism entrepreneurship destination. They stressed that a good road enhances accessibility of tourists to different part of the destination while sound airport infrastructure ensures that tourist experience a comfortable transition from plane into the borders of the destination country and vice versa
In a study conducted by Gearing (1974), he found out that infrastructure (comprising electricity, roads, water, safety services, health services, communication and public transportation) is a key determinant explaining tourist arrivals.
In Nigeria for instance, Government commitment to develop most especially communities with tourist attraction sites in have resulted in the development of modern towns and cities in Nigeria.
Etefia (2004) argued that improvement in infrastructural development is paramount to tourism entrepreneurship development. Nigeria Government commitment in provision of basic amenities of life such as electricity, good roads, pipe borne water, communication network of standard, improvement of facilities of hotels and guest houses and provision of adequate security network through the localization of police and civil defense stations in most communities is a big boost to the tourism entrepreneurship development sector.
This study was carried out in Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria. Osun Osogbo Sacred Grove is in the heart of Osogbo the capital of Osun State founded some 400 years ago in South west, Nigeria. The dense forest of the Osun State Grove is one of the last remnants of primary high forest in Southern Nigeria. The group was inscribed as a UNESCO WORLD Heritage Site in 2005. It is an active religious site where daily, weekly and monthly worship takes place. In addition an annual processional festival is celebrated in the month of august at the place. The Grove is also a natural herbal pharmacy containing over 400 species of plants, some endemic of which more than 200 species are known for their medicinal uses. The group is seen as a symbol of identity for all Yoruba people, include those of the Africa diaspora, many of whom make pilgrimage to the annual festival.
Sampling Method and Survey Decision
A sample of one hundred and fifty (150) respondents from 45 years and above were selected for the study from Osogbo community which includes worshippers of Osun Osogbo and indigenes of the town. The correlational survey design was employed.
A well-constructed and validated instrument was used for data collection. The instrument was designed into two sections. Sections “A” consists of respondents personnel data while section B consists of ten item on issue that relate to the variables.
A test – retest reliability estimate was calculated using 30 respondents from Osun Osogbo worshippers and indigenous of the town.
The calculated reliability analysis coefficient range of 0.86 to 0.89 was obtained. The data collected for the study was analyzed using Pearson product moment correlation statistical technique to examine the relationship between employment opportunity and improvement in infrastructural facility on tourism entrepreneurship development in the Osun Osogbo Grove of Osun State, Nigeria.
Pearson Product Moment Correlation Analysis of Relationship between Employment Opportunities and Tourism Entrepreneurship Development in the Osun Osogbo Sacred Grove of Osun State.
The results of the data analysis in the table 1 shows that the calculated r-value of 0.97 is greater than the t-critical value of 0.195 at .05 level of significant with 148 degree of freedom. From the above result obtained, the null (Ho) hypothesis was rejected while the alternate (H1) was upheld and retained.
This implies that there is a significant relationship between employment opportunities and tourism entrepreneurship development in the Osun Osogbo Sacred Grove of Osun State, Nigeria.
Pearson Product Movement Correlation Analysis of Relationship between Improvements
Infrastructural Facilities and Tourism entrepreneurship Development in Osun Osogbo Sacred Grove of Osun State, Nigeria.
From data analysis in Table 2, the calculated r-value of 0.96 is greater than t-critical value of 0.195 at 0.05 level of significance with 148 degree of freedom. Based on the result of the finding, the null (Ho) hypothesis was rejected while the alternate (H1) hypothesis was upheld and retained.
This attests to the fact that, there is a relationship between improvements in infrastructural facility on tourism entrepreneurship development in the Osun Osogbo Sacred Grove of Osun State, Nigeria.
Discussion of Findings
Research findings show that tourism entrepreneurship plays an important role in this socio economic development of the community.
It is a major driver for the development of infrastructural facilities and also a tool for job creation.
These empirical findings corroborate Ojo (Ibid) that tourism entrepreneurship is an agent of socio-economic development
This study has examined tourism entrepreneurship in Osun Osogbo Sacred Grove, Osun State, Nigeria. The research findings from data analysis show that there is a significant relationship between employment opportunities and tourism development in Osun Osogbo Sacred Grove, Osun State, Nigeria.
Moreover, there is a significant relationship between improvement in infrastructural facility and tourism entrepreneurship development in Osun Osogbo Sacred Grove, Osun State, Nigeria.
Finally, tourism entrepreneurship is an agent of employment opportunities and socio-economic development.Government and private investors should fund this sector in order to attract foreign visitors like it does in countries like Jerusalem (by Christians), Tibet (by Buddhists) and Mecca (by Muslims).
- Government, individuals and private investors should fund the development of tourism entrepreneurship to stimulate infrastructural development and job creation.
- Government should make policy that will facilitate tourism entrepreneurship development in all tourist sites in the country. This will create job opportunities and improve infrastructural development.
iii. Nigeria school curricular at both primary and secondary levels should be reviewed so that entrepreneurship could be incorporated as compulsory subject in order to start grooming a generation of tourism entrepreneurs in the country.
- There should be an effective campaign in the media about tourism and tourism sites in the
media about sites in the country to encourage internal demand for tourism.
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