Ch. Tanveer Ahmad
This study explores the effects of mobile package advertisements on the cultural transformation among youth (BZU-Bahadur Campus). It was explore that all the respondents one way or the other use mass media (Television, Radio, Newspaper, Magazine, Internet and Outdoor) Sources for gaining information about mobile package advertisements. The comparative analysis of the selected type of media, however, showed that overall respondents preferred television relatively more for acquiring information about mobile package advertisements followed by other mass media channels. The respondents had for less dependency on the internet for this purpose. It was evident from the empirical findings that overwhelming majority of the respondents did not listen to radio for acquiring information about mobile package advertisements. The critical analysis of empirical evidence in terms of youth’ exposure to mobile package advertisements and attention paid to the mobile package advertisements showed a positive correlation. The analysis explored that the respondents who spent more time on media for mobile package advertisements got more information from these sources accordingly. The study’s findings in this regard extended full support to the research hypotheses: ‘The more the exposure to mobile package advertisement then the more their knowledge about mobile packages”. And ‘The more they pay attention on the mobile package advertisement then the more effects on their cultural patterns. The study’s findings in this regard extended full support to the research hypotheses: ‘The more they watch the mobile package advertisement then the more the effects on their social interaction patterns”. Results furthers indicate that males somewhat of the view that package advertisements effects in term of relative interaction as compared to female who presents their views. The study’s findings in this regard extended full support to the research hypotheses: ‘The more they use and watch; mobile and mobile package advertisements then the more effects on their social activities”. The comparative review of the respondents’ further indicates that females are little affected from the slogans used in advertisements as compared to male, and there is no significant difference among all the categories includes music, model, beauty, dressing, hair style and brand respectively. The critical analyses of empirical evidence in terms of reason behind using the connection they are subscribing reveled that, overall majority of the both male and female respondents using their connection because of good signal service as well as sms packages.. Finding regarding peers both male and female showed same situation while female respondents like to use the connections only for the purpose of sending messages.
Youth’s role is structuring of a nation and progression of a country is worth noting. Transformation of a culture is subject to ambitions, adoptions and goals of the youth. In this modern era, the major target of cellular companies is youth. Through mobile package advertisements youth is attracted to increase sales and income of cellular companies, but it is up to the youth that how much acceptance and receptiveness is shown by them. Development of technology is hallmark of modern world and youth is pivotal point if this advancement. Well established and flourishing cultures are dominating the frail ones. The question to be noted is whey these companies are offering new packages without exploring the outlook of youth the purpose behind these packages should be explored whether they are to facilitate the layman or youth only. Actually students are severely affected by these packages and they are losing their interest in their studies. They are diverting from their goals. Their creative and innovative tendencies are getting faded due to prolonged telephonic contacts (cited at: zeewaqar77.hubpages.com).
Almost everybody is growing in an atmosphere saturated with mass media, consisting of television, newspapers, radio, magazines, internet, advertising, films, billboards and music. Advertising is a subset of promotion mix which is one of the 4P’s in the marketing mix i.e. product, price, place and promotion (Latif & Abideen, 2011). In the early 1950s, Du Mont television network started the new cult of specifying some time for commercial advertising on the screen in 1960s new trends introduced in advertising phenomenon that had glamorous attractions for the audience. The youth and children are favorite target of advertising companies (cited at: http://www.articlesbase.com).
The history of advertisements can be traced back into primitive eras. Different models and symbols were used by the producers to divert the attention of the customers. In the old ages, products were handmade and a limited quantity was produced but the situation changed later and the products were made at large scale. In this modern age, advertisements have achieved a position of effective communicator between the manufacturer and the customer. A company cannot achieve the status of an acknowledged brand until it specifies a lion’s share for it advertisements activities (Hussainy et al, 2008). Advertising activates in Pakistan comprise the standards and trends which are followed universally. Advertising have shown a flexible attitude to the changing business standards, scientific, cultural and social transformation. In 1947, after partition a few number of advertisement models were followed which covered the local population of the age. Now a day’s not even a single aspect of our life is unaffected by advertising. Criteria of judging the popularity of a TV programs is a subject to the length of commercial breaks. Usually a popular program has one-fourth time specified for advertisements. Just a decade back this ratio was one-tenth. According to an estimate, at the end of 2010, advertising expenditures were 30 billion rupees. TV advertising claims 58% of the total advertising budget in the country which is an indicator to the popularity of TV channels. Other media include 24%, radio 4%, outdoor 9% and other media 5%. An important point to be noted is that the Telecommunication sector became the largest ad spend in Pakistan (cited at: http://www.gallup.com.pk). Television commercials are more effective source of promoting products than print ads. Manufacturer packs their products in frames that have ideological and cultural symbols and TV is the most powerful source of advertisements (Jhally, 1997).
|Statement of the Problem:
What are the Effects of Mobile Package Advertisements on the Cultural Transformation among Youth?
Objectives of the Study
There is an apprehension among the public that the Mass Media may adversely affect the Youth’s cultural activities and minds. Therefore, it is important to conduct a study on Mobile Package Advertising effects. So, this study will be conducted to find out the effects of Mobile Package Advertisements on the Youth in Sargodha, Pakistan.
· To explore the consumption patterns of Mobile Packages Advertisements by the Youth.
· To determine the extent of interest tacking in the Mobile Packages Advertisements by the Youth.
· To determine whether they like the situations shown in the Mobile Packages Advertisements.
· To what extent do they like to adopt different situations shown in the Mobile Packages Advertisements?
· To find out the effects by the use of the Mobile and package advertisements on the educational activities on the youth.
· To explore the extent of transformation of cultural trends, rituals, norms, values of native youth due to the exposure to the Mobile Packages Advertisements.
· To find out relationship between viewing Mobile Advertisements and its effects on personal appearance and lifestyle of Youth.
2.0 Literature Review:
Worldwide increasing use of mobile phones especially among the young people has become one of the favorite topics of academic researchers. Usually, researcher has major focus upon effects of mobile package advertisements, upon the youth and cultural and social changes due to these package advertisements.
The central point of this study is the evaluation of cultural changes among the youth due to mobile package advertisements. The literature review will reveal that one of the major concerns of the researchers, throughout the world, is to not the amount of exposure to mobile package advertisements and its effects upon the youth and society. The advertisements roles the culture, where they are presented may cause cultural conflicts (Zia, 2007). Because of rapid communicating sources world has adopted the form of a global village. Telecom sector has changed communication set up everywhere and this is one of the most discussed topics in Pakistan, now a days. Since last few years, telecom sector is one of the emerging sectors in Pakistan and is attracting many new investors (Butt, 2006).
The literature of Clark & Salomon (1986) study revealed that mass media itself has not strong effects on audience but the quality of the message which is being delivered by the mass media has its effects (Clark, 1983, 1994). “What people see is what they believe” is a renowned proverb. It is evident by different research studies that people try to compare themselves with what they consider better. Westbrook (1998) has suggested that people may apply a variety of different types of evaluative standards in reaching a particular satisfaction appraisal, depending on situation and personal factor. In Pakistan, mobile phones are in easy access to everyone because of competitive atmosphere among companies of both services providers and phone set providers. Due to this increasing demand for cell phones, companies are investing abundantly in this sector. Now a days, mobilink, telenor, ufone, zong, and warid are five major functioning companies in Pakistan (Sargana, 2005). Usually children and young people are target of advertising and they are consequently converted into customers. Advertising is pervasively targeting public places like schools and by some critics considered type child exploitation. Sometimes by advertisements psychological aspects of target viewers are focused which may prove harmful in the long run. Some people think that advertisements are making new additions to cultural values (cited at: www.articlesbase.com). It is the responsibility of Pakistan Telecommunication Authority to regulate and establish new telecommunication services and to monitor the functioning and maintenance of telecommunications services in Pakistan (PTA History 2005). In Pakistan, people have religious bent of mind and usually try to regard Islamic laws. In our culture, people are very sensitive about their life partner’s especially female family members and children. So while drawing advertising images these facts should be kept in mind. Situations where girls are talking to their boyfriends, students using their cell phones in educational complexes, girls getting mingled with boys, should not be reflected in advertisements. It is one of the significant elements to explore dimensions of the local culture of a country where a company is going to launch its business operations. So, adequate understanding of the local culture may result in a successful business on the other hand misunderstanding of the local culture may lead to improper decisions resulting into blocking of business (Hofstede, 2005). Differentiating cultural contrasts is a key factor to successful worldwide advertisements (Keegan, 1989). The point is to be discussed is that customers grow in a specific culture and adopt diverse features of the culture. So consumer responds to the advertisements that are in harmony with his cultural values and traditions (Boddewyn et al, 1986).
Hofstede (1980) defines culture as, the interactive active aggregate of common characteristics that influences a group’s response to its environment” and suggests culture as the collective programming of the mind which separates the member of one group from the other. In view of hofstede, structure of Pakistani culture is collectivistic whereas American culture is individualistic. Likewise Swedish, Norwegian and Danish are feminine cultures whereas Pakistani is masculine one (ITIM [no dated]). Now a day’s majority of sociologists believe that basically culture consists of symbols, ideals, and abstracts perspectives of human societies. The essence of culture is not its handicrafts, tools or other tangible objects but how the numbers of the group associate meanings to these objects. Norms, symbols, associations and perspectives are indicators to differentiate one group from the other in the modern communities. People of a cultural group attribute associations, to symbols and ideals in the similar way (Banks, 1989). Sindhi, Muhajirs, Punjabi, Baloch and Pashtun are five major ethnic groups in Pakistan. Language is major indication for identification of ethnicity in Pakistan. Almost more than twenty languages are spoken in Pakistan but Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashto, Balochi and Urdu are abundantly spoken. Urdu is the official language and is spoken and understood throughout the country. In most of schools and universities, academic activities are conducted in English, so it is a de facto national language of Pakistan (Library of Congress, 2007). No aspect of life either it is cultural, economic, political, recreational or religious is beyond the shackles of transition. The old fabrication and classification of social structure is facing a threat of change which is slow but steady. Initially we may accept little change in our dressing style, room arrangements and eatables change is one of the pleasant features of life but it should be positive always. If we adopt negative changes consequently they will have negative effects upon our living styles (cited at:www.hamariweb.com/articles). In cultures of large power distance, it is an important point that people pass most of their time in their family circles but on the other hand peoples in cultures of low power distance spend most of their own managed leisure activities. As Pakistani culture has bent to large power distance culture, so this perspective should be regarded well when marketing policies are formulated (Mooij, 2002). In Pakistan, joint family system is strong enough in which not only immediate relations but distant relations like cousins, uncles, nephews and grandparents are regarded well. So, Pakistan culture has features of collectivism. In Pakistan people give enough regards to their traditions, norms and emotions which are reflected through their behaviors. People have deep association with their cultural values. So Pakistani culture can be considered short term oriented culture (ITIM, [no dated]). In Pakistani society, male dominates female. Sometimes even female are not allowed to do job and get involved in fruitful life activities. People do not like possession of mobile phone by their females and try to impose their own decisions upon dependant females (MQM, 2007).
The Hypotheses design for the study as follows:
3.1 (A) Major Hypotheses
Greater the exposure to mobile package advertisements greater the effects on culture on the native youth (Students of BZU-Bahadur Campus).
The core purpose of this study to dig out effects of mobile package advertisements especially (Television Advertisements) and other mass media channels which are Radio, Newspapers, Magazines, Internet and Outdoor ads on the culture, social life, values and behavior patterns of native youth. The researcher was interested to examine if the mobile package advertisements has any effects on native youth and if ‘Yes’, to what extent has it effected the youth culture at it basic level in terms of the following factors:
- Family and social interaction patterns;
- Appearances and life style;
- Cultural Practices i.e. values, rituals, food, language, dress and traditions;
- Domestic and other activities.
Research had selected above mentioned factors based on the conclusion, after reviewing the relevant literature i.e. most of the researchers were of the view that viewing mobile package advertisements generates socio-economic and cultural changes. The following sub-hypothesis was formed on the basis in the above-mentioned factors.
3.2 (B) Sub-hypothesis:
- The more the exposure to mobile package advertisement then the more their knowledge about mobile packages.
- The more they pay attention on the mobile package advertisement then the more effects on their cultural patterns.
- It is more likely that the youth get information about mobile package advertisements more from television as compared to the other sources.
- The more they watch the mobile package advertisement then the more the effects on their social interaction patterns.
- The more they watch the mobile package advertisements then the more they like to adopt different situations shown in the mobile package advertisements.
- The more they use and watch; mobile and mobile package advertisements then the more effects on their social activities.
Methodology means coherent arrangement by which research plan is executed, on the other hand research design refers to the relation between research method and the nature of study. Regarding present study’s demand, survey research has been planned to draw information from the target audience in usage.
4.1 Survey Research
In Neuman (2007) view, survey is a qualitative social research in which one systematically asks many people the same questions, then records and analyzes their answers
This study was launched to explore the effects of mobile package advertisements on the cultural transformation among youth. It is also the purpose of the study to explore to what extent the cell phone usage has impacts on students’ studies. Cultural norms and values of the native youth as well as society. Keeping in view the nature of the study, survey methodology was considered to be a suitable procedure for analyzing effects and cultural change introduced by the mobile package advertisements.
4.2 Unit of Analysis
Specification of group of persons or unit of analysis for study purposes is one of the major steps of research process. In Babbie, (1992) view, unit of analysis are the people or things whose parameters are observed, described and explained by social researchers. The units of analysis in the present study are the students of the BZU-Bahudar Campus Layyah, and the purpose was to explore perception about mobile package advertisements.
Reinard (1994) defines population as extensive universe of incidents from which the sample is taken. In Neuman (2007) view, population is the name of variety of cases from which a sample is selected by a researcher and is described in theoretical terms.
In this study, the universe is the male and female students of BZU-Bahadur Campus. The first step in the research study is to specify the group of persons or unit of analysis for study. The universe in this research consists of the students of BZU-Bahadur Campus, who use different mass media channels (Television, Radio, Internet, Newspaper and Outdoor) for watching and listing mobile package advertisements.
Every researcher wants to conduct an extensive survey of the whole population to draw reliable findings for the study. But the ground realities do not support this desire and it is very difficult to study the whole population. So for making the study convenient, researchers use procedure of sampling.
4.5 Sampling Methods
Convenience sampling procedure was used for classification. Convenience sample also known as available sample is an accumulation of promptly approachable subjects for study. Exponents of using convenience samples assert that if a phenomenon, feature or trait does in fact exist, then it should exist in any sample. This sampling process is usually supportive in pretesting questionnaires or other preliminary work (Wimmer & Dominick, 1983). For data collection purpose, three hundred respondents selected. The sample was further divided on the basis of gender 50 males and 50 females.
4.6 Sample Size
Keeping in view the resource constraints, convenience and purposive methods for selection of the respondents was used for collection of data from the target population. Due to time limitation and financial constraints, it was not possible for the researcher to collect data from the large population in University of Sargodha. Therefore, one hundred respondents of equally consisting males and females students from BZU-Bahadur Campus Layyah was selected.
In the contemporary life, media is playing incredible role in providing information about every sphere of life round the clock. In the field of advertisements, media has become the basic need of individuals everywhere. This study’s results explore the effects of mobile package advertisements and cultural transformation among youth.
Table 1.1 Exposures to Mobile Package Advertisements
In survey research male and female respondents have been given the equal representation. The analysis of given data reveals little difference between male and female respondents. Overall (36%) often and (23%) little expose to mobile package advertisements. While female (37%) very often expose to the package advertisements than males. Respondent’s responses about exposure to mobile package advertisements further revel that male (11%) who significantly never prefers to expose mobile package advertisements as compared to the females, respectively ( see table 1.1).
6.0 Statistical Tools
6.1 Regression Analysis
A statistical measure that attempts to determine the strength of the relationship between one dependent variable (usually denoted by Y) and a series of other changing variables (known as independent variable. The two basic types of regression are linear regression and multiple regression. Linear regression uses one independent variable to explain and/or predict the outcome of Y, while multiple regressions use two or more independent variables to predict the outcome.
- To what extent would you like to adopt the following in your life?
|Model||Unstandardized Coefficients||Standardized Coefficients|
|1||Exposed from the Mobile package||.334||.075||.315||4.440||.000|
|Attention on the Mobile package||.559||.070||.564||7.938||.000|
|a. Dependent Variable: adopt the mix-gathering|
|Model||Unstandardized Coefficients||Standardized Coefficients|
|1||Exposed from the Mobile package||.386||.085||.274||4.521||.000|
|Attention on the Mobile package||.847||.080||.644||10.608||.000|
|a. Dependent Variable: adopt the dancing|
|6.2 Analysis of Variance
A statistical analysis tool that separates the total variability found within a data set into two components: random and systematic factors. The random factors do not have any statistical influence on the given data set, while the systematic factors do. The ANOVA test is used to determine the impact independent variables have on the dependent variable in a regression analysis.
Ø To what extent would you like to adopt the following in your life?
|Sum of Squares||df||Mean Square||F||Sig.|
|adopt the mix-gathering||Between Groups||2.253||1||2.253||1.092||.297|
|adopt the dancing||Between Groups||15.413||1||15.413||8.795||.003|
|adopt the kissing||Between Groups||63.480||1||63.480||39.092||.000|
|adopt the slang words||Between Groups||20.280||1||20.280||12.758||.000|
|adopt the hand shacking||Between Groups||48.803||1||48.803||23.478||.000|
7.0 Results & Discussion
The discussion of this study reaffirms the study statement, discusses the issues, and reaches a final judgment. It is a belief based on your reasoning and on the evidence you have accumulated. This is the place to share with readers the conclusions you have reached because of your research.
Through this study, sustained efforts have been made to explore the effects of mobile package advertisements on the cultural transformation among youth (students of BZU-Bahadur Campus). It was explore that all the respondents one way or the other use mass media (Television, Radio, Newspaper, Magazine, Internet and Outdoor) Sources for gaining information about mobile package advertisements. The comparative analysis of the selected type of media, however, showed that overall respondents preferred television relatively more for acquiring information about mobile package advertisements followed by other mass media channels. The respondents had for less dependency on the internet for this purpose. It was evident from the empirical findings that overwhelming majority of the respondents did not listen to radio for acquiring information about mobile package advertisements.
The review of the respondents regarding using internet shows that male somewhat preferred to use internet than the female respondents. It was further explored that most of the female did not use outdoor sources as compared to male respondents for gating information about mobile package advertisements. An analysis of the present study shows respondents’ preference to different sources to get the information about their mobile packages according to their interests. It is observed from the empirical findings of the study that overall majority of the respondents are those who significantly preferred television to getting information about mobile package advertisements (ref of tables).
The critical analysis of empirical evidence in terms of youth’ exposure to mobile package advertisements and attention paid to the mobile package advertisements showed a positive correlation. The analysis explored that the respondents who spent more time on media for mobile package advertisements got more information from these sources accordingly (table 1). The study’s findings in this regard extended full support to the research hypotheses: ‘The more the exposure to mobile package advertisement then the more their knowledge about mobile packages”. And ‘The more they pay attention on the mobile package advertisement then the more effects on their cultural patterns
. The study’s findings in this regard extended full support to the research hypotheses: ‘The more they watch the mobile package advertisement then the more the effects on their social interaction patterns”. The finding of table 1.3 observed that overall friends who are significantly very much effected from the mobile package advertisements as compared to all other categories. The comparative analysis of the study further indicate that male respondents who somewhat effected from package advertisements on parents interaction as compared to females. It is further observed from the empirical findings that female respondents are of the view that mobile package advertisements very much effected the friends interactions while males presented their somewhat perception about the effects. In case of effects with coworkers, teachers and peers interaction patterns respondents of both male and female respondents show no significant difference among their responses. Results furthers indicate that males somewhat of the view that package advertisements effects in term of relative interaction as compared to female who presents their views (table 1.2). After the review of the empirical evidence it was observed that mobile package advertisements played major role in effecting the social activities of the youth, including sleeping time, study time, sports, eating habits and meeting with friends (table 1.5). The study’s findings in this regard extended full support to the research hypotheses: ‘The more they use and watch; mobile and mobile package advertisements then the more effects on their social activities”. The finding of table 1.5 observed that overall sleeping time, study time and meeting with friends are more affected by watching mobile package advertisements than sports and eating habits. Critical review of the respondents’ responses regarding the factors effecting the youth in mobile package advertisements in term of slogans, environment, music, model, beauty, dressing, hair style and brand raveled that, overall environment very much effect the respondents in mobile package advertisements. The comparative review of the respondents’ further indicates that females are little affected from the slogans used in advertisements as compared to male, and there is no significant difference among all the categories includes music, model, beauty, dressing, hair style and brand respectively. While only very little difference is observed in case of slogans and environment effects in term of mobile package advertisements (table 1.3). The critically analysis of empirical evidence in terms of the likeness of different components in mobile package advertisements indicate that, overall male and female respondent significantly preferred to like actors in mobile package advertisements. Study results further indicate that sports persons are very much liked by the male respondents as compared to female in mobile package advertisements (table.1.4).
The critical analysis of empirical evidence in terms of purposes behind using the mobile phone by youth explored that, overall female preferred to use mobile phone for different purposes including getting information; keep in touch with family, because of their peers, for entertainment and for browsing internet. In this regard male respondents showed no significant interest for purpose behind using mobile phone as compared to female (table 1.6).
The critical analyses of empirical evidence in terms of reason behind using the connection they are subscribing reveled that, overall majority of the both male and female respondents using their connection because of good signal service as well as sms packages. Comparative analysis of the study further indicate that male respondents preferred to used connections due to good signal services; while female are used cellular connections due to the cheep call rates as compared to the male respondents. Finding regarding peers both male and female showed same situation while female respondents like to use the connections only for the purpose of sending messages (table 1.7).
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