All posts by Poornesh Pathak

Legal student Here to explore and to develop my writing ability. Expertise in Legal articles.


Indian martial arts refers to the fighting systems of the Indian subcontinent. A variety of terms are used for the English phrases “Indian martial arts”, usually deriving from Dravidian sources. While they may seem to imply specific disciplines (e.g. archery, armed combat), by Classical times they were used generically for all fighting systems. Among the most common terms today, śastra-vidyā, is a compound of the words śastra (weapon) and vidyā (knowledge). Dhanurveda derives from the words for bow (dhanushya) and knowledge (veda), the “science of archery” in Puranic literature, later applied to martial arts in general. The Vishnu Purana text describes dhanuveda as one of the traditional eighteen branches of “applied knowledge” or upaveda, along with shastrashastra or military science. A later term, yuddha kalā, comes from the words yuddha meaning fight or combat and kalā meaning art or skill. The related term śastra kalā (lit. weapon art) usually refers specifically to armed disciplines. Another term, yuddha-vidyā or “combat knowledge”, refers to the skills used on the battlefield, encompassing not only actual fighting but also battle formations and strategy. Martial arts are usually learnt and practiced in the traditional akharas.

While it is only a theory as of now, Shaolin Kung Fu could be of Indian origin. It has been found in many historical scripts of the Gupta period, but still said as Bodhidharma third son of a king from pallava dynasty in southern India is founder of shaolin and kung-fu.


Antiquity (pre-Gupta)

An Indus valley civilization seal show two men spearing one another in a duel which seem to be centered on a woman. A statue of a spear thrower was also excavated from an Indus valley site.

Dhanurveda, a section found in the Vedas (1700 BCE – 1100 BCE) contains references to martial arts. Indian epics contain the earliest accounts of combat, both armed and bare-handed. Most deities of the Hindu-Buddhist pantheon are armed with their own personal weapon, and are revered not only as master martial artists but often as originators of those systems themselves. The Mahabharata tells of fighters armed only with daggers besting lions, and describes a prolonged battle between Arjuna and Karna using bows, swords, trees, rocks and fists. Another unarmed battle in the Mahabharata describes two combatants boxing with clenched fists and fighting with kicks, finger strikes, knee strikes and headbutts.

The oldest recorded organized unarmed fighting art in the Indian subcontinent is malla-yuddha or combat-wrestling, codified into four forms in the Vedic Period. Stories describing Krishna report that he sometimes engaged in wrestling matches where he used knee strikes to the chest, punches to the head, hair pulling, and strangleholds. Based on such accounts, Svinth (2002) traces press-ups and squats used by Indian wrestlers to the pre-classical era.

Classical period (3rd to 10th centuries)

Like other branches of Sanskrit literature, treatises on martial arts become more systematic in the course of the 1st millennium AD. Vajra-musti, an armed grappling style, is mentioned in sources of the early centuries AD. Around this time, tantric philosophers developed important metaphysical concepts such as kundalinichakra, and mantra.

The Sushruta Samhita (c. 4th century) identifies 107 vital points on the human body of which 64 were classified as being lethal if properly struck with a fist or stick. Sushruta‘s work formed the basis of the medical discipline ayurveda which was taught alongside various martial arts. With numerous other scattered references to vital points in Vedic and epic sources, it is certain that Indian subcontinent‘s early fighters knew and practised attacking or defending vital points.

Around 630, King Narasimhavarman of the Pallava dynasty commissioned dozens of granite sculptures showing unarmed fighters disarming armed opponents. This is similar to the style described in the Agni Purana.

Middle Ages (11th to 15th centuries)

Kalaripayat had developed into its present form by the 11th century, during an extended period of warfare between the Chera and Choladynasties. The earliest treatise discussing the techniques of malla-yuddha is the Malla Purana (c. 13th century), unlike the earlier Manasollasa which gives the names of movements but no descriptions. The Italian traveller Pietro Della Valle wrote of cane-fighting in southern India. According to Pietro, it was the custom for soldiers to specialise in their own particular weapon of expertise and never use any other even during war, “thereby becoming very expert and well practised in that which he takes to”.


A wide array of weapons are used in the Indian subcontinent, some of which are not found anywhere else. According to P.C. Chakravati in The Art of War in Ancient India, armies used standard weapons such as wooden or metal-tipped spears, swords, thatched bamboo, wooden or metal shields, axes, short and longbows in warfare as early as the 4th century BC. Military accounts of the Gupta Empire(c. 240–480) and the later Agni Purana identify over 130 different weapons.

The Agni Purana divides weapons into thrown and unthrown classes. The thrown (mukta) class includes twelve weapons altogether which come under four categories, viz.

  • yantra-mukta: projectile weapons such as the sling or the bow
  • pāṇi-mukta: weapons thrown by hand such as the javelin
  • mukta-sandarita: weapons that are thrown and drawn back, such as the rope-spear
  • mantra-mukta: mythical weapons that are thrown by magic incantations (mantra), numbering 6 types

These were opposed to the much larger unthrown class of three categories.

  • hasta-śastra or amukta: melee weapons that do not leave the hand, numbering twenty types
  • muktāmukta: weapons that can be thrown or used in-close, numbering 98 varieties
  • bāhu-yuddha or bhuja-yuddha: weapons of the body, i.e. unarmed fighting

The duel with bow and arrows is considered the noblest, fighting with the spear ranks next, while fighting with the sword is considered unrefined, and wrestling is classed as the meanest or worst form of fighting. Only a Brahmins could be an acharya (teacher) of sastravidya, Kshatriya and vaishya should learn from the Acharya, while a shudra could not take a teacher, left to “fight of his own in danger”.

Over time, weaponry evolved and India became famous for its flexible wootz steel. The most commonly taught weapons in the Indian martial arts today are types of swords, daggers, spears, staves, cudgels, and maces.

Weapons are linked to several superstitions and cultural beliefs in the Indian subcontinent. Drawing a weapon without reason is forbidden and considered by Hindus to be disrespectful to the goddess Chandika. Thus the saying that a sword cannot be sheathed until it has drawn blood. It was a mother’s duty to tie a warrior’s sword around his waist before war or a duel. In addition, she would cut her finger with the sword and make a tilak on his head from a drop of her blood. Weapons themselves were also anointed with tilak, most often from the blood of a freshly-decapitated goat (chatanga). Other taboos include looking at one’s reflection in the blade, telling the price or source of acquisition, throwing it on the ground or using it for domestic purposes.

Staffplay (Lathi khela)

Stick-fighting (lathi khela) may be taught as part of a wider system like Gatkasilambam or on its own. In the Kama Sutra the sage Vātsyāyana enjoins all women to practice fighting with single-stick, quarterstaff, sword and bow and arrow in addition to the art of love-making. The stick (lathi in Prakrit) is typically made of bamboo with steel caps at the ends to prevent it from splintering. Wooden sticks made from Indian ebony may also be used. It ranges from the length of a cudgel to a staff equal to the wielders height. The stick used during matches is covered in leather to cushion the impact. Points are awarded based on which part of the body is hit. Techniques differ from system to system, but northern styles tend to primarily use only one end of the staff for attacking while the other end is held with both hands.

Southern styles like also make use of this technique but will more often use both ends of the staff to strike. The latter is the more common method of attacking in the eastern states and Bangladesh, combined with squatting and frequent changes in height.


Yudhishthira is said to be a master in spearplay warfare in Mahabharata, while Shalya was also noted to be an excellent warrior in the field of spearplay. Also according to Indian Hindu myths, Kartikeya, the son of Lord Shiva, is said to be skilled in spear-fighting, by holding his divine spear called Vel. The Indian spear is typically made of bamboo with a steel blade. It can be used in hand-to-hand combat or thrown when the fighters are farther apart. Despite primarily being a thrusting weapon, the wide spearhead also allows for many slashing techniques. By the 17th century, Rajput mercenaries in the Mughal army were using a type of spear which integrated a pointed spear butt and a club near the head, making it similar to a mace. On the other hand, the longer cavalry spear was made of wood, with red cloth attached near the blade to prevent the opponent’s blood from dripping to the shaft. The Marathas were revered for their skill of wielding a ten-foot spear called bothati from horseback. Bothati fighting is practiced with a ball-tipped lance, the end of which is covered in dye so that hits may easily be confirmed. In solo training, the spear is aimed at a pile of stones. From this was eventually developed the uniquely Indian vita which has a 5 feet (1.5 m) length of cord attached to the butt end of the weapon and tied around the spearman’s wrist. Using this cord the spear can be pulled back after it has been thrown.

Archery (Dhanurvidya)

Archery is noted to be one of the noblest form of defense within Indian cultural heritage. As mentioned in Vedic literature, the bow and arrow is the most applauded weapon among Kshatriyas. Siddharta Gautama was a champion with the bow, while RamaArjunaKarnaBhishmaDrona and Ekalavya of the epics were all said to be peerless archers.

Dhanurveda is an ancient treatise on the science of archery. It describes the practices and uses of archery, the craft of bow and arrow making, training of the army, and enumerates the rules of engagement. The treatise also discusses martial arts in relation to the training of warriors, charioteers, cavalry, elephant warriors, infantry etc. It was considered as a sin to shoot a warrior from the back and fight more than one warrior at a time. The bow used in the Vedic period were called danush, and were described in detail in the Vedas. The curved shape of the bow is called vakra in the Artha Veda. The bowstring was called jya, and was strung only when needed. An arrow was called an iṣu, and a quiver was called an iṣudhi which was slung on the back. Archers wore a hastaghna, which was an arm guard or shield usually worn on the left forearm and was used to protect the wearer from friction caused by the bowstring.

dhanushkara was a bowyer, or the profession of bow crafting and arrow making, and it had become a regular profession by the early Vedic period. Others called jyakara specialized in making bowstrings.

Composite bows made of horn, sinew, and wood were invented in the Asian Steppes and would have been an integral part of the armory of the Aryan people. As in other civilizations such as the Hittites and Persians, the use of composite bows coincides with chariot warfare. Additionally the smaller size was of the compound bow would have made it preferable on mounted warfare.

A type of Indian longbow was five to six feet long and fired a long cane arrow with metal or bone arrow heads. The Cretan chronicler Nearchus who accompanied Alexander the Great into India, had noted that the warriors would use a bamboo bow, which had to rest on the ground and steady with the feet to draw to its full length. The arrow fired from this bamboo bow could penetrate any armor used in antiquity. The Indian long bows were described as the height of their users by Arrian, and Deccan bows in 1518 as “long like those of England”.

Traditional archery is today practiced mainly in the far northern states of Ladakh and Arunachal. One sport which has persisted into the present day is thoda from Himachal Pradesh, in which a team of archers attempt to shoot blunt arrows at the legs of the opposing team.


With expansion of Indosphere cultural influence of Greater India, through transmission of Hinduism in Southeast Asia and the Silk Road transmission of Buddhism leading to Indianization of Southeast Asia through formation of non-Indian southeast Asian native Indianized kingdoms which adopted sanskritized language and other Indian elements such as the honorific titlesSanskritised naming of peopleSanskritised naming of placesSankritised institutional mottosSanskritised educational institute names, as well as adoption of Indian martial artsIndian architectureIndian music and dancetraditional Indian clothing, and Indian cuisine, a process which as been also aided by the ongoing historic expansion of Indian diaspora. The martial arts influenced by the Indian martial arts include AngamporaAnkamBokatorEskrimaKrabi krabongKbachkun Dambong-VengKhmer traditional wrestlingPencak SilatSilambamSilatThaing (Burmese)Võ thuật Bình Định, etc.



An article is a piece of writing written for a large audience. The main motive behind writing an article is that it should be published in either newspapers or magazines or journals so as to make some difference to the world. It may be the topics of interest of the writer or it may be related to some current issues. The topic can either be serious or not-so-serious; same goes for its tone and language.

Objectives of Article Writing

An article is written with the following objectives

  • It brings out the topics or the matter of interest in the limelight
  • The article provides information on the topics
  • It offers suggestions and pieces of advice
  • It influences the readers and urges them to think
  • The article discusses various stories, persons, locations, rising-issues, and technical developments

Rules of article writing

Rule #1 for writing a good article: minimize your barrier to entry.

Make it easy for your reader to be drawn in. A large opening paragraph at the start of an article is a huge barrier to entry. Your reader has to wade through a large wall of text before determining if the article is really interesting and worth reading. This requires a large expenditure of effort. Most people won’t bother.

Keep your opening short and punchy. A one-sentence or two-sentence leading paragraph is an easy buy-in. You can skim it and read it in barely more time than it would take to scroll past.

Start with something short and easy to engage with. Prove to your reader that you’re providing value, then ask them to expend effort.

Rule #2 for writing a good article: keep your paragraphs short and your text visually appealing. 

In general, shorten everything. How many times have you seen rows and rows of dense paragraphs and lost interest? Be honest. Even after you’ve sold a reader on committing, you can lose them if consumption becomes too much work.

Short paragraphs, on the other hand, are tantalizing. They’re easy. They feel like an accomplishment. You always want to read just one more — your eye gets drawn down the page. So break your text up. Keeps your reader chasing the words from paragraph to paragraph pace them. Give them space between ideas.

Balance words with empty spaces — like the breaths between spoken sentences.

Note: short does not mean that your writing can’t be stylistic and beautiful. Do not make the mistake that short must be bland. I thought that once, and I was wrong. Short means strong and precise — like a shot of tequila instead of a bottle of light beer. See?

When you’re brief, your words aren’t simple and cheapened. They’re potent.

Rule #3 for writing a good article: keep it short and sweet. 

As the old adage says, “kill your darlings.” This is a bleed-over from rule #2, but it deserves its own rule, because it’s important. Just get to the point. Cut out all unnecessary words in a sentence. If a complete sentence doesn’t take you another step closer to making your point, scrap it completely. It hurts, but your writing will be better.

Rule #4 for writing a good article: give me substance. 

One of the worst things on any news feed is an article that says nothing. They’re shockingly common. So often people just write fluff. Often the empty articles are packaged up as something useful. There are enough “top five tips” and “productivity hacks” articles in the world to last me to eternity — if I didn’t die of boredom first. Rarely do any of them contain anything useful. They’re just abstractions — they have nothing of substance to say.

There are shallower, surface-level blog posts on my radar in any given day than I care to count.

They’re made of words, but there’s no point and no meaning. It’s content for the sake of having content.

Don’t write content for the sake of writing content. Write content for the sake of conveying meaning and understanding. Tell your reader something. Imagine they ask “why?” in response, and then answer that question.

The world does not need more surface-level going-through-the-motions content. It needs content designed to teach, convey meaning, make people understand.

Rule #5 for writing a good article: tell me a story. 

People love stories. It’s one of the basic truths of humanity — we always respond to a compelling story. Keep this knowledge in your toolbox!

One of the best ways to draw a reader into an article is to bring it to life with human interest. Capture their attention with a recounting of an event, the setting of a stage, the unfolding of a plot.

Stories are a brilliant way to open articles. They’re equally brilliant ways to illustrate a point. They don’t have to be excessive and garish to be effective. Tell me in your article about a specific tool you recommend using, and then tell me a story about how you used it yourself and what it did for you. Short, simple, to the point, but suddenly your article is human.

Avoid dry writing. In the content-oversaturated age of the internet, nobody’s going to read something bland.

Rule #6 for writing a good article: show, then tell. 

Start by showing me your point in action, and then explain to me what it means and why it matters.

This is a rule for your overall structure. Present your ideas in the following order: illustration, explanation, and understanding. Shows it to me, then tell me what it is, then help me understand why it works and how to use it myself.

Any other order will bore your reader, and will likely make less sense.

At the end

The final and unstated rule of good writing is practice. Practice, practice, practice. Practicing one’s craft is how one perfects it. Practice until you internalize the form and structure of a good article, and producing them becomes second nature.

Everybody has something interesting to say. You have more to share than you realize — and the world is always in need of meaningful, compelling content that conveys knowledge and helps people understand. Go create some!

I wish you happy writing.


The High courts of India are the principal civil courts of original jurisdiction in each state and union territory. However, a high court exercises its original civil and criminal jurisdiction only if the subordinate courts are not authorized by law to try such matters for lack of pecuniary, territorial jurisdiction. High courts may also enjoy original jurisdiction in certain matters, if so designated specifically in a state or federal law.

Basically, the work of most high courts primarily consists of appeals from lower courts and writ petitions in terms of Article 226 of the constitution. Writ jurisdiction is also an original jurisdiction of a high court.

Each state is divided into judicial districts presided over by a district and sessions judge. He is known as district judge when he presides over a civil case and session’s judge when he presides over a criminal case. He is the highest judicial authority below a high court judge. Below him, there are courts of civil jurisdiction, known by different names in different states. Under Article 141 of the constitution, all courts in India — including high courts — are bounded by the judgments and orders of the Supreme Court of India by precedence.

Judges in a high court are appointed by the President of India in consultation with the Chief Justice of India and the governor of the state. High courts are headed by a chief justice. The chief justices rank fourteenth (within their respective states) and seventeenth (outside their respective states) on the Indian order of precedence. The number of judges in a court is decided by dividing the average institution of main cases during the last five years by the national average, or the average rate of disposal of main cases per judge per year in that High Court, whichever is higher.

The Calcutta High Court is the oldest high court in the country, established on 2 July 1862. High courts that handle numerous cases of a particular region have permanent benches established there. Benches are also present in states which come under the jurisdiction of a court outside its territorial limits. Smaller states with few cases may have circuit benches established. Circuit benches (known as circuit courts in some parts of the world) are temporary courts which hold proceedings for a few selected months in a year. Thus cases built up during this interim period are judged when the circuit court is in session. According to a study conducted by Bangalore-based NGO, Daksh, on 21 high courts in collaboration with the Ministry of Law and Justice in March 2015, it was found that average pendency of a case in high courts in India is 3 years. High court looks after the issues which are not solved in district court. High courts were first established in three presidency cities of Calcutta, Bombay and madras in 1862. The high court of Delhi came up in 1966. Currently there are 25 high courts. While many states have their own high courts, Punjab and Haryana share a common high court at Chandigarh, and four northeast states have a common high court at Guwahati. Some high courts have been benches in other parts of the state for greater accessibility.


NameYearTerritorial establishment jurisdictionSeat
Allahabad  1866Uttar PradeshAllahabad (Bench at Lucknow)
Andhra Pradesh1956Andhra PradeshHyderabad
Bombay   1862Maharashtra, Goa, Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and DiuBombay (Benches at Nagpur, Panaji and Aurangabad)
Calcutta   1862West BengalCalcutta (Circuit Bench at Port Blair)
Guwahati(2) 1948Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland,Tripura, Mizoram and Arunachal PradeshGuwahati (Benches at Kohima, Aizwal & Imphal. Circuit Bench at Agartala & Shillong)
Gujarat  1960GujaratAhmedabad
Himachal Pradesh 1971Himachal PradeshShimla
Jammu & Kashmir  1928Jammu & KashmirSrinagar & Jammu
Karnataka(3) 1884KarnatakaBangalore
Kerala 1958Kerala & LakshadweepErnakulam
Madhya Pradesh  1956Madhya PradeshJabalpur (Benches at Gwalior and Indore)
Madras   1862Tamil Nadu & PondicherryMadras
Orissa 1948OrissaCuttack
Patna   1916BiharPatna
Punjab& Haryana(4)1975Punjab, Haryana & ChandigarhChandigarh
Rajasthan  1949RajasthanJodhpur (Bench at Jaipur)
Sikkim 1975SikkimGangtok
Chhattisgarh01/11/2000ChhattisgarhBilaspur (Chhattisgarh)

2. Originally known as the Assam High Court, renamed as Guwahati High Court in 1971.

3. Originally known as Mysore High Court, renamed as Karnataka High Court in 1973.

4. Originally known as Punjab High Court, renamed as Punjab & Haryana High Court in 1966.

Constitution and composition of High courts

Every high court consists of a Chief Justice and a number of judges, who are determined by the President from time to time. Article 217 deals with the appointment of judges and states that every judge of high court shall be appointed by the President by warrant under his hand and seal after consultation with the Chief Justice of India, the Governor of the state.

Jurisdiction and powers of High Court

The powers and jurisdiction of High Court can be classified under following heads:

1) Original Jurisdiction- it means that applicant can directly go to High Court and not by means of appeals. This power is used in the following matters –

• Disputes arising out of relating to members of Parliament and state legislative assembly

• Relating to marriage, law, admiralty divorce, contempt of court etc

• Enforcement of fundamental rights (Supreme Court also has this power)

• Cases transferred from other court to itself which involves a question of law.

2) Writ Jurisdiction- Article 226 states that High Court shall have power throughout the territories in relation to which it exercises jurisdiction to issue to any person or authority including in appropriate cases, any government, within those territories directions, orders, or writs.

3) Appellate Jurisdiction-

It is said that the high court is the primary court of appeal i.e. it has power to hear the appeals against the judgment of the subordinate courts within its territories. This power can be classified in to 2 categories-Civil jurisdiction and Criminal jurisdiction

In civil cases its jurisdiction includes to the orders and judgments of the district courts, additional district courts and other subordinate courts.

In criminal cases its jurisdiction includes judgments relating to sessions courts and additional sessions court. These cases should be involving imprisonment for more than 7 years, confirmation of any death sentence awarded by session court before execution

4) Power of Superintendence –

The High Court has this power over all courts and tribunals except those dealing with the armed forces functioning in the state. Hence in the exercise of this power it may –

• Call for return from such courts

• May issue general rules and prescribe forms for regulating the practice and proceedings of such courts

• Prescribe the form in which books and accounts are being kept by the officers of any court

• Settle fees payable to the sheriff clerks, officers and legal practitioners

The constitution does not place any restriction on this power of superintendence over the subordinate courts, it is not only by means of appeal by the person, it can be suo motto. It is of the nature of revision as it verifies the earlier judgments. In this regard it is considered as a special function as the Supreme Court has no similar power vis a vis the High Court.

5) Control over Subordinate Courts –

This is an extension of the above supervisory and appellate jurisdiction. It states that the High Court can with draw a case pending before any subordinate court, if it involves the substantial question of law. The case can be disposed of itself or solve the question of law and return back to the same court. In the second case the opinion tendered by High court would be binding on the subordinate court. It also deals with matters pertaining to posting promotion, grant of leave, transfer and discipline of the members there in. In this regard it appoints officers and servants to be made by Chief Justice or such other judge of High Court as the Chief Justice may direct.

6) Court of Record – It involves recording of judgments, proceedings and acts of high courts to be recorded for the perpetual memory. These records cannot be further questioned in any court. Based on this record it has power to punish for the contempt of court either with simple imprisonment or with fine or both.

7) Judicial Review –

This power of High Court includes the power to examine the constitutionality of legislative and executive orders of both central and state government. It is to be noted that the word judicial review is no where mentioned in our constitution but the Article 13 and 226 explicitly provide High Court with this power.

8) Extension of jurisdiction of High Court to Union Territories –

Parliament by law may extend the jurisdiction of a High Court to or exclude the jurisdiction of a high court from any union territory.

Procedure for removal of Judges:

The judge’s enquiry act governs the removal or impeachment of judges of High Court. Hence the grounds for removal are

• Proved misbehaviour

• Incapacity

He is removed by the President as per the removal order passed by each house of the parliament by a special majority i.e. a majority of the total membership of the house and a majority of not less than two thirds of members present and voting. A detailed procedure followed is as follows:

1. The initial removal motion to be signed by 100 members in Lok Sabha or by 50 members of Rajya Sabha and be presented to the speaker/ chairman of the house.

2. The speaker has the option of either accepting or rejecting the motion

3. If it is accepted a committee would be constituted to investigate the matter

4. The committee so constituted consists of chief justice or judge of Supreme Court, chief justice of high court and a distinguished jurist.

5. If the committee ascertains the guilty of the judge then the houses take up the issue.

6. If the motion is passed in each house of the parliament by a special majority then the it is later presented to the President for his assent.

7. The President then passes order for removal of judge. The judge is considered removed from that day. (In fact no judge has been removed till now)

Transfer of a judge from one high court to another (Article 222) –

According to it the President may after consultation with the chief justice of India transfer a judge from one High Court to any High Court. Also when a judge has been or is so transferred he shall during the period he serves, after the commencement of the constitution act as a judge of the other high court, so shall be entitled to receive in addition to his salary such compensatory allowance as may be determined by Parliament by law and until so determined such compensatory allowance as the President may by order fix.

Later on in 1977 in K Ashok Reddy case ruled that there requires judicial review in case of arbitrary transfer of judges. Hence as to locus standi only the judge who is transferred can challenge it.

Appointment of acting Chief Justice (Article 223) –

When the office of Chief Justice of a High Court is vacant or when any such Chief Justice by reason of absence or otherwise, unable to perform the duties of his office, the duties of the office shall be performed by such one of the other Judges of the court as the President may appoint for the purposes. However, appointments of persons other than district judges to the judicial service of a state shall be made by the Governor of the state in accordance with rules made by him after consultation with the state public service commission and with the high court exercising jurisdiction in relation to such state.


Chanakya was an ancient Indian teacher, philosopher, economist, jurist and royal advisor. He is traditionally identified as Kauṭilya or Vishnugupta, who authored the ancient Indian political treatise, the Arthashastra, a text dated to roughly between the 3rd century BCE and the 3rd century CE. As such, he is considered the pioneer of the field of political science and economics in India, and his work is thought of as an important precursor to classical economics. His works were lost near the end of the Gupta Empire in the 6th century BCE and not rediscovered until the early 20th century.

Chanakya assisted the first Mauryan emperor Chandragupta in his rise to power. He is widely credited for having played an important role in the establishment of the Maurya Empire. Chanakya served as the chief advisor to both emperors Chandragupta and his son Bindusara.


Buddhist version

According to the Buddhist legend, the Nanda kings who preceded Chandragupta were robbers-turned-rulers. Chanakya was a Brahmin from Takkāsila (Takshashila). He was well-versed in three Vedas and politics. He had canine teeth, which were believed to be a mark of royalty. His mother feared that he would neglect her after becoming a king. To pacify her, Chanakya broke his teeth.

Chanakya was said to be ugly, accentuated by his broken teeth and crooked feet. One day, the king Dhana Nanda organized an alms-giving ceremony for Brahmins. Chanakya went to Pupphapura (Pushpapura) to attend this ceremony. Disgusted by his appearance, the king ordered him to be thrown out of the assembly. Chanakya broke his sacred thread in anger, and cursed the king. The king ordered his arrest, but Chanakya escaped in the disguise of an Ājīvika. He befriended Dhananada’s son Pabbata, and instigated him to seize the throne. With help of a signet ring given by the prince, Chanakya fled the palace through a secret door.

Chanakya escaped to the Vinjha forest. There, he made 800 million gold coins (kahapanas), using a secret technique that allowed him to turn 1 coin into 8 coins. After hiding this money, he started searching for a person worthy of replacing Dhana Nanda. One day, he saw a group of children playing: the young Chandragupta (called Chandagutta in Mahavamsa) played the role of a king, while other boys pretended to be vassals, ministers, or robbers. The “robbers” were brought before Chandragupta, who ordered their limbs to be cut off, but then miraculously re-attached them. Chandragupta had been born in a royal family, but was brought up by a hunter after his father was killed by an usurper, and the devatas caused his mother to abandon him. Astonished by the boy’s miraculous powers, Chanakya paid 1000 gold coins to his foster-father, and took Chandragupta away, promising to teach him a trade.

Chanakya had two potential successors to Dhana Nanda: Pabbata and Chandragupta. He gave each of them an amulet to be worn around the neck with a woolen thread. One day, he decided to test them. While Chandragupta was asleep, he asked Pabbata to remove Chandragupta’s woolen thread without breaking it and without waking up Chandragupta. Pabbata failed to accomplish this task. Some time later, when Pabbata was sleeping, Chanakya challenged Chandragupta to complete the same task. Chandragupta retrieved the woolen thread by cutting off Pabbata’s head. For the next seven years, Chanakya trained Chandragupta for royal duties. When Chandragupta became an adult, Chanakya dug up his hidden treasure of gold coins, and assembled an army.

The army of Chanadragupta and Chanakya invaded Dhana Nanda’s kingdom, but disbanded after facing a severe defeat. While wandering in disguise, the two men once listened to the conversation between a woman and her son. The child had eaten the middle of a cake, and thrown away the edges. The woman scolded him, saying that he was eating food like Chandragupta, who attacked the central part of the kingdom instead of conquering the border villages first. Chanakya and Chandragupta realized their mistake. They assembled a new army, and started conquering the border villages. Gradually, they advanced to the kingdom’s capital Pataliputra (Pāṭaliputta in Mahavamsa), where they killed the king Dhana Nanda. Chanakya ordered a fisherman to find the place where Dhana Nanda had hidden his treasure. As soon as the fishermen informed Chanakya about its location, Chanakya had him killed. Chanakya anointed Chandragupta as the new king, and tasked a man named Paṇiyatappa with eliminating rebels and robbers from the kingdom.

Chanakya started mixing small doses of poison in the new king’s food to make him immune to poisoning attempts by the enemies. Chandragupta, who was not aware of this, once shared the food with his pregnant queen, who was seven days away from delivery. Chanakya arrived just as the queen ate the poisoned morsel. Realizing that she was going to die, Chanakya decided to save the unborn child. He cut off the queen’s head and cut open her belly with a sword to take out the foetus. Over the next seven days, he placed the foetus in the belly of a goat freshly killed each day. After seven days, Chandragupta’s son was “born”. He was named Bindusara, because his body was spotted with drops (bindu) of goat’s blood.

The earliest Buddhist legends do not mention Chanakya in their description of the Mauryan dynasty after this point. Dhammapala‘s commentary on Theragatha, however, mentions a legend about Chanakya and a Brahmin named Subandhu. According to this account, Chanakya was afraid that the wise Subandhu would surpass him at Chandragupta’s court. So, he got Chandragupta to imprison Subandhu, whose son Tekicchakani escaped and became a Buddhist monk. The 16th-century Tibetan Buddhist author Taranathamentions Chanakya as one of Bindusara’s “great lords”. According to him, Chanakya destroyed the nobles and kings of 16 towns and made Bindusara the master of all the territory between the eastern and the western seas (Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal).

 Jain version

According to the Jain account, Chanakya was born to two lay Jains (shravaka) named Chanin and Chaneshvari. His birthplace was the Chanaka village in Golla vishaya (region). The identity of “Golla” is not certain, but Hemachandra states that Chanakya was a Dramila, implying that he was a native of South India.

Chanakya was born with a full set of teeth. According to the monks, this was a sign that he would become a king in the future. Chanin did not want his son to become haughty, so he broke Chanakya’s teeth. The monks prophesied that the baby would go on to become a power behind the throne. Chanakya grew up to be a learned shravaka, and married a Brahmin woman. Her relatives mocked her for being married to a poor man. This motivated Chanakya to visit Pataliputra, and seek donations from the king Nanda, who was famous for his generosity towards Brahmins. While waiting for the king at the royal court, Chanakya sat on the king’s throne. A dasi (servant girl) courteously offered Chanakya the next seat, but Chanakya kept his kamandal (water pot) on it, while remaining seated on the throne. The servant offered him a choice of four more seats, but each time, he kept his various items on the seats, refusing to budge from the throne. Finally, the annoyed servant kicked him off the throne. Enraged, Chanakya vowed to uproot Nanda and his entire establishment, like “a great wind uproots a tree”.

Chanakya knew that he was prophesied to become a power behind the throne. So, he started searching for a person worthy of being a king. While wandering, he did a favour for the pregnant daughter of a village chief, on the condition that her child would belong to him. Chandragupta was born to this lady. When Chandragupta grew up, Chanakya came to his village and saw him playing “king” among a group of boys. To test him, Chanakya asked him for a donation. The boy told Chanakya to take the cows nearby, declaring that nobody would disobey his order. This display of power convinced Chanakya that Chandragupta was the one worthy of being a king.

Chanakya took Chandragupta to conquer Pataliputra, the capital of Nanda. He assembled an army using the wealth he had acquired through alchemy (dhatuvada-visaradan). The army suffered a severe defeat, forcing Chanakya and Chandragupta to flee the battlefield. They reached a lake while being pursued by an enemy officer. Chanakya asked Chandragupta to jump into the lake, and disguised himself as a meditating ascetic. When the enemy soldier reached the lake, he asked the ‘ascetic’ if he had seen Chandragupta. Chanakya pointed at the lake. As the soldier removed his armour to jump into the lake, Chanakya took his sword and killed him. When Chandragupta came out of the water, Chanakya asked him, “What went through your mind, when I disclosed your location to the enemy?” Chandragupta replied that he trusted his master to make the best decision. This convinced Chanakya that Chandragupta would remain under his influence even after becoming the king. On another occasion, Chanakya similarly escaped the enemy by chasing away a washerman, and disguising himself as one. Once, he cut open the belly of a Brahmin who had just eaten food, and took out the food to feed a hungry Chandragupta.

One day, Chanakya and Chandragupta overheard a woman scolding her son. The child had burnt his finger by putting it in the middle of a bowl of hot gruel. The woman told her son that by not starting from the cooler edges, he was being foolish like Chanakya, who attacked the capital before conquering the bordering regions. Chanakya realized his mistake, and made a new plan to defeat Nanda. He formed an alliance with Parvataka, the king of a mountain kingdom called Himavatkuta, offering him half of Nanda’s kingdom.

After securing Parvataka’s help, Chanakya and Chandragupta started besieging the towns other than Pataliputra. One particular town offered a strong resistance. Chanakya entered this town disguised as a Shaivite mendicant, and declared that the siege would end if the idols of the seven mothers were removed from the town’s temple. As soon as the superstitious defenders removed the idols from the temple, Chanakya ordered his army to end the siege. When the defenders started celebrating their victory, Chanakya’s army launched a surprise attack and captured the town.

Kashmiri version

The Kashmiri version of the legend goes like this: Vararuchi (identified with Katyayana), Indradatta and Vyadi were three disciples of the sage Varsha. Once, on behalf of their guru Varsha, they traveled to Ayodhya to seek a gurudakshina (guru’s fee) from king Nanda. As they arrived to meet Nanda, the king died. Using his yogic powers, Indradatta entered Nanda’s body, and granted Vararuchi’s request for 10 million dinars (gold coins). The royal minister Shakatala realized what was happening, and had Indradatta’s body burnt. But before he could take any action against the fake king (Indradatta in Nanda’s body, also called Yogananda), the king had him arrested. Shakatala and his 100 sons were imprisoned, and were given food sufficient only for one person. Shakatala’s 100 sons starved to death, so that their father could live to take revenge.

Meanwhile, the fake king appointed Vararuchi as his minister. As the king’s character kept deteriorating, a disgusted Vararuchi retired to a forest as an ascetic. Shakatala was then restored as the minister, but kept planning his revenge. One day, Shakatala came across Chanakya, a Brahmin who was uprooting all the grass in his path, because one blade of the grass had pricked his foot. Shakatala realized that he could use a man so vengeful to destroy the fake king. He invited Chanakya to the king’s assembly, promising him 100,000 gold coins for presiding over a ritual ceremony.

Shakatala hosted Chanakya in his own house, and treated him with great respect. But the day Chanakya arrived at the king’s court, Shakatala got another Brahmin named Subandhu to preside over the ceremony. Chanakya felt insulted, but Shakatala blamed the king for this dishonour. Chanakya then untied his topknot (sikha), and vowed not to re-tie it until the king was destroyed. The king ordered his arrest, but he escaped to Shakatala’s house. There, using materials supplied by Shakatala, he performed a magic ritual which made the king sick. The king died of fever after 7 days.

Shakatala then executed Hiranyagupta, the son of the fake king. He anointed Chandragupta, the son of the real king Nanda, as the new king (in Kshemendra’s version, it is Chanakya who installs Chandragupta as the new king). Shakatala also appointed Chanakya as the royal priest (purohita). Having achieved his revenge, he then retired to the forest as an ascetic.

Mudrarakshasa version

According to the Mudrarakshasa version, the king Nanda once removed Chanakya from the “first seat of the kingdom” (this possibly refers to Chanakya’s expulsion from the king’s assembly). For this reason, Chanakya vowed not to tie his top knot (shikha) until the complete destruction of Nanda. Chanakya made a plan to dethrone Nanda, and replace him with Chandragupta, his son by a lesser queen. Chanakya engineered Chandragupta’s alliance with another powerful king Parvateshvara (or Parvata), and the two rulers agreed to divide Nanda’s territory after subjugating him. Their allied army included BahlikaKirataParasikaKambojaShaka, and Yavanasoldiers. The army invaded Pataliputra (Kusumapura) and defeated the Nandas. Parvata is identified with King Porus by some scholars.

Nanda’s prime minister Rakshasa escaped Pataliputra, and continued resisting the invaders. He sent a vishakanya (poison girl) to assassinate Chandragupta. Chanakya had this girl assassinate Parvata instead, with the blame going to Rakshasa. However, Parvata’s son Malayaketu learned the truth about his father’s death, and defected to Rakshasa’s camp. Chanakya’s spy Bhagurayana accompanied Malayaketu, pretending to be his friend.

Rakshasa continued to plot Chandragupta’s death, but all his plans were foiled by Chanakya. For example, once Rakshasa arranged for assassins to be transported to Chandragupta’s bedroom via a tunnel. Chanakya became aware of them by noticing a trail of ants carrying the leftovers of their food. He then arranged for the assassins to be burned to death.

Meanwhile, Parvata’s brother Vairodhaka became the ruler of his kingdom. Chanakya convinced him that Rakshasa was responsible for killing his brother, and agreed to share half of Nanda’s kingdom with him. Secretly, however, Chanakya hatched a plan to get Vairodhaka killed. He knew that the chief architect of Pataliputra was a Rakshasa loyalist. He asked this architect to build a triumphal arch for Chandragupta’s procession to the royal palace. He arranged the procession to be held at midnight citing astrological reasons, but actually to ensure poor visibility. He then invited Vairodhaka to lead the procession on Chandragupta’s elephant, and accompanied by Chandragupta’s bodyguards. As expected, Rakshasa’s loyalists arranged for the arch to fall on who they thought was Chandragupta. Vairodhaka was killed, and once again, the assassination was blamed on Rakshasa.

Malayaketu and Rakshasa then formed an alliance with five kings: Chiravarman of Kauluta (Kulu), Meghaksha of Parasika, Narasimha of Malaya, Pushkaraksha of Kashmira, and Sindhusena of Saindhava. This allied army also included soldiers from ChediGandharaHunasKhasaMagadhaShaka, and Yavana territories.

In Pataliputra, Chanakya’s agent informed him that three Rakshasa loyalists remained in the capital: the Jain monk Jiva-siddhi, the scribe Shakata-dasa and the jewelers’ guild chief Chandana-dasa. Of these, Jiva-siddhi was actually a spy of Chanakya, unknown to his other spies. Chandana-dasa sheltered Rakshasa’s wife, who once unknowingly dropped her husband’s signet-ring (mudra). Chanakya’s agent got hold of this signet-ring, and brought it to Chanakya. Using this signet ring, Chanakya sent a letter to Malayaketu warning him that his allies were treacherous. Chanakya also asked some of Chandragupta’s princes to fake defection to Malayaketu’s camp. In addition, Chanakya ordered Shakata-dasa’s murder, but had him ‘rescued’ by Siddharthaka, a spy pretending to be an agent of Chandana-dasa. Chanakya’s spy then took Shakata-dasa to Rakshasa.

When Shakata-dasa and his ‘rescuer’ Siddharthaka reached Rakshasa, Siddharthaka presented him the signet-ring, claiming to have found it at Chandana-dasa’s home. As a reward, Rakshasa gave him some jewels that Malayaketu had gifted him. Sometime after this, another of Chanakya’s agents, disguised as a jeweler, sold Parvata’s jewels to Rakshasa.

Sometime later, Rakshasa sent his spies disguised as musicians to Chandragupta’s court. But Chanakya knew all about Rakshasa’s plans thanks to his spies. In front of Rakshasa’s spies, Chanakya and Chandragupta feigned an angry argument. Chandragupta pretended to dismiss Chanakya, and declared that Rakshasa would make a better minister. Meanwhile, Malayaketu had a conversation with Chanakya’s spy Bhagurayana while approaching Rakshasa’s house. Bhagurayana made Malayaketu distrustful of Rakshasa, by saying that Rakshasa hated only Chanakya, and would be willing to serve Nanda’s son Chandragupta. Shortly after this, a messenger came to Rakshasa’s house, and informed him that Chandragupta had dismissed Chanakya while praising him. This convinced Malayaketu that Rakashasa could not be trusted.

Identification with Kauṭilya or Vishnugupta

The ancient Arthashastra has been traditionally attributed to Chanakya by a number of scholars. The Arthashastra identifies its author as Kauṭilya, a gotra or clan name, except for one verse that refers to him by the personal name of Vishnugupta. Kauṭilya is presumably the name of the author’s gotra (clan).

One of the earliest Sanskrit literatures to identify Chanakya with Vishnugupta explicitly was the Panchatantra.

K. C. Ojha proposes that the traditional identification of Vishnugupta with Kauṭilya was caused by a confusion of the text’s editor and its originator. He suggests that Vishnugupta was a redactor of the original work of Kauṭilya. Thomas Burrow suggests that Chanakya and Kauṭilya may have been two different people.

Literary works


Arthashastra is serious manual on statecraft, on how to run a state, informed by a higher purpose, clear and precise in its prescriptions, the result of practical experience of running a state. It is not just a normative text but a realist description of the art of running a state.

– Shiv Shankar MenonNational Security Advisor

Chanakya is regarded as a great thinker and diplomat in India. Many Indian nationalists regard him as one of the earliest people who envisioned a united India spanning the entire subcontinentIndia’s former National Security Advisor Shiv Shankar Menon praised Chanakya’s Arthashastra for its precise and timeless descriptions of power. Furthermore, he recommended reading of the book for broadening the vision on strategic issues.

The diplomatic enclave in New Delhi is named Chanakyapuri in honour of Chanakya. Institutes named after him include Training Ship ChanakyaChanakya National Law University and Chanakya Institute of Public Leadership. Chanakya circle in Mysore has been named after him.


Several modern adaptations of the legend of Chanakya narrate his story in a semi-fictional form, extending these legends. In Chandragupta (1911), a play by Dwijendralal Ray, the Nanda king exiles his half-brother Chandragupta, who joins the army of Alexander the Great. Later, with help from Chanakya and Katyayan (the former Prime Minister of Magadha), Chandragupta defeats Nanda, who is put to death by Chanakya.

Books and academia

  • An English-language book titled Chanakya on Management contains 216 sutras on raja-neeti, each of which has been translated and commented upon.
  • A book written by Ratan Lal Basu and Rajkumar Sen deals with the economic concepts mentioned in Arthashastra and their relevance for the modern world.
  • Chanakya (2001) by B. K. Chaturvedi
  • In 2009, many eminent experts discussed the various aspects of Kauṭilya’s thought in an International Conference held at the Oriental Research Institute in Mysore (India) to celebrate the centenary of discovery of the manuscript of the Arthashastra by R. Shamasastry. Most of the papers presented in the Conference have been compiled in an edited volume by Raj Kumar Sen and Ratan Lal Basu.

Chanakya’s Chant by Ashwin Sanghi is a fictional account of Chanakya’s life as a political strategist in ancient India. The novel relates two parallel stories, the first of Chanakya and his machinations to bring Chandragupta Maurya to the throne of Magadha; the second, that of a modern-day character called Gangasagar Mishra who makes it his ambition to position a slum child as Prime Minister of India


Right to Information (RTI) is an act of the Parliament of India which sets out the rules and procedures regarding citizens’ right to information. It replaced the former Freedom of Information Act, 2002. Under the provisions of RTI Act, any citizen of India may request information from a “public authority” (a body of Government or “instrumentality of State”) which is required to reply expeditiously or within thirty days. In case of matter involving a petitioner’s life and liberty, the information has to be provided within 48 hours. The Act also requires every public authority to computerise their records for wide dissemination and to proactively certain categories of information so that the citizens need minimum recourse to request for information formally.

This law was passed by Parliament on 15 June 2005 and came fully into force on 12 October 2005. Every day, over 4800 RTI applications are filed. In the first ten years of the commencement of the act over 17,500,000 applications had been filed.

RTI is a fundamental right for every citizen of India. The authorities under RTI Act 2005 are called quasi-judicial authorities. This act was enacted in order to consolidate the fundamental right in the Indian constitution ‘freedom of speech’. Since RTI is implicit in the Right to Freedom of Speech and Expression under Article 19 of the Indian Constitution, it is an implied fundamental right.

Information disclosure in India is restricted by the Official Secrets Act 1923 and various other special laws, which the new RTI Act relaxes. Right to Information codifies a fundamental right of the citizens of India. RTI has proven to be very useful, but is counteracted by the Whistle Blowers Protection Act, 2011.

The Right to Information (Amendment) Bill, 2019, seeks to amend Sections 13, 16, and 27 of the RTI Act. Section 13 of the original Act: It sets the term of the central Chief Information Commissioner and Information Commissioners at five years (or until the age of 65, whichever is earlier).


The Act is applicable to the whole of India. Earlier, J&K Right to Information Act was in force in the state of Jammu and Kashmir. However, after the revocation of much of Article 370 of the Constitution of India, the Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir (and also the Union Territory of Ladakh) came under the Central Act also. It covers all the constitutional authorities, including executive, legislature and judiciary; any institution or body established or constituted by an act of Parliament or a state legislature. It is also defined in the Act that bodies or authorities established or constituted by order or notification of appropriate government including bodies “owned, controlled or substantially financed” by government, or non-Government organizations “substantially financed, directly or indirectly by funds”.

Private bodies

Private bodies are not within the Act’s ambit directly. In a decision of Sarbjit roy vs Delhi Electricity Regulatory Commission, the Central Information Commission also reaffirmed that privatised public utility companies fall within the purview of RTI. As of 2014, private institutions and NGOs receiving over 95% of their infrastructure funds from the government come under the Act.

Political parties

The Central Information Commission (CIC) held that the political parties are public authorities and are answerable to citizens under the RTI Act. The CIC said that seven national parties – CongressBJPNCPCPI(M)CPI and BSP and BJD – has been substantially funded indirectly by the Central Government and have the character of public authorities under the RTI Act as they perform public functions. But in August 2013 the government introduced a Right To Information (Amendment) Bill which would remove political parties from the scope of the law. Currently no parties are under the RTI Act and there has a case been filed for bringing all political parties under it.


The Right to Information Act 2019 passed on July 25, 2019 modified the terms and conditions of service of the CIC and Information Commissioners at the centre and in states. It had been criticized as watering down the independence of the information commissions

Supreme Court judgement

Supreme Court of India on 13 November 2019 upheld the decision of Delhi High Court bringing the office of Chief Justice of India under the purview of Right to Information (RTI) Act.


Governance and process

The Right to information in India is governed by two major bodies:

  • Central Information Commission (CIC) – Chief Information commissioner who heads all the central departments and ministries- with their own public Information officers (PIO). CICs are directly under the President of India.
  • State Information Commissions – State Public Information Officers or SPIOs head over all the state department and ministries. The SPIO office is directly under the corresponding State Governor.

State and Central Information Commissions are independent bodies and Central Information Commission has no jurisdiction over the State Information Commission.


A citizen who desires to seek some information from a public authority is required to send, along with the application (a Postal order or DD (Demand draft) or a banker’s cheque) payable to the Accounts Officer of the public authority as fee prescribed for seeking information. If the person is from a disadvantaged community, he/she need not pay. The applicant may also be required to pay further fee towards the cost of providing the information, details of which shall be intimated to the applicant by the PIO as prescribed by the RTI ACT.

Digital right to information systems

A digital portal has been set up, RTI Portal, a gateway to the citizens for quick search of information on the details of first Appellate Authorities, PIOs etc. amongst others, besides access to RTI related information / disclosures published on the web by various Public Authorities under the government of India as well as the State Governments. It is an initiative taken by Department of Personnel and TrainingMinistry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions.


The Right to information in India has been mired with controversies ranging from their use in political battles, asking for educational degrees of political rivals, or cases of blatant refusals to provide information on high-profile projects to allegations of misuse by civil society. The backlash against RTI by the state hampered the citizen’s right to know.

Attacks on RTI activists and protection suggestions

Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative (CHRI) data points to over 310 cases across India where people were either attacked, murdered, physically or mentally harassed or had their property damaged because of the information they sought under RTI. The data throws up over 50 alleged murders and two suicides that were directly linked with RTI applications filed.

There is a consensus felt that there is a need to amend the RTI Act to provide for the protection of those seeking information under the Act. The Asian Centre for Human Rights recommends that a separate chapter, “Protection of those seeking information under the (RTI) Act”, be inserted into the Act.

Protection measures suggested include:

  • Mandatory, immediate registration of complaints of threats or attacks against RTI activists on the First Information Report and placing such FIRs before the magistrate or judge of the area within 24 hours for issuance of directions for protection of those under threats and their family members, and periodic review of such protection measures
  • Conducting inquiry into threats or attacks by a police officer not below the rank of Deputy Superintendent of Police/Assistant Commissioner of Police to be concluded within 90 days and we also use RTI and get its benefit.

Intellectual property rights

Many civil society members have recently alleged the subversion of the right to information Act by the invocation of Intellectual Property rights argument by the government agencies from time to time.

Most notable are:

  • The Right to Information denied by RBI on Demonetization citing Intellectual Property Laws.
  • The Right to Information Denied by Uttar Pradesh Irrigation Department after more than 8 months of a wait on under construction Gomti Riverfront Development Project. A group of researchers requested for environment Impact and Project Report on the project which is flagged for negative impacts, tax money wastage by environmental scientists and research reports.


Rejection of RTIs

Scholars argue that the Right to Information Act’s original intent to make government transparent and accountable is faltering as RTI requests are rejected and the bureaucratic systems are bogged down by millions of requests.

Many RTIs are rejected because the bureaucratic requirements (including the technocratic language used) of filing are too onerous and legalistic for ordinary citizens. Sixty percent of the RTI appeals made to Information Commissioners in Delhi are rejected for a variety of reasons, including that appeals are not typed or not written in English, or lack an index of the papers attached or a list of date. This bureaucratic barrier, worse for those without access to higher education or information, makes the right to information inaccessible. Many citizens have to seek out NGOs, RTI activists, or lawyers, to file their RTIs.


Many activists view the Right to Information Act as a final liberation from British colonialism; they describe the RTI law as “a tool for empowering ordinary citizens and changing the culture of governance by making it transparent, less corrupt, participatory, and accountable”. They also note that RTI requests provide strategy and substance for activists on a broad range of social issues, including “land and environmental rights, social security benefits, the working of financial institutions, political party financing reform, civic infrastructure, and even public-private partnerships”.


Religious conversion is the adoption of a set of beliefs identified with one particular religious denomination to the exclusion of others. Thus “religious conversion” would describe the abandoning of adherence to one denomination and affiliating with another. This might be from one to another denomination within the same religion, for example, from Baptist to Catholic Christianity or from Sunni Islam to Shi’a Islam. In some cases, religious conversion “marks a transformation of religious identity and is symbolized by special rituals”.

People convert to a different religion for various reasons, including active conversion by free choice due to a change in beliefs, secondary conversiondeathbed conversion, conversion for convenience, marital conversion, and forced conversion.

Proselytism is the act of attempting to convert by persuasion another individual from a different religion or belief system. Apostate is a term used by members of a religion or denomination to refer to someone who has left that religion or denomination.


Bahá’í Faith

In sharing their faith with others, Bahá’ís are cautioned to “obtain a hearing” – meaning to make sure the person they are proposing to teach is open to hearing what they have to say. “Bahá’í pioneers“, rather than attempting to supplant the cultural underpinnings of the people in their adopted communities, are encouraged to integrate into the society and apply Bahá’í principles in living and working with their neighbors.

Bahá’ís recognize the divine origins of all revealed religion, and believe that these religions occurred sequentially as part of a divine plan (see Progressive revelation), with each new revelation superseding and fulfilling that of its predecessors. Bahá’ís regard their own faith as the most recent (but not the last), and believe its teachings – which are centered around the principle of the oneness of humanity – are most suited to meeting the needs of a global community.

In most countries conversion is a simple matter of filling out a card stating a declaration of belief. This includes acknowledgement of Bahá’u’llah – the Founder of the Faith – as the Messenger of God for this age, awareness and acceptance of his teachings, and intention to be obedient to the institutions and laws he established.

Conversion to the Bahá’í Faith carries with it an explicit belief in the common foundation of all revealed religion, a commitment to the unity of mankind, and active service to the community at large, especially in areas that will foster unity and concord. Since the Bahá’í Faith has no clergy, converts are encouraged to be active in all aspects of community life. Even a recent convert may be elected to serve on a local Spiritual Assembly – the guiding Bahá’í institution at the community level.


Within Christianity conversion refers variously to three different phenomena: a person becoming Christian who was previously not Christian; a Christian moving from one Christian denomination to another; a particular spiritual development, sometimes called the “second conversion”, or “the conversion of the baptised”.

Conversion to Christianity is the religious conversion of a previously non-Christian person to some form of Christianity. Some Christian sects require full conversion for new members regardless of any history in other Christian sects, or from certain other sects. The exact requirements vary between different churches and denominationsBaptism is traditionally seen as a sacrament of admission to Christianity. Christian baptism has some parallels with Jewish immersion by mikvah.

In the New Testament, Jesus commanded his disciples in the Great Commission to “go and make disciples of all nations”. Evangelization—sharing the Gospel message or “Good News” in deed and word, is an expectation of Christians.

Latter Day Saint movement

Much of the theology of Latter Day Saint baptism was established during the early Latter Day Saint movement founded by Joseph Smith. According to this theology, baptism must be by immersion, for the remission of sins (meaning that through baptism, past sins are forgiven), and occurs after one has shown faith and repentance. Mormon baptism does not purport to remit any sins other than personal ones, as adherents do not believe in original sin. Latter Day Saints baptisms also occur only after an “age of accountability” which is defined as the age of eight years. The theology thus rejects infant baptism.

In addition, Latter Day Saint theology requires that baptism may only be performed with one who has been called and ordained by God with priesthood authority. Because the churches of the Latter Day Saint movement operate under a lay priesthood, children raised in a Mormon family are usually baptized by a father or close male friend or family member who has achieved the office of priest, which is conferred upon worthy male members at least 16 years old in the LDS Church.

Baptism is seen as symbolic both of Jesus‘ death, burial and resurrection and is also symbolic of the baptized individual putting off of the natural or sinful man and becoming spiritually reborn as a disciple of Jesus.

Membership into a Latter Day Saint church is granted only by baptism whether or not a person has been raised in the church. Latter Day Saint churches do not recognize baptisms of other faiths as valid because they believe baptisms must be performed under the church’s unique authority. Thus, all who come into one of the Latter Day Saint faiths as converts are baptized, even if they have previously received baptism in another faith.

When performing a Baptism, Latter Day Saints say the following prayer before performing the ordinance:

Having been commissioned of Jesus Christ, I baptize you in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. Amen.

Baptisms inside and outside the temples are usually done in a baptis try, although they can be performed in any body of water in which the person may be completely immersed. The person administering the baptism must recite the prayer exactly, and immerse every part, limb, hair and clothing of the person being baptized. If there are any mistakes, or if any part of the person being baptized is not fully immersed, the baptism must be redone. In addition to the baptizer, two members of the church witness the baptism to ensure that it is performed properly.

Following baptism, Latter Day Saints receive the Gift of the Holy Ghost by the laying on of hands of a Melchizedek Priesthood holder.

Latter Day Saints hold that one may be baptized after death through the vicarious act of a living individual, and holders of the Melchezidek Priesthood practice baptism for the dead as a missionary ritual. This doctrine answers the question of the righteous non-believer and the unevangelized by providing a post-mortem means of repentance and salvation.


Converting to Islam requires the shahada, the Muslim profession of faith (“there is no god but Allah, and Muhammad is the messenger of Allah”). Islam teaches that everyone is Muslim at birth but the parents or society can cause them to deviate from the straight path. When someone accepts Islam, they are considered to revert to the original condition. In Islam, circumcision is a Sunnah custom not mentioned in the Quran. The majority clerical opinion holds that circumcision is not required upon entering Islam. The Shafi`i and Hanbali schools regard it as obligatory, while the Maliki and Hanafi schools regard it as only recommended. However, it is not a precondition for the acceptance of a person’s Islamic practices, nor is choosing to forgo circumcision considered a sin. It is not one of the Five Pillars of Islam.


Conversion to Judaism is the religious conversion of non-Jews to become members of the Jewish religion and Jewish ethno religious community. The procedure and requirements for conversion depend on the sponsoring denomination. A conversion in accordance with the process of a denomination is not a guarantee of recognition by another denomination. A formal conversion is also sometimes undertaken by individuals whose Jewish ancestry is questioned, even if they were raised Jewish, but may not actually be considered Jews according to traditional Jewish law.

As late as the 6th century the Eastern Roman empire and Caliph Umar ibn Khattab were issuing decrees against conversion to Judaism, implying that this was still occurring.

In some cases, a person may forgo a formal conversion to Judaism and adopt some or all beliefs and practices of Judaism. However, without a formal conversion, many highly observant Jews will reject a convert’s Jewish status.


There are no rituals or dogmas, nor any sort of procedures in conversion to Spiritism. The doctrine is first considered as science, then philosophy and lastly as a religion. Allan Kardec‘s codification of Spiritism occurred between the years 1857 and 1868. Currently there are 25 to 60 million people studying Spiritism in various countries, mainly in Brazil, through its essential books, which include The Spirits BookThe Book on MediumsThe Gospel According to SpiritismHeaven and Hell and The Genesis According to Spiritism.

Chico Xavier wrote over 490 additional books, which expand on the spiritualist doctrine.

As explained in the first of the 1,019 questions and answers in The Spirits Book:

1. What is God? Answer: “God is the Supreme Intelligence-First Cause of all things.”

The consensus in Spiritism is that God, the Great Creator, is above everything, including all human things such as rituals, dogmas, denominations or any other thing.



Persons newly adhering to Buddhism traditionally “take Refuge” (express faith in the Three JewelsBuddhaDharma, and Sangha) before a monk, nun, or similar representative, with often the sangha, the community of practitioners, also in ritual attendance.

Throughout the timeline of Buddhism, conversions of entire countries and regions to Buddhism were frequent, as Buddhism spread throughout Asia. For example, in the 11th century in Burma, king Anoratha converted his entire country to Theravada Buddhism. At the end of the 12th century, Jayavarman VII set the stage for conversion of the Khmer people to Theravada Buddhism. Mass conversions of areas and communities to Buddhism occur up to the present day, for example, in the Dalit Buddhist movement in India there have been organized mass conversions.

Exceptions to encouraging conversion may occur in some Buddhist movements. In Tibetan Buddhism, for example, the current Dalai Lama discourages active attempts to win converts.


Hinduism is a diverse system of thought with beliefs spanning monotheismpolytheismpanentheismpantheismpandeismmonism, and atheism among others. Hinduism has no traditional ecclesiastical order, no centralized religious authorities, no universally accepted governing body, no binding holy book nor any mandatory prayer attendance requirements. Hinduism has been described as a way of life. In its diffuse and open structure, numerous schools and sects of Hinduism have developed and spun off in India with help from its ascetic scholars, since the Vedic age. The six Astika and two Nastika schools of Hindu philosophy, in its history, did not develop a missionary or proselytization methodology, and they co-existed with each other. Most Hindu sub-schools and sects do not actively seek converts. Individuals have had a choice to enter, leave or change their god(s), spiritual convictions, accept or discard any rituals and practices, and pursue spiritual knowledge and liberation (moksha) in different ways. However, various schools of Hinduism do have some core common beliefs, such as the belief that all living beings have Atman (soul), a belief in karma theory, spirituality, ahimsa (non-violence) as the greatest dharma or virtue, and others.

Religious conversion to Hinduism has a long history outside India. Merchants and traders of India, particularly from Indian peninsula, carried their religious ideas, which led to religious conversions to Hinduism in Indonesia, Vietnam, Cambodia and Burma. Some sects of Hindus, particularly of the Bhakti schools began seeking or accepting converts in early to mid 20th century. For example, groups like the International Society for Krishna Consciousness accept those who have a desire to follow their sects of Hinduism and have their own religious conversion procedure.

Since 1800 CE, religious conversion from and to Hinduism has been a controversial subject within Hinduism. Some have suggested that the concept of missionary conversion, either way, is contrary to the precepts of Hinduism. Religious leaders of some of Hinduism sects such as Brahmo Samaj have seen Hinduism as a non-missionary religion yet welcomed new members, while other leaders of Hinduism’s diverse schools have stated that with the arrival of missionary Islam and Christianity in India, the view that “there is no such thing as proselytism in Hinduism” must be re-examined.

In recent decades, mainstream Hinduism schools have attempted to systematize ways to accept religious converts, with an increase in inter-religious mixed marriages. The steps involved in becoming a Hindu have variously included a period where the interested person gets an informal ardha-Hindu name and studies ancient literature on spiritual path and practices (English translations of UpanishadsAgamaItihasa, ethics in Sutra, Hindu festivals, yoga). If after a period of study, the individual still wants to convert, a NamakaranaSamskara ceremony is held, where the individual adopts a traditional Hindu name. The initiation ceremony may also include Yajna (i.e., fire ritual with Sanskrit hymns) under guidance of a local Hindu priest. Some of these places are mathas and asramas (hermitage, monastery), where one or more gurus (spiritual guide) conduct the conversion and offer spiritual discussions. Some schools encourage the new convert to learn and participate in community activities such as festivals (Diwali etc.), read and discuss ancient literature, learn and engage in rites of passages (ceremonies of birth, first feeding, first learning day, age of majority, wedding, cremation and others).


Jainism accepts anyone who wants to embrace the religion. There is no specific ritual for becoming a Jain. One does not need to ask any authorities for admission. One becomes a Jain on one’s own by observing the five vows (vratas). The five main vows as mentioned in the ancient Jain texts like Tattvarthasutra are:

  1. Ahimsa – Not to injure any living being by actions and thoughts.
  2. Satya – Not to lie or speak words that hurt others.
  3. Asteya – Not to take anything if not given.
  4. Brahmacharya – Chastity for householders / Celibacy in action, words and thoughts for monks and nuns.
  5. Aparigraha (Non-possession)- non-attachment to possessions.

Following the five vows is the main requirement in Jainism. All other aspects such as visiting temples are secondary. Jain monks and nuns are required to observe these five vows strictly.


Sikhism is not known to openly proselytize, but accepts converts.

Other religions and sects

In the second half of the 20th century, the rapid growth of new religious movements (NRMs) led some psychologists and other scholars to propose that these groups were using “brainwashing” or “mind control” techniques to gain converts. This theory was publicized by the popular news media but disputed by other scholars, including some sociologists of religion.

In the 1960s sociologist John Lofland lived with Unification Church missionary Young Oon Kim and a small group of American church members in California and studied their activities in trying to promote their beliefs and win converts to their church. Lofland noted that most of their efforts were ineffective and that most of the people who joined did so because of personal relationships with other members, often family relationships.

 Lofland published his findings in 1964 as a doctoral thesis entitled “The World Savers: A Field Study of Cult Processes”, and in 1966 in book form by Prentice-Hall as Doomsday Cult: A Study of Conversion, Proselytization, and Maintenance of Faith. It is considered to be one of the most important and widely cited studies of the process of religious conversion, and one of the first modern sociological studies of a new religious movement.

The Church of Scientology attempts to gain converts by offering “free stress tests”. It has also used the celebrity status of some of its members (most famously the American actor Tom Cruise) to attract converts. The Church of Scientology requires that all converts sign a legal waiver which covers their relationship with the Church of Scientology before engaging in Scientology services.

Research in the United States and the Netherlands has shown a positive correlation between areas lacking mainstream churches and the percentage of people who are a member of a new religious movement. This applies also for the presence of New Age centres. On the other end of the scale are religions that do not accept any converts, or do so very rarely.

Often these are relatively small, close-knit minority religions that are ethnically based such as the YazidisDruze, and MandaeansZoroastrianism classically does not accept converts, but this issue has become controversial in the 20th century due to the rapid decline in membership. Chinese traditional religion lacks clear criteria for membership, and hence for conversion. The Shakers and some Indian eunuch brotherhoods do not allow procreation, so that every member is a convert.


The United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights defines religious conversion as a human right: “Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief” (Article 18). Despite this UN-declared human right, some groups forbid or restrict religious conversion.

Based on the declaration the United Nations Commission on Human Rights (UNCHR) drafted the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, a legally binding treaty. It states that “Everyone shall have the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion. This right shall include freedom to have or to adopt a religion or belief of his choice” (Article 18.1). “No one shall be subject to coercion which would impair his freedom to have or to adopt a religion or belief of his choice” (Article 18.2).

The UNCHR issued a General Comment on this Article in 1993: “The Committee observes that the freedom to ‘have or to adopt’ a religion or belief necessarily entails the freedom to choose a religion or belief, including the right to replace one’s current religion or belief with another or to adopt atheistic views […] Article 18.2 bars coercion that would impair the right to have or adopt a religion or belief, including the use of threat of physical force or penal sanctions to compel believers or non-believers to adhere to their religious beliefs and congregations, to recant their religion or belief or to convert.” (CCPR/C/21/Rev.1/Add.4, General Comment No. 22.; emphasis added)

Some countries distinguish voluntary, motivated conversion from organized proselytism, attempting to restrict the latter. The boundary between them is not easily defined: what one person considers legitimate evangelizing, or witness-bearing, another may consider intrusive and improper. Illustrating the problems that can arise from such subjective viewpoints is this extract from an article by Dr. C. Davis, published in Cleveland State University‘s Journal of Law and Health: “According to the Union of American Hebrew CongregationsJews for Jesus and Hebrew Christians constitute two of the most dangerous cults, and its members are appropriate candidates for deprogramming. Anti-cult evangelicals … protest that ‘aggressiveness and proselytizing … are basic to authentic Christianity,’ and that Jews for Jesus and Campus Crusade for Christ are not to be labeled as cults. Furthermore, certain Hassidic groups who physically attacked a meeting of the Hebrew Christian ‘cult’ have themselves been labeled a ‘cult’ and equated with the followers of Reverend Moon, by none other than the President of the Central Conference of American Rabbis.”

Since the collapse of the former Soviet Union the Russian Orthodox Church has enjoyed a revival. However, it takes exception to what it considers illegitimate proselytizing by the Roman Catholic Church, the Salvation ArmyJehovah’s Witnesses, and other religious movements in what it refers to as its canonical territory. Greece has a long history of conflict, mostly with Jehovah’s Witnesses, but also with some Pentecostals, over its laws on proselytism. This situation stems from a law passed in the 1930s by the dictator Ioannis Metaxas. A Jehovah’s Witness, Minos Kokkinakis, won the equivalent of $14,400 in damages from the Greek state after being arrested for trying to preach his faith from door to door. In another case, Larissis v. Greece, a member of the Pentecostal church also won a case in the European Court of Human Rights.


1. Travelling is easier than you think.

We believe that travelling around the world shouldn’t be hard: it’s actually something everyone should be able to do at least once in their lives. Whether you choose to spend a few years or just a couple months travelling this beautiful planet, it’s important to see what’s out there. It’s up to you to make the dream come true and take the first step. Launch Trip planner to piece together and price your ideal route. Not sure where to start?  You can always call one of our travel consultants and get some complimentary advice!

2. Travel opens your eyes.

If you’re open and willing, travel will make you an incredibly better-rounded human being. And that’s really the goal, isn’t it? If you don’t know where to start, check out our Around the World planning guide.

3. Travelling helps you learn who you are.

All the challenges and opportunities travel lays at your feet help you discover who you are in a way that’s only possible on the road.

4. Travel creates meaningful relationships

People you meet while on the road become some of the most valued names on your contact list. They become places on the map to visit later on. These folks give you a glimpse outside your hometown circle of friends, and force you to take in new and refreshing perspectives, and ultimately realize that everyone is the same.

5. Travelling develops skills you didn’t know you had

Sometimes it’s only far from home that you realize you you’ve got skills you’ve never used. It’s travel that brings them to the surface and makes you smile, satisfied to have reached the mountain top, or  crossed a gorge  or helped a villager clean up after a storm, or even to have successfully ordered a meal at a rural Chinese restaurant.

6. Travel helps you learn new languages

There’s something satisfying about being able to throw around a few words of Greek, knowing how to say thanks in Thai, pulling out that long dormant Spanish to book a room in Santiago, or simply hearing a language you didn’t know existed just a few weeks before.

7. Travel means adventure

Zip-lining over the jungle canopy in Peru, successfully navigating the maze-like streets of Venice, bartering for the best price in the traditional markets of Marrakech, taking a speedboat ride in New Zealand, or hopping in a Land Rover and heading out to watch animals grazing  in Tanzania: these are adventures worth having. People are hardwired for the excitement of adventure and travel may just be the best way to tap into it.

8. Travelling gives you perspective

Meeting people from other cultures will teach you that the way you’ve been looking at the world isn’t the way everybody else does. In fact, your point-of-view might have some major blind spots. Seeing the world for yourself will improve your vision and your grip on reality.

9. Travel helps you move forward

If you’re between jobs, schools, kids, or relationships, around the world travel can be a perfect way to move from one of these life stages into your next great adventure. A big trip won’t just ease your transition into the next stage of your life, it’ll give you a chance to reflect on where you’ve been, where you’re going, and where you want to end up.

10. Travel is education

Seeing the world provides an education that’s absolutely impossible get in school. Travel teaches you economy, politics, history, geography, and sociology in an intense, hands-on way no class will.  Fortunately, the school of travel is always taking applications, no entrance exam required.

11. Travel challenges you

Getting your daily latte at the same place and staring at your screen at your nine-to-five every day not nearly interesting enough? Even if you choose to work on the road (and keep staring at the screen), you’ll have to find a new place to drink your latte, and depending on your destination, finding coffee, and foamy milk or a good place to sip them could prove to be a sizeable challenge. Travel is full of moments of joy and challenges. Overcoming the challenges gives you some of the greatest joys of all.

12. Travel shakes things up

It sucks to be stuck in a rut. Everyone knows what that’s like. A big trip can be your perfect solution. Fly around the world, stopping over in all of the places you’ve always wanted to visit. Go ahead and plan your ideal route around the world (it’s easier than you think!)

13. Travelling proves that dreams do come true

You imagined it, daydreamed about it, and envisioned it. Guess what? It can be done. Around the world travel is possible, you just have to decide you’re willing to take the first step and start planning your itinerary.  What are you waiting for? We’ve put together some specials to inspire you to live your dream.

14. Travel gives you cool stories

Let’s face it. Even for folks who can’t tell a story, just the words “last year in Mongolia” get you instant party points.  Even when events seem trivial, nostalgia and distance create an irresistible spin that makes mundane things like getting your laundry done in Zanzibar, entertaining. Just don’t be that person and overdo it!

15. Travel is literally food for thought.

You’ll be constantly surprised at the flavours the world has to offer.  The way people in other cultures and countries prepare food, and break bread together (not that all cultures even eat bread) will astound you.

16. Travel gives you a sense of accomplishment

If you’re the kind of person that dreams big, you’re probably one to reach for new challenges. Finishing a trip gives you the satisfaction that you were able make a goal to travel and accomplish what you set out to do–see the world.


1. Sri Lanka

Named as the top country to visit in 2020 by Lonely Planet, Ravan’s Lanka is famous for its pristine beaches and great food. The picturesque landscapes, flora and fauna, rural lifestyle and archaeological remains are a treat to photographers. Tourists need to purchase a permit to photograph the principal ancient monuments in Sri Lanka. If you’re travelling on a budget, Rs 500-700 should be sufficient for a day. The stay can be as cheap as Rs. 700-1000 per night. And also not to mention, it is one of the cheapest countries to visit from India.

Visa: Can be obtained easily online. Sri Lanka issues an ETA that allows you to enter the country for 30 days. 

Distance: Colombo, Sri Lanka is at a distance of 682 km from Chennai and it takes 1 hour, 21 minutes for travel by flight. 

How to get there: The easiest and quickest way to reach Sri lanka is to take a flight. The tickets cost Rs. 3000-4000 from Chennai to Colombo.

Number of tourists in the year 2018: Sri Lanka receives 2.3 million tourists 

Best time to visit: November to March 

Currency: 1 Sri Lankan Rupee = 0.39 INR

SuggestionsPlaces to visit in Sri Lanka

BookingSri Lanka Tourism

2. Bhutan

Bhutan, “Thunder Dragon”, is located between India and China. It is known to be the happiest country in the world. Tourists can immerse oneself in the rich culture, mountain monasteries and be a part of colourful Bhutanese festivals. Adventure seekers can explore the wilderness of the country. Prices for stays and food is typically similar to what it would cost in India, depending on the kind of choices. It is one of the cheapest countries to visit from India.

Visa: Not required for Indians (Passports/voter Id’s are sufficient)

Distance: Distance between Bagdogra and Thimphu, Bhutan is 333 kms. Flights from Bagdogra to Paro take about 30 minutes for arrival.

How to get there: The easiest way to reach Bhutan from India is to take a direct flight to Paro. The quickest way is to fly from Bagdogra. The cheapest option is to take a shared taxi from Bagdogra Airport through Nepal border.

Number of tourists in the year 2018: Bhutan received a total of 274,097 visitors

Best time to visit: October to December or January to February.

Currency: 1 Ngultrum = 1 Rupee. Indian currency is accepted for transactions in Bhutan expect for values Rs 500 and above. 

3. Nepal

Tucked in between the Himalayas and forests, Nepal is rich in wildlife and spiritual culture. If you want to escape to a land of quiet and peace this is the place for you. Adventure seekers have numerous mountains for trekking and forests to explore and also among the cheapest and nearest countries to visit from India. Average budget in Nepal can be Rs 400-700 per day. 

Visa: Not required for Indians (Passports/voter Id’s are sufficient)

Distance: Flight distance between Delhi to Kathmandu is 813 kms. The nonstop flight takes 1 hour 45 minutes for arrival.

How to get there: Cheapest flights to Kathmandu cost just Rs 3900 from Delhi. You can travel to Nepal by road, by train, bus or drive there, but it is a long and tedious affair.   

Number of tourists in the year 2018: Nepal received a total of 1.17 million tourists

Best time to visit: October to December

Currency: 1 Nepalese Rupee = 0.62 INR

4. Philippines

Philippines is a dream paradise for beach lovers. With an average of 700 islands, monuments, lush green forests and the fathomless beaches, Philippines is a country one can never miss. Local travel, stay and food are least expensive. Flight tickets are the major expense on a trip to the country. It is extremely affordable for the people looking for cheapest countries to visit from India.

Visa: Indian Nationals with a valid passport can apply for a tourist visa at the Embassy in New Delhi, for trips longer than 21 days. 

Distance: The shortest distance between India and the Philippines is 4,631 km. It takes about 5.14 hours to arrive by flight.

How to get there: Flights to Philippines from major cities in India are easily available. You can get cheaper tickets if you opt for off-season travel.  

Number of tourists in the year 2018: Philippines received 7.1 million foreign tourists 

Best time to visit: December to February

Currency: 1 Philippine peso = 1.39 INR


5. Cambodia

One of the cheapest countries to visit from India in Southeast Asia, Cambodia is known for its rich history, spectacular coastlines and inexpensive delicacies. An average of Rs 800 is sufficient for a day in Cambodia.

Visa: Cambodian visa can be obtained online within 4 days.

Distance: The shortest distance between India and Cambodia is 2,912 km. It takes about 3.23 hours to arrive by flight.

How to get there:  Cheapest flights can be availed between March and June, with tickets costing as low as Rs 5600.

Number of tourists in the year 2018: Cambodia received 6 million tourists

Best time to visit: May to October

Currency: 1 INR = 57 Cambodian Riel

6. Indonesia

One of the most sought out destination Bali is located in Indonesia, but there’s more to the country than just Bali. It is home to active volcanoes, vast beaches and high mountain ranges. Visiting Indonesia during April and October is a budget friendly option with the accommodation prices going down by 30-60%. An average of Rs 1000-1500 should be sufficient for a day.  One of the best thing is that it is one the cheapest countries to visit from India.

Visa: Not required for Indian nationals.

Distance: The shortest distance between Indonesia and India is 4,483 km. It takes around 5 hours to arrive by flight.

How to get there: Flights can be as cheap as Rs 6000 to Jakarta. 

Number of tourists in the year 2018: Indonesia received 15.8 million foreign tourists.

Best time to visit: April and October

Currency: 1INR  = 190 Indonesian Rupiah

7. Vietnam

One of the gems in Southeast Asia, Vietnam has green mountains, happening cities and pristine beaches. It is famous for its rich history and distinguishing heritage. If you choose to stay in the backpacker’s hostels, your stay can cost you only Rs 1000 per night. You can have a filling large meal in a mid-range restaurant for about Rs 800. If you are on a budget then opting for cheaper options can cost you about Rs 500-700 per day. It is one the most beautiful and budget friendly Countries to visit from India.

Visa: Visa to Vietnam can be obtained through a simple online procedure.

Distance: The shortest distance between India and Vietnam is 3,094.38 km and it takes 4 hours 20 minutes to arrive by flight.

How to get there:  You can get the lowest prices for tickets from India in April. Mondays and Wednesdays are the cheapest days to fly to Vietnam.

Number of tourists in the year 2018: Vietnam received 15.5 million international tourists.

Best time to visit: February to April and August to October

Currency: 1 INR = 323 Vietnamese dongs

8. Laos

Laos is a palette of all the shades of green located in Southeast Asia. Dark forests, bright green rice fields, and glistening tea leaves on the mountains, the landscape all make it a treat to the eyes. It is also known for its Buddhist monasteries and French architecture. Dorm rooms are the cheapest option ranging from Rs 400-800 per night. Food is extremely inexpensive whether it is a high restaurant or on the streets, the prices starting from Rs 100-300. You can rent bikes for sightseeing inside the country for just Rs 150-300. 

Visa:  Indian travellers can get a visa on arrival from any of the international checkpoints or by going to the Embassy in Delhi and completing the visa procedure to avoid last minute queues.  

Distance: The distance between India and Laos is 2572 km. The quickest way to get from India to Laos is to fly which takes around 9 hours.

Number of tourists in the year 2018: Laos received 4.1 million tourists

Best time to visit: October to April

Currency: 1 INR = 123 Laotian Kips

9. Myanmar

Nature walks, historical tours and hot air balloon rides are a major tourist attraction in Myanmar. Gigantic mountains, pristine beaches, beautiful islands and peaceful lakes are the highlights of the country. 

Visa: Indian Nationals with a valid passport can apply for an e-Visa online.

Distance:  Flight distance between India to Myanmar is 1,986 km. It takes 3 hours to arrive by flight.

How to get there: You can travel by road to Myanmar through Manipur. Taking a flight is the quickest option.

Number of tourists in the year 2018: Myanmar received 3.55 million tourists 

Best time to visit: November to February

Currency: 1 INR = 21 Myanmar Kyats

10. Lebanon

Lebanon is an ancient country with a rich history, diverse culture, and wondrous scenic beauty. It is located in Western Asia, bordering Syria and Israel. A trip to Lebanon is similar to a European city in terms of its cost, approximately Rs 6000 is required for a day in Lebanon including the stay, food and travelling inside the country.

Visa: Indians can apply for a Visa online or at one of the respective Embassies.

Distance: The shortest distance between India and Lebanon is 4,478 km. It takes 5 hours to arrive by flight.

How to get there:  Flights from major cities are easily available to Lebanon

Number of tourists in the year 2018: Lebanon received 1,963,917 tourists

Best time to visit: March to June and October to December


The debate regarding direct-to-digital release has witnessed a massive rift in the film industry. The ongoing COVID-19 lockdown has impacted several industries across the
world—however, one of the most hit industries in the film and television industries.

Several producers have decided to release their film directly on the OTT platforms rather than theatres; after all, theatres are not going to open anytime soon. This particular decision has been taken owing to the monetary and logistical factors. However, the “OTT vs. theaters debate” has just begun and is not about to end in the unforeseen future.


An over-the-top (OTT) media service is a streaming media service that directly offers viewers through broadcast, internet bypassing cable, and satellite television platforms. These are the traditional platforms for distributions of such contents. The emergence of OTT platforms has resulted in a disruption in the entertainment sector. It is being thrust upon by the rise in the evolution of smartphones, the standard of living, changing preferences of the audience, and above all, the ubiquitous and affordable Internet connectivity coupled with increasing penetration in rural areas.

“Content is the king” phrase is truly living up to its real sense in recent times. It is personalized and provides the opportunity for wider focused distribution. According to a recent report by the Boston Consulting Group, it predicted that the OTT divisions in India are currently secured $0.5 billion, and is expected to grow around $5 billion by 2023. Affordability and convenience are the key factors that have propelled the OTT revolution in India.


Various multiplex chain owners have openly criticized this move by the producers. India’s largest multiplex chain, INOX, had even released a statement regarding the same. They called out on the film industry of not standing by their partners in times of need. They even threatened about ‘retributive measures’ that will be taken in the future. This was followed by Producers Guild India as well making a statement contradictory to theirs.


Various multiplex chain owners have openly criticized this move by the producers. India’s largest multiplex chain, INOX, had even released a statement regarding the same. They called out on the film industry of not standing by their partners in times of need. They even threatened about ‘retributive measures’ that will be taken in the future. This was followed by Producers Guild India as well making a statement contradictory to theirs.

Siddharth Jain from the INOX chain of cinemas was surprised by the movie industry’s producer friends’ move. Cinemas and exhibition share a century-old relationship. So, the least they were expecting from their friends was that they all at least ponder over the situation before making any announcements. No one from the other side was consulted about the same, and suddenly a line of cinemas announced their release on Amazon Prime, Zee5, and Netflix, to name a few. Also, once the theaters open, one cannot expect the viewers to pay to watch an old film that is already out in the market.

As a result, even PVR urged the producers not to release their films until theaters do not reopen. Kamal Gianchandani, CEO of PVR Pictures, in a conversation with HuffPost India, stated that they are disappointed with Gulabo Sitabo being directly released on the OTT platform. Tamil Nadu Theatre and Multiplex Owners’ Association had also expressed its displeasure when it was announced that Suriya and his company 2D Entertainment Ponmagal Vandhal, would be directly released on OTT platforms. They even threatened to ban their films in the future. Nevertheless, on 29th May 2020, the movie was released on Amazon Prime. Eastern India Motion Pictures Association (EIMPA) had written to the government regarding their apprehension on films getting released on OTTs directly.

The theatre owners do have a point. Huge investments have been made on the infrastructure. apart from the revenues, such exhibitions do generate huge employment opportunities. Currently, around 2 lakh people are earning their bread and butter from this industry. So, if this trend continues, there will be a cause of worry.

Rs, 10-15,000 crore of yearly revenues, are generated from the box-office. Due to the lockdown, this quarter of that business is already lost. Now with the producers skipping, the theatrical release would make the matter worse. It is estimated that with the release of Gulabo Sitabo and Shakuntala Devi, there will be an additional loss of Rs 100-125 crore. Leaving aside what has been done, one will realize that straight-to-OTT is not a wise decision at all. Revenues from other avenues such as TV satellite rights are also lost.


Renowned filmmakers like Shoojit Sircar believe this is a time to experiment with other platforms for releasing the films. It is because the theatres would not be opening anytime soon. The rising cases in the country have forced the state governments to put the reopening of the theatres at last in the priority list. The business of a film can only be taken into consideration by the pan-India box office. So rather than incurring losses by shelving the movie for so long, it is better to release them on OTT to curb the losses. But it is a short-term phenomenon.

However, it does not mean that the films give to the OTT are at a loss. It will allow the filmmakers to cover the damage and earn a premium so that they can begin working on other films; and Amazon Prime, Zee5, and Netflix having that kind of money to buy the rights. This way, it is a win-win situation for both of them.

Once the theatres open, people would be back watching their favorite actors on the big screen. Also, several films will be lined up for the screening. According to an analysis, approximately six films will be lined up every Friday for the release. So, it is better this way to cut the competition and the losses. Theatres are the best medium to watch a film. Also, it is the best way to pay one’s respect and love for the genius and the hard work of the filmmakers.


According to the 2020 FICCI-EY report of 2020, about 50 low budget films were released directly on OTT in India in 2019. OTT guarantees a broader audience for small films with less saleable names. It cuts costs on printing and advertising. A theatrical release is a costly affair for them as distributors do not show much of an interest. Thus, it acts as a saviour for smaller films, but it cannot replace the exhibition industry.

So, the digital release of feature films is not a new trend. There has been a 100% increase in the streaming subscription revenues last year. Besides offering live entertainment, several OTT players are creating noteworthy web series and film that has managed to capture the eyeballs. It has created a tension that the filmmakers will lose out on the theatrical experience. Video streaming platforms have certainly made experiencing movies convenient, affordable, and available ‘on the go,’ especially for those who prefer binge-watching.

So, although the theatres still draw an enormous footfall, the streaming platforms’ presence cannot be made palpable. A digital release is a different game, and every film has a unique strategy to stand out. Nevertheless, the exhibition model will endure this challenge a well. Earlier as well, there were challenges such as VCRs, VCD, and DVDs. Now the streaming platforms have come up. During every trial, people though that the theatres would perish. But all the problems have been done and dusted very time. It too shall pass

They are watching movies by going out of the house, and using it as an opportunity to socialize is embedded in India’s social fabric. Movies, coupled with dinner, is escapism for the next-gen from their daily routine. Although streaming has made the movie-watching experience cheap and comfortable, the fun to go out of the house using this occasion cannot be replaced.

Currently, both the mediums are holding on to their exclusive formats and the USP attached to it. Both of them serve almost the same type of content, but the purpose and consumer variables are different. People might look up to the theatre experience for 3D animation or much-awaited-films. While on the other hand, the audience will rely on the OTT platforms more On-The-Go with more like podcasts, exclusive interest content, history documentaries, interviews, or web series. It is more likely that OTT has been impacted by the ongoing TV viewership rather than a theatrical experience.

The co-existence of both theatres and OTT platforms in the long -run is something that we all can foresee in the future. It is merely because of the relevance these two platforms hold in terms of viewers and the content. While people watch OTTs on weekdays, on the other hand, people watch movies over the weekend. However, the technological revolution will redefine theatre for a type of content such as genre movies for sure.

The current audiences are not willing to shy to shed an extra penny to seek a completely transformative experience for fresh, relatable, and engaging content. Thus, exaggerating either of them is incorrect.

Nevertheless, it is safe to assume that customers today have a platter full of options and the freedom to choose any of them as per their interest. So, it is up to the various mediums to adapt to the changing scenario.



The music of India includes multiple varieties of classical musicfolk music, Filmy, Indian rock, and Indian pop. Indian pop and Indian rock are derived from western rock and roll. India‘s classical music tradition, including Hindustani music, Bhartiya music and Carnatic , has a history spanning millennia and developed over several areas. Music in India began as an integral part of socio-religious life.

Music is a way of expressing the feelings by the medium of rhythms and ragas the formation of both of these important elements makes the music beautiful. It expresses the situation you are feeling or someone else for whom the music is been created. The creation of music is an art it’s an beauty in itself the better the music plays or is created it gives a long lasting impact on the listeners. In India music is a heritage to the people of this country. Indian people have created music to express their feelings for the almighty god at first so that they can tell that how they feel about the god in a beautiful way. It helps to share the feelings in a short way and in a helpful way.

As we all know that India is a holy country a country full of devotees of almighty in every religion. So, the start of the music is also from the prayers or the story telling of almighty in India and then the other forms were discovered or created in Indian music.


Vedas (c. 1500 – c. 800 BCE Vedic period) document rituals with performing arts and play. For example, Shatapatha Brahmana (~800–700 BCE) has verses in chapter 13.2 written in the form of a play between two actors. Tala or taal is an ancient music concept traceable to Vedic era texts of Hinduism, such as the Samaveda and methods for singing the Vedic hymns. Smriti (500 BCE to 100 BCE ) post-vedic Hindu texts include Valmiki‘s Ramayana (500 BCE to 100 BCE) which mentions dance and music (dance by Apsaras such as UrvashiRambhaMenakaTilottama Panchāpsaras, and Ravana‘s wives excelling in nrityageetaor “singing and dancing” and nritavaditra or “playing musical instruments”), music and singing by Gandharvas, several string instruments(vinatantrivipanci and vallaki similar to veena), wind instruments (shankhavenu and venugana – likely a mouth organ made by tying several flutes together), raga (including kaushika such as raag kaushik dhwani), vocal registers (seven svara or sur, ana or ekashurtidrag note, murchana the regulated rise and fall of voice in matra and tripramana three-fold teen taal laya such as drut or quick, madhyaor middle, and vilambit or slow), poetry recitation in Bala Kanda and also in Uttara Kanda by Luv and Kusha in marga style.

Starting from the earliest known work Tholkappiyam (500 BCE), there are several references to music and Panns in the ancient pre-Sangam and Sangam literature starting from the earliest known work Tholkappiyam (500 BCE). Among Sangam literature, Mathuraikkanci refers to women singing sevvazhi pann to invoke the mercy of God during childbirth. In Tolkappiyam, the five landscapesof the Sangam literature had each an associated Pann, each describing the mood of the song associated with that landscape. Among the numerous panns that find mention in the ancient Tamil literature are, Ambal Pann, which is suitable to be played on the flute, sevvazhi pann on the Yazh (lute), Nottiram and Sevvazhi expressing pathos, the captivating Kurinji pann and the invigorating Murudappann.Pann(Tamil: பண்) is the melodic mode used by the Tamil people in their music since the ancient times. The ancient panns over centuries evolved first into a pentatonic scale and later into the seven note Carnatic Sargam. But from the earliest times, Tamil Music is heptatonicand known as Ezhisai (ஏழிசை).

Sanskrit saint-poet Jayadeva, who was the great composer and illustrious master of classical music, shaped Odra-Magadhi style music and had great influence on Odissi Sangita.

Sarṅgadeva composed Sangita-Ratnakara, one of the most important Sanskrit musicological texts from India, which is regarded as the definitive text in both Hindustani music and Carnatic music traditions of Indian classical music.

Assamese poet Madhava Kandali, writer of Saptakanda Ramayana, lists several instruments in his version of “Ramayana”, such as mardala, khumuchi, bhemachi, dagar, gratal, ramtal, tabaljhajhar, jinjiri, bheri mahari, tokari, dosari, kendaradotaravinarudra-vipanchi, etc. (meaning that these instruments existed since his time in 14th century or earlier). The Indian system of notation is perhaps the world’s oldest and most elaborate.

“In India music is now followed and aspired by the bollywood fashion which they have stated for the public to enjoy. Now we are discussing which change are there in the both types of music in the bollywood whether it is old or new and if they have followed any form or way from the Sufi music or the bhakti music it will be concluded later.”


Hindi film songs are present in Hindi cinema right from the first sound film Alam Ara (1931) by Ardeshir Irani which featured seven songs. This was closely followed by Shirheen Farhad (1931) by Jamshedji Framji Madan, also by Madan, which had as many as 42 song sequences strung together in the manner of an opera, and later by Indra Sabha which had as many as 69 song sequences. However, the practice subsided and subsequent films usually featured between six and ten songs in each production.

Right from the advent of Indian cinema in 1931, musicals with song numbers have been a regular feature in Indian cinema. In 1934 Hindi film songs began to be recorded on gramophones and later, played on radio channels, giving rise to a new form of mass entertainment in India which was responsive to popular demand. Within the first few years itself, Hindi cinema had produced a variety of films which easily categorised into genres such as “historicals”, “mythologicals”, “devotional, “fantasy” etc. but each having songs embedded in them such that it is incorrect to classify them as “musicals”.

The Hindi song was such an integral features of Hindi mainstream cinema, besides other characteristics, that post-independence alternative cinema, of which the films of Satyajit Ray are an example, discarded the song and dance motif in its effort to stand apart from mainstream cinema.

The Hindi film song now began to make its presence felt as a predominating characteristic in the culture of the nation and began to assume roles beyond the limited purview of cinema. In multi-cultural India, as per film historian Partha Chatterjee, “the Hindi film song cut through all the language barriers in India, to engage in lively communication with the nation where more than twenty languages are spoken and … scores of dialects exist”. Bollywood music has drawn its inspiration from numerous traditional sources such as Ramleelanautankitamasha and Parsi theatre, as well as from the West, Pakistan, and other Indic musical subcultures.

For over five decades, these songs formed the staple of popular music in South Asia and along with Hindi films, were an important cultural export to most countries around Asia and wherever the Indian Diaspora had spread. The spread was galvanised by the advent of cheap plastic tape cassettes which were produced in the millions till the industry crashed in 2000. Even today Hindi film songs are available on radio, on television, as live music by performers, and on media, both old and new such as cassette tapes, compact disks and DVDs and are easily available, both legally and illegally, on the internet.



Hindi dance music encompasses a wide range of songs predominantly featured in the Bollywood film industry with a growing worldwide attraction. The music became popular among overseas Indians in countries such as South Africa, the United Kingdom and the United States of America and eventually developed a global fan base.


In the Indian subcontinent of South Asiadisco peaked in popularity in the early 1980s, when a South Asian disco scene arose, popularised by filmy Bollywood music, at a time when disco’s popularity had declined in North America. The South Asian disco scene was sparked by the success of Pakistani pop singer Nazia Hassan, working with Indian producer Biddu, with the hit Bollywood song “Aap Jaisa Koi” in 1980. Biddu himself previously had success in the Western world, where he was considered a pioneer, as one of the first successful disco producers in the early 1970s, with hits such as the hugely popular “Kung Fu Fighting” (1974), before the genre’s Western decline at the end of the 1970s led to him shifting his focus to Asia. The success of “Aap Jaisa Koi” in 1980 was followed by Nazia Hassan’s Disco Deewane, a 1981 album produced by Biddu, becoming Asia’s best-selling pop album at the time.

In parallel to the Euro disco scene at the time, the continued relevance of disco in South Asia and the increasing reliance on synthesizersled to experiments in electronic disco, often combined with elements of Indian music. Biddu had already used electronic equipment such as synthesizers in some of his earlier disco work, including “Bionic Boogie” from Rain Forest (1976), “Soul Coaxing” (1977), Eastern Man and Futuristic Journey (recorded from 1976 to 1977), and “Phantasm” (1979), before using synthesizers for his later work with Nazia Hassan, including “Aap Jaisa Koi” (1980), Disco Deewane (1981) and “Boom Boom” (1982). Bollywood disco producers who used electronic equipment such as synthesizers include R.D. Burman, on songs such as “Dhanno Ki Aankhon Mein” (Kitaab, 1977) and “Pyaar Karne Waale” (Shaan, 1980); Laxmikant-Pyarelal, on songs such as “Om Shanti Om” (Karz, 1980); and Bappi Lahari, on songs such as “Ramba Ho” (Armaan, 1981). They also experimented with minimalisthigh-tempo, electronic disco, including Burman’s “Dil Lena Khel Hai Dildar Ka” (Zamane Ko Dikhana Hai, 1981), which had a “futuristic electro feel”, and Lahiri’s “Yaad Aa Raha Hai” (Disco Dancer, 1982).

Such experiments eventually culminated in the work of Charanjit Singh, whose 1982 record Synthesizing: Ten Ragas to a Disco Beatanticipated the sound of acid house music, years before the genre arose in the Chicago house scene of the late 1980s. Using the Roland TR-808 drum machineTB-303 bass synthesizer, and Jupiter-8 synthesizer, Singh increased the disco tempo up to a “technowavelength” and made the sounds more minimalistic, while pairing them with “mystical, repetitive, instrumental Indian ragas“, to produce a new sound, which resembled acid house. According to Singh: “There was lots of disco music in films back in 1982. So I thought why not do something different using disco music only. I got an idea to play all the Indian ragas and give the beat a disco beat – and turn off the tabla. And I did it. And it turned out good.” The first track “Raga Bhairavi” also had a synthesised voice that says “Om Namah Shivaya” through a vocoder.

Along with experiments in electronic disco, another experimental trend in Indian disco music of the early 1980s was the fusion of disco and psychedelic music. Due to 1960s psychedelic rock, popularised by the Beatles‘ raga rock, borrowing heavily from Indian music, it began exerting a reverse influence and had blended with Bollywood music by the early 1970s. You can download these songs for free from various sources as well. This led to Bollywood producers exploring a middle-ground between disco and psychedelia in the early 1980s. Producers who experimented with disco-psychedelic fusion included Laxmikant-Pyarelal, on songs such as “Om Shanti Om” (Karz, 1980), and R. D. Burman, on songs such as “Pyaar Karne Waale” (Shaan, 1980), along with the use of synthesizers.


Music directors like Madan Mohan composed notable film-ghazals extensively for Muslim socials in the 1960s and the 1970s. The filmi-ghazal style experienced a revival in the early 1990s, sparked by the success of Nadeem-Shravan‘s Aashiqui (1990). It had a big impact on Bollywood music at the time, ushering in ghazal-type romantic music that dominated the early 1990s, with soundtracks such as DilSaajanPhool Aur Kaante and Deewana. A popular ghazal song from Aashiqui was “Dheere Dheere“, a cover version of which was later recorded by Yo Yo Honey Singh and released by T-Series in 2015.


It represents a distinct subgenre of film music, although it is distinct from traditional qawwali, which is devotional Sufi music. One example of filmi qawwali is the song “Pardah Hai Pardah” sung by Mohammed Rafi, and composed by Laxmikant-Pyarelal, for the Indian film Amar Akbar Anthony (1977).

Within the subgenre of filmi qawwali, there exists a form of qawwali that is infused with modern and Western instruments, usually with techno beats, called techno-qawwali. An example of techno-qawwali is “Kajra Re“, a filmi song composed by Shankar Ehsaan Loy. A newer variation of the techno-qawwali based on the more dance oriented tracks is known as the “club qawwali”. More tracks of this nature are being recorded and released.

Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan and A.R. Rahman have composed filmi qawwalis in the style of traditional qawwali. Examples include “Tere Bin Nahin Jeena” (Kachche Dhaage), “Arziyan” (Delhi 6), “Khwaja Mere Khwaja” (Jodhaa Akbar)[43] and “Kun Faya Kun” (Rockstar).[44]


Indian musicians began fusing rock with traditional Indian music from the mid-1960s onwards in filmy songs produced for popular Bollywood films. Some of the more well known early rock songs (including styles such as funk rockpop rockpsychedelic rockraga rock, and soft rock) from Bollywood films include Mohammed Rafi‘s “Jaan Pehechan Ho” in Gumnaam (1965), Kishore Kumar‘s “O Saathi Re” in Muqaddar Ka Sikandar (1978), and Asha Bhosle songs such as “Dum Maro Dum” in Hare Rama Hare Krishna (1971), “Ae Naujawan Hai Sab” in Apradh (1972), and “Yeh Mera Dil Pyar Ka Diwana” in Don (1978).


Songs nowadays have a soft spot in almost everyone’s heart. People listen different types of music be it a inspirational/motivational, sad, romantic, rocking, Gazal etc. I have been through the answers here some are saying old one’s have the meanings so are the best where as the new ones are shitty except few. Well this questions’ answer will definitely vary as it totally depends upon an individual’s perception.
I agree that old songs does have meanings but many don’t. Songs sung by legendary singers like Kishore Kumar, Gulshan Kumar, Lata Mangeskar etc. have been great no doubt, one of my favorite is zindagi ke safar mein this song is so much meaningful that one can relate it to one’s life. So there are many old ones which have meaning but not every as you all know.

Now coming to the new songs, who says new songs are not better than old one’s? Well many of you out there but let me tell you all, there are good numbers of new songs which have meanings like kal ho na ho, ashayein, muskurane ki wajah, roobaroo and many more. These songs have mesmerized many people. And if you are pointing towards Honey Singh’s songs then guys just tell me what’s wrong in it?  I mean I am not a huge fan of him but genuinely saying there’s nothing bad. His songs are heard just for fun or party. So i think it’s quite okay to enjoy in these kind of songs. Though it doesn’t have meanings at all but somehow it gives a good tune to listen. Not a big deal! Both old and new are best. It depends totally on you. And Indian songs have always been one of a kind because of our talented singers of our country. They have given so much hits and enlighten our mood as well. The ragas in these songs which are discussed in the above articles are a masterpiece of the mixture of the old classical and Sufi form of creating music.



The history of sports extends as far back as the existence of people as purposive, sportive and active beings. It also shows how society has changed its beliefs and therefore how changes in the rules are brought. The history of sports in India dates back to the Vedic era. Chess, wrestling, polo, archery and hockey are some of the games believed to have originated in India. But somewhere between the historical lineage of sports and sports in the modern era there is a gap of enthusiasm and encouragement. Little importance is left for sports at grass root level in India with every school concentrating only on academics. Though there are various federations in India that provide sports facilities but apart from cricket, India is largely failing in every major event for sports such as Olympics. One of the main reasons for it is the lack of uniform regulation in India for sports. There is a need for a legislation that governs sports and brings the various authorities into one roof. Sports law has an unusually well developed pattern of globalized regulation and overlaps substantially with labor law, contract law, criminal law, public law, administrative law, antitrust law, competition law, intellectual property rights law, law of tort, media law, company law, human rights law etc. These laws have been applied to sporting context involving public order, drugs, safety, disciplinary measures, conduct and wider issues relating to restraint of trade, anti competitive behaviour, match fixing and the commercial exploitation of sports. Issues like defamation and privacy rights are also an integral aspect of sports law. In India sports figures in the State list of the Seventh Schedule (entry 33) of the Constitution.


In the field of sports, the club is the basic unit at the grass root level. At the top of the hierarchy are the international sports bodies for each sports made up of national bodies of different countries. The national sports bodies again consist of the provincial or state bodies of different countries. The provincial state bodies comprise the different districts or clubs. In India, national sports bodies field the national team representing the country for participation in international competitions where good performance is a matter of pride for the entire nation. They consider the players for participation Accordingly in the most countries including India, for enforcement of their public duties and obligations prerogative Constitutional Writs of High Courts lie against these private bodies like any public or Government Authority.  (Indian Olympic Association Vs Veeresh Malik and Ors MANU/DE/0108/2010) 

There is no national or state legislation for regulation of sports in India. The Ministry of Youth Affairs & Sports was set up by the Govt. of India to create the infrastructure and promote capacity building for broad-basing sports as well as for achieving excellence in various competitive events at the national and international levels. Sports promotion is primarily the responsibility of the various National Sports Federations (NSFs) which are autonomous in nature. The Ministry of Sports and Youth Affairs issues notifications and guidelines from time to time for the purpose of regulation of NSFs.

The Sports Law in India is governed and regulated by
• National Sports Policy
• Sports Law and Welfare Association of India
• Sports Authority of India
• The Sports Broadcasting Law in India.


A Resolution on the National Sports Policy was laid in both Houses of Parliament in August, 1984. The National Sports Policy, 1984 was formulated with the objective of raising the standard of Sports in the country. The National Sports Policy, 1984 provided inter-alia that the progress made in its implementation would be reviewed every five years to determine the further course of action, as may be necessary, following such review. Over the years, it has transpired that even as the National Sports Policy, 1984 encompasses various facets in respect of encouraging sports in the country, the implementation of the same is not complete. In order to reformulate the National Sports Policy 1984, National Sports Policy 2001, was drafted

The objective of the guidelines of National Sports Policy 2001 is three fold: 

• Firstly to define the areas of responsibility of the various agencies involved in the promotion and development of sports,
• Secondly, to identify National Sports Federations eligible for coverage under these guidelines, to set priorities, and to detail the procedures to be followed by the Federations, to avail of Government sponsorship and assistance. 
• Thirdly, to state the conditions for eligibility which the Government will insist upon while releasing grants to Sports Federations. 

In accordance with the provisions of the National Sports Policy, 2001, the Central Government pursues the objectives of “Broad-basing” of Sports and “Achieving Excellence in Sports at the National and International levels” in a combined effort with the State Government, the Olympic Association and the National Sports Federation. The Government of India and the Sports Authority of India, in association with the Indian Olympic Association and the National Sports Federations, are expected to focus specific attention on the objective of achieving excellence at the National and International levels. The National Sports Policy aims to pursue inclusion of “Sports” in the Concurrent List of the Constitution of India and introduction of appropriate legislation for guiding all matters involving national and inter-state jurisdiction. 


The Sports Law and Welfare Association of India is a national non-profit and professional organization which work with the common goal of understanding, advancement, and ethical practice of Sports Law in India for the promotion of Sports, by bringing Legal Practitioners and Sports persons together. The Association provides consultancy on various matters including regulation of sports governing bodies, general sport and law issues, intellectual property issues in sport, online advocating in legal disputes of sports in court on behalf of sports persons and sports bodies, etc. The Sports Law and Welfare Association of India aims to further the discussion of legal problems affecting sports and to promote the exchange of a variety of perspectives and positions of sports law and provide a forum for lawyers representing athletes, teams, leagues, conferences, civic recreational programs, educational institutions and other organizations involved in professional, collegiate, Olympic, physical education and amateur sports. 


The Sports Authority of India was established to fulfil the need of an apex body to coordinate various sports activities in India. The success of the IXth Asian Games at Delhi has raised sports consciousness and enthusiasm in India which in turn, motivated the Government of India to focus on sports development to encourage physical fitness among youth and to direct their energy towards excellence. The Sports Authority of India has gradually, extended its operations to promote broad base sports. The other thrust areas of SAI include provision of strengthening of inputs for excellence and various supportive programmes, such as Academic Programmes, Coaching and Physical Education Awareness Programmes and Scholarship Schemes as incentives to sportspersons. The Sports Authority of India operates various Schemes at sub-junior, junior and senior level and endeavours to broad base sports and develop excellence by upgrading the skills of Indian sports persons. 


The Sports Broadcasting Signals (Mandatory Sharing with Prasar Bharati) Act was passed in 2007 with an objective to provide access to the largest number of listeners and viewers, on a free to air basis, of sporting events of national importance through mandatory sharing of sports broadcasting signals with Prasar Bharati and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto. The Act provides that any content right owner or holder television or radio broadcasting service provider shall not carry a live television broadcast on any cable or Direct-to-Home network or radio commentary broadcast in India of sporting events of national importance, unless it simultaneously shares the live broadcasting signal, without its advertisements, with the Prasar Bharati to enable them to re-transmit the same on its terrestrial networks and Direct-to-Home networks in such manner and on such terms and conditions as may be specified. 


Two teams playing against each other are like two corporate firms producing a single product. The product is the game, weighted by the revenues derived from its play. In one sense, the teams compete; in another, they combine in a single firm in which the success of each branch requires efficiency. Unequally distributed playing talent can produce “competitive imbalance”. Remuneration of the team members largely depends on the level of competition between the teams in the particular sports. sport is generally organized in a kind of a ‘pyramid’ structure, with a single governing body controlling most regulatory and commercial aspects of each sport, the governing body appears to be de facto ‘dominant’ and therefore claims relating to the abuse of monopoly. 

Sports governing bodies such as BCCI, often attempt to preserve for themselves the sole ability to regulate the sport and to organize events. In order to prevent the development of rival organizations, they have sought to tie players in by prohibiting them from competing in other events, on pain of exclusion from ‘official’ events, and such rules have been the subject of challenge under competition law. 

When the Zee launched Indian Cricket League, the BCCI sacked Kapil Dev as chairman of the National Cricket Academy for aligning with ICL and barred all the 44 defecting players from playing for India or at the domestic level. It made clear that any cricketer who aligns with ICL will be banned for life from playing for India. Such practice on part of the BCCI may attract liability under the provisions of the Competition Act, 2002. As per Section 4(2)(c) of the Act if any enterprise “indulges in practice or practices resulting in denial of market access in any manner”, then it shall be liable for abuse of dominant position. Thus, such practice of banning players from domestic tournaments on account of joining the rival leagues may prove expensive for the BCCI, which may face a challenge on grounds of abuse of dominant position. 

The denial of stadiums by the BCCI can attract liability for abuse of dominant position under s.4(2)(c) of the Competition Act, 2002 as by denying the use of essential facility under its control it raises the barriers to entry in the market for its competitors, resulting effectively in denial of market access. Operating from just one stadium in Panchkula (in Haryana near Chandigarh), the ICL clearly missed out on one of the integral aspects of leagues sports i.e. a fan base, since it is unable to capture home crowds for matches on account of non-access to the stadiums in the club’s cities. 


Arbitration, a form of alternative dispute resolution (ADR), is a legal technique for the resolution of disputes outside the courts, wherein the parties to a dispute refer it to one or more persons (the “arbitrators”, “arbiters” or “arbitral tribunal”), by whose decision (the “award”) they agree to be bound. It is a settlement technique in which a third party reviews the case and imposes a decision that is legally binding for both sides. Other forms of ADR include mediation (a form of settlement negotiation facilitated by a neutral third party) and non-binding resolution by experts. Arbitration in India is governed by the Arbitration and Conciliation Act 1996 (“Indian Arbitration Act”), which is based on the UNCITRAL Model Law. The Indian Arbitration Act is broadly divided into two parts. Part I applies to arbitrations held in India, whether domestic or international, and Part II applies to arbitrations held outside India. Part II, incorporates the rules related to international arbitrations governed by the New York or Geneva Conventions. In sports, the disputes are first referred to the federations that govern a particular sport and subsequently the international authorities that govern the sport. e.g. in hockey disputes are referred to the Indian Hockey Federation and after that the International Hockey Federation. 

At a time when sports are becoming more professional and the stakes are becoming higher than ever, dispute resolution takes on an increasingly important role. In many respects arbitration offers the most suitable solutions with regards to the rapidity, diversity, incontestability and professionalism of the decisions rendered. With regular increase in the number of sports-related disputes in the country, India requires an independent authority that specializes in sports-related problems and that is authorised to pronounce binding decisions. The disputes when referred to courts take a long time to come up with the final decision since the Indian courts are already piled up with a number of pending cases. There is a need to have an authority for sports that offers flexible, quick and inexpensive method of resolution of disputes. With the inauguration of India’s first arbitration centre in Delhi in 2009, India is recognizing the necessity of arbitration for quicker disposal of cases. The increasing use of arbitration in sport over the last decade has challenged the legal framework in which arbitration disputes are addressed in many jurisdictions.

Court of Arbitration for Sport

Arbitration exists in international sport through the Court of Arbitration for Sport. All international disputes relating to sports are referred to it. The most prominent sports dispute resolution forum is the Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS) which has its headquarters in Lausanne, Switzerland. The CAS was created by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) in 1983. It also has two permanent outposts in Sydney, Australia and New York, USA. It has a minimum of 150 arbitrators from 37 countries, who are specialists in arbitrations and sports law. They are appointed by the International Council of Arbitration for Sports (ICAS) for a four year renewable term and need to sign a ‘letter of independence’. The CAS also has a permanent President who is also the President of ICAS. 

The body was originally conceived by International Olympic Committee (IOC) President Juan Antonio Samaranch to deal with disputes arising during the Olympics. It was established as part of the IOC in 1984. However in a case decided by the CAS, an appealed was made to the Federal Supreme Court of Switzerland, challenging CAS impartiality. The Swiss court ruled that the CAS was a true court of arbitration, but drew attention to the numerous links which existed between the CAS and the IOC. The biggest change resulting from this reform was the creation of an “International Council of Arbitration for Sport” (ICAS) to look after the running and financing of the CAS, thereby taking the place of the IOC. CAS is placed under the administrative and financial authority of the International Council of Arbitration for Sport (ICAS). 

Almost all international sports federations or associations which are part of the Olympic Games require sports disputes arising between themselves and sportspersons to be decided by the CAS. Sporting federations whose sports are not part of the Olympics such as Formula I where the FIA which is the governing body of motor sports has its own dispute settlement tribunal. Even some sports which are included in the Olympics have their tribunals like football where its governing body FIFA has its own tribunal. For example, in 1993, a claim of bringing Formula I into disrepute was brought against former FI champion Alain Prost and the Williams Renault Team. The matter was however, satisfactorily resolved by the FIA resulting in Prost escaping a possible ban from competing in the remaining FI races of that particular season. 

A dispute may be submitted to the CAS only if there is an arbitration agreement between the parties which specifies recourse to the CAS. The language for the CAS is either French or English. In principle, two types of dispute may be submitted to the CAS:

1. those of a commercial nature, and 
2. those of a disciplinary nature. 


The first category essentially involves disputes relating to the execution of contracts, such as those relating to sponsorship, the sale of television rights, the staging of sports events, player transfers and relations between players or coaches and clubs and/or agents (employment contracts and agency contracts). Disputes relating to civil liability issues also come under this category (e.g. an accident to an athlete during a sports competition). These so-called commercial disputes are handled by the CAS acting as a court of sole instance. 


Disciplinary cases represent the second group of disputes submitted to the CAS, of which a large number are doping-related. In addition to doping cases, the CAS is called upon to rule on various disciplinary cases (violence on the field of play, abuse of a referee). Such disciplinary cases are generally dealt with in the first instance by the competent sports authorities, and subsequently become the subject of an appeal to the CAS, which then acts as a court of last instance. 

The CAS is governed by its own Statutes and Rules of Procedure namely the Statutes of the Bodies Working for the Settlement of Sports Related Disputes, Code of Sports Related Arbitration and Mediation Rules. According to Articles S12, S20, R27 and R47 of the Code, the Appeals Arbitration Procedure is open for the appeal against every decision rendered by a federation or club and not limited to disciplinary matters, especially doping cases. In addition, Article R57 empowers the CAS Panels not only to annul a certain decision, but also to replace a decision by a decision by a decision of the arbitrators, or to refer the case back to the issuing body. Moreover, Article R58 authorises the Panel to apply the ‘rule of law’ it deems most appropriate for the case. Thus the Panels may deviate from the laws of the country in which the federation is domiciled and reach a decision on the basis of laws of another country or other rules of law, such as general principles of law.

The CAS acquires its jurisdiction in a particular case only through the mutual consent of the parties involved. Currently, all Olympic International Federations and many National Olympic Committees have recognised the jurisdiction of the CAS and included in their statutes an arbitration clause referring disputes to it. The CAS hears approximately 200 cases per year. While it was the international response to the rise in the use of performance-enhancing drugs and the resulting doping cases that fueled the creation of the CAS, the Court is called upon to assist in a wide range of sport conflicts, including sponsorship disputes, the eligibility of a particular athlete in accordance with a sport’s constitution, as well as the resolution of disagreements concerning competition results. The determination of issues arising in doping cases remains a significant portion of the CAS caseload.

CAS and Mediation

In addition to arbitration CAS also offers mediation services to any requesting parties of a sports dispute. Unlike arbitration, the mediation process is not binding—the mediator will provide recommendations, with solutions suggested, but these are not imposed as a result as in the case of arbitration. Mediations are designed to permit the adverse parties an opportunity to air their grievances in an atmosphere aimed at conciliation of the dispute.

Advantages for referring cases to CAS

  • Expertise in sports-related disciplines (there are more than 300 arbitrators from 87 countries qualified to hear CAS disputes) whereas a typical civil judge will not likely possess such sports-specific knowledge.
  • Its arbitrators are all high level jurists and it is generally held in high regard in the international sports community.
  • Procedure is flexible and informal.
  • Expeditious proceeding as cases are heard and determined within a few months from the date of reference. During the Olympics, awards are required to be made within 24 hours.
  • Lower legal cost to the participants
  • Also provides mediation services
  • CAS is a private procedure and therefore is conducted without the public or media interference. The arbitrators and CAS staff are obligated not to disclose any information connected with the dispute.

Important CAS rulings 

  • In 2003, Canadian cross country skier Becky Scott successfully appealed to the CAS with respect to her claim that she be awarded the 2002 Olympic gold medal in the 5-km pursuit event. Russian skiers Olga Danilova and Larissa Lazutina finished first and second respectively in the competition, with Scott in third place, and each athlete passed their post-event doping test. Danilova and Lazutina each failed a subsequent doping test administered in relation to another Olympic cross-country event, when the presence of a prohibited blood doping agent, darbepoetin, was detected in each skier’s sample. Scott appealed her 5-km race result on the basis that both Russian skiers were engaged in ongoing doping practices. The Scott ruling was the first time in Olympic history that a gold medal had been awarded to an athlete as a result of a CAS ruling.
  • In 2005, the CAS arbitration panel ruled that American sprinter Tim Montgomery be banned from international competition for two years as a result of doping, in spite of the fact that Montgomery had never failed a doping test. The CAS ruled that it could find a doping violation on the basis of the third party evidence called against Montgomery, most of which connected Montgomery to the Bay Area Laboratory Cooperative (BALCO) athlete steroid scandal that had arisen in the United States in 2003.
  • In February 2010 Five-time Olympic speedskating champion Claudia Pechstein lost her appeal against a two-year ban for blood doping. CAS dismissed the German’s appeal against a ban imposed by the International Skating Union.

Setting aside proceedings against CAS arbitral awards may only be filed with the Swiss Supreme Court due to the seat of CAS tribunals being in Lausanne. 


The Indian Sports industry has progressed by leaps and bounds. Sports have assumed a corporate form with the number of commercial interests involved. With increasing market maturity and the need for clear and comprehensive legal documentation, sport issues are slowly becoming a major focus as contracts must be able to clarify parties’ expectations and commitments, must protect the athlete’s and the brand’s big-picture interests and must factor in regulatory, legal and other risks inherent in the industry. The country has reached a stage where India needs a legislation that deals with sports law. India’s failure in all the international sports events is an indication of poor infrastructure and corruption which exists within the federations. In order to meet the increasing demands of the changing scenario, national as well as international, it is important that a uniform code for sports be promoted.