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“Operation FLOOD” – WHITE Revolution (1970)


Operation Flood is the program that lead to the ‘White Revolution’

V. Kurien with PM Lal Bahadur Shastri


Operation Flood , launched on 13 January,1970 was started by National Dairy Development Board (NDDB), world’s largest dairy development program. The objective of this programme was to create a nationwide milk grid. The result was that India became the largest producer of Milk and Milk Products. Operation Flood was a rural development programme started by India’s National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) in 1970. One of the largest of its kind, the programme objective was to create a nationwide milk grid.
It resulted in making India one of the largest producers of milk and milk products, and hence is also called the White Revolution of India. It also helped reduce malpractices by milk traders and merchants.

2.Father of White Revolution-

Varghese Kurien (chairman of NDDB at that time), gave the professional management skills and necessary uplift to the cooperative, and is considered the “Architect of India’s White Revolution (Operation Flood)”- The White Revolution. The main architect of this successful project was Dr. Verghese Kurien, also called the father of White Revolution. In 1949 Mr. Kurien joined Kaira District Co-operative Milk Producers’ Union (KDCMPUL), now famous as Amul voluntarily leaving a government job of dairy engineer. V. Kurien is known as Father of White Revolution for introducing ‘billion-litre’ idea that is Operation Flood.

During the 1964-65, Intensive Cattle Development Programme (ICDP) was introduced in the country in which a package of improved animal husbandry was given to cattle owners for promoting the white revolution in the country. Later on to increase the speed of the white revolution, a new programme named “operation flood” was introduced in the country by the National Dairy Development Board.

It transformed India from a milk-deficient nation into the world’s largest milk producer, surpassing the United States of America in 1998 Revolution with about 17 percent of global output in 2010–11. Within 30 years, it doubled the milk available per person in India and made dairy farming India’s largest self-sustainable rural employment generator. It was launched to help farmers direct their own development and giving them control of the resources they create. All this was achieved not merely by mass production, but by production by the masses; the process has since been termed as the White Revolution.


• Increase milk production (“a flood of milk”)
• Augment rural incomes and reasonable prices for consumers.

4.How Operation Flood created the ‘flood’ of milk?

Operation Flood worked in three phases which ensured the following:
• It created a national milk grid linking producers. throughout India with consumers in over 700 towns and cities.
• It reduced the seasonal and regional price variations.
• It ensured that the producer gets a major share of the price consumers pay, by cutting out middlemen.
• The bedrock of the program was village milk producers’ co-operatives, which procure milk and provide inputs and services.

Programme implementation-

Operation Flood was implemented in three phases.

Phase I – Phase I (1970-1980) was financed by the sale of skimmed milk powder and butter oil gifted by the European Union then EEC through the World Food Programme. NDDB planned the programme and negotiated the details of EEC assistance. During its first phase, Operation Flood linked 18 of India’s premier milk-sheds with consumers in India’s four major metropolitan cities: Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai.

Phase II – Operation Flood’s Phase II (1981-85) increased the milk-sheds from 18 to 136; 290 urban markets expanded the outlets for milk. By the end of 1985, a self-sustaining system of 43,000 village cooperatives covering 4.25 million milk producers had become a reality. Domestic milk powder production increased from 22,000 tons in the pre-project year to 140,000 tons by 1989, all of the increase coming from dairies set up under Operation Flood. In this way EEC gifts and World Bank loan helped to promote self-reliance. Direct marketing of milk by producers’ cooperatives increased by several million litres a day.

Phase III- Phase III (1985-1996) enabled dairy cooperatives to expand and strengthen the infrastructure required to procure and market increasing volumes of milk. Veterinary first-aid health care services, feed and artificial insemination services for cooperative members were extended, along with intensified member education. Operation Flood’s Phase III consolidated India’s dairy cooperative movement, adding 30,000 new dairy cooperatives to the 42,000 existing societies organized during Phase II. Milk-sheds peaked to 173 in 1988-89 with the numbers of women members and Women’s Dairy Cooperative Societies increasing significantly. Phase III gave increased emphasis to research and development in animal health and animal nutrition. Innovations like vaccine for Theileriosis , bypass protein feed and urea-molasses mineral blocks, all contributed to the enhanced productivity of milch animals. From the outset, Operation Flood was conceived and implemented as much more than a dairy programme. Rather, dairying was seen as an instrument of development, generating employment and regular incomes for millions of rural people. “Operation Flood can be viewed as a twenty year experiment confirming the Rural Development Vision” ( World Bank Report 1997c.)


However, As the program came into force, India escalated from 50th position to the peak in terms of milk production in just a couple of decades.
Operation Flood has made the country self sufficient in milk and milk products through modernization of our dairy industry. More important, being a small-producer oriented programme, it has impacted positively on income, employment and nutrition status of milk producing households. The rural families targeted under this programme were ones with small resource base – both animal and land holdings. Over 70 per cent of the families possessed only two milch animals or less; 21 per cent families were landless and 66 percent were small and marginal farmers owning less than four ha of land. Operation flood came out be boon for India.

Let us change and make a revolution

  • Time for change *

“The door for change is open for all time. The next moment we take the first step from us, the universe will create all the forces for achieving it,” said , Nammazlvar – The agriculture scientist
This proverb is very consistent with the changes of the emerging 2020s. It is time for change. * Food is the medicine and the medicine is the food* where this line gets immunity nowadays in this pandemic of Covid 19 to grow up our immune system.
The claim is that this community is growing and growing. With the economic downturn, hunger, disease and long-distance migrant workers, all they can expect is just a good meal.
Agriculture is the backbone of the Indian economy but it accounts for only 14% of GDP.

Reliance, Tata Families Why Don’t Invest in Agriculture?
If they do, the new farming technologies abroad will benefit the Indian people, and it may inspire a lot of small investors. We go with the lure of money. So the top investment in agriculture is to make a good profit.

Have Ambani not invested in agriculture ? In 1997, the Jamnagar Refinery was one of the country’s largest pollutants and was the biggest threat to Reliance. After a serious threat from the government, they turned the Jamnagar barren wasteland into a mango orchid. Currently it is said to be * Dhirubai Ambani Lakhibag Amrayee *. It is the best mango orchid in Asia. More than 1.3 lakh plants of over 200 species.

In a few years the barren lands were turned into lush countryside.
The mangoes produced are excellent in quality and are widely exported worldwide. The company has become one of the biggest exporters of mangoes in the society and a great business opportunity.
While large investment firms invest in agriculture, the resilience of farmers of intermediaries and agricultural marketing comes to an end. It will also be a major contributor to Indian GDP and stimulate raise in the standard of living. Needs are becoming greater for man because of the involvement of money but changes in lifestyle.

Similarly, the impact of food production on India’s independence was very worrying. The sky is gone. Due to the lack of food, starvation deaths among people have developed into a disease in India. The Green Revolution was a project introduced in the 1940s. It is still spoken of as a major contributor to the uplift of the socioeconomic economy.
The result? Controversies of the Green Revolution Project. The project was based on the people then, and as a result, chemicals are causing diabetes, cancer and infertility. We have been restoring natural agriculture quite a bit. We need to create natural agriculture as a gateway to change.

The kitchen gardening revolution of 2020 where you grow you eat healthier as much . It helps in preventing the toxic chemicals , purely hygienic nutrients that enhance your immune and to a part of hobby, exercise etc.

“It’s time for change, let’s get rid of the sickness, let the dawn of the eyes of the owl come to life. Let us value the nutritious food.
Dharshini N.