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saturn’s moon Titan is drifting away hundred times faster than previously thought- NASA

Here is an image of the giant gas planet Saturn’s moon Titan orbiting around its planet.This natural color view was created by combining six images captured by NASA’s Cassini spacecraft on May 6, 2012.
Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute

Scientists of NASA revealed that Titan the largest moon of Saturn is moving away from the planet 100 times faster than previously believed.

Every moon – like ours which moves 1.5 inches (3.8 centimeters) away from earth each year-moves a bit from its planet. As a moon orbits, its gravity pulls on the planet, causing a temporary bulge in the planet as it passes.

scientists thought that they knew the speed with which the titan is drifting away from the ringed planet.

But after the recent data collected by NASA’ s Cassini spacecraft, scientists discovered that Titan is moving away from the planet a hundred times faster than they thought, which is about 4 inches (11 centimeters) per year.

Cassini mission is a joint venture of NASA, ESA (the European Space Agency), and the Italian space agency (ASI).

It is a robotic spacecraft, which was sent to study the mysterious Saturn, its complex rings, and the moon in detail.

The spacecraft carried a probe called Huygens which was parachuted on the surface of Titan in January 2005.

Since then Cassini has discovered a lot about the mysteries of the gas giant and its moon.

The second-largest planet in the solar system Saturn is the most complex and mysterious. This finding of the moon of the planet will help the scientists to know more about it.

While scientists know that Saturn formed 4.6 billion years ago in the early days of the solar system, but they are uncertain when the planet’s complex rings and its system of the moons formed.
Saturn has more than 80 moons.

Titan, One of the moons of Saturn is as interesting as its planet. With 150 known moons of our solar system, It is the only one with a substantial atmosphere.It is larger than the planet mercury.

The second-largest moon, after Ganymede in our solar system, Titan is the only place besides Earth known to have liquids in the form of rivers, lakes, and seas on its surface.

It is currently 759,000 miles (1.2 million kilometers) from Saturn.

The revised rate of its drift suggests that the moon started much closer to Saturn, which would mean the whole system expanded more quickly than previously believed.

“This result brings an important new piece of the puzzle for the highly debated question of the age of the Saturn system and how its moons formed,” said Valery Lainey, lead author of the work published June 8 in Nature Astronomy.

He researched as a scientist at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Southern California before joining the Paris Observatory at PSL University.

This discovery of Titan’s rate of drift explains and predicts how planets affect their moon’s orbit.

For the past 50 years, scientists have applied the formula which was based on classical theories for every moon whether it is a small or a large one.

These theories assumed that the moons, which orbit farther from their host planet’s gravity like Titan migrated outward more slowly than the one which orbits in the close vicinity of their host planet.

“The new measurements imply that these kinds of planet-moon interactions can be more prominent than prior expectations and that they can apply to many systems, such as other planetary moon systems, exoplanets — those outside our solar system — and even binary star systems, where stars orbit each other,” said Fuller, a coauthor of the new paper.

To reach their results, the authors mapped stars in the background of Cassini images and tracked Titan’s position.

To confirm their findings, they compared them with an independent dataset: radio science data collected by Cassini. During ten close flybys between 2006 and 2016, the spacecraft sent radio waves to Earth.

Scientists studied how the signal’s frequency was changed by their interactions with their surroundings to estimate how Titan’s orbit evolved.

“By using two completely different datasets, we obtained results that are in full agreement, and also in agreement with Jim Fuller’s theory, which predicted a much faster migration of Titan,” said coauthor Paolo Tortora, of the Italy’s University of Bologna.

Tortora is a member of the Cassini Radio Science team and worked on the research with the support of the Italian Space Agency.

Apple granted ‘synthetic socially distant group selfie’ patent

Apple has awarded with the patent which allows the users to take group selfie maintaining social distancing.

During the time of this pandemic, when social distancing is a necessity Apple has won a patent that would allow different users to take their selfies and combine them with the other selfies of their friends without being at the same place at a time.

This method allows users to rearrange themselves in a single frame of the selfie.

If you are a selfie lover then this news could excite you. This patent discusses a method to allows different users to combine the selfies with that of their friends’ selfies in a single frame.

Social distancing has become a part of our daily lives due to COVID-19. As per the norms of social distancing at least 6 feet distance should be maintained between two persons. We can’t go out during this period with our friends and family for fun. So, we can’t take a group selfie.

But Apple has a solution to this problem of not taking a group selfie. Two years ago a patent has been filed by this Tech giant to ease the process of group selfie.

What is a synthetic group selfie?

A Synthetic selfie is a combination of different users’ selfies taken from different sources, at different places merged in a single frame, by maintaining social distancing.

Still, it is not clear that this feature will be available on iPhone, iPad or both.

participants of this selfie need not be at different places necessarily. Selfies taken at the same place or nearby places can also be combined with this method.

Not only in this situation, but also in general this patent is very useful.

Friends and family members who are at a long distance can take the advantage of this feature.

 By this method- while taking selfies an option of group selfie will appear on the screen of the person who takes a selfie. The user selects that option to take his/her selfie. Then invites the other users to take their selfies or select from the existing one. 

Each person will take a selfie on their phone and send it to one phone on which the selfies will assemble into a group selfie. 

The software then combines the different selfies by adjusting the background to look like it is taken at the same place. The phone will use an AirDrop feature to send photos to the main device.

 The pictures included in the individual selfies can be ” still images, stored videos, or live streaming images.”

The different participants in the group can also adjust their positions, like if someone wants to be at the front or back of the selfie then they can modify once the selfie has been taken and compiled.

This patent is not filed in the response of following the social distancing norms. But this has been filed in July 2018. 

Apple just has been awarded the patent only its implementation is yet to be done. Like other technology companies, Apple also files for many patents but not every patent changes into the software.

Bazil’s President Bolsonaro Threathens to quit WHO

Following the footstep of his counterpart Donald Trump, President of Brazil Jair Bolsonaro has warned to quit the World Health Organization (WHO) unless it ceases to be a “Partisan political organization.” 

The president said “I tell you here, the United States left WHO, we are considering it in the future (…). Either WHO works without ideological bias, or we are leaving it too.”

“We don’t need outsiders to give their feelings about health here,” he told reporters in Brasilia.

All over the world, around 4,02,428 people had died because of the coronavirus Pandemic since it emerged last year in China. This pandemic affects every nation among those nations European countries are affected very much.

 Brazil ranks third among the European countries with total deaths of around 36000, while this figure has crossed 1,00,000 in the USA.

Governments of all over the world are focused on resuscitating economies, which has declined due to the lockdown of several months. 

 Suspension of the clinical trial of the drug hydroxychloroquine –

Accusing WHO as the puppet of China, last month US President Donald Trump also announced to take back US membership from World health organization.

 Mr. Bolsonaro criticized WHO for suspending clinical trial of the malaria drug hydroxychloroquine and warned to pull out of World health organization like US President Donald Trump.

Earlier the study published in The Lancet, can not answer the question of whether hydroxychloroquine can help the patient fight Covid-19 or not, and with the use of this drug the death cases increase or not. But a recent study found that those patients of Covid-19, treated with hydroxychloroquine drug had a higher risk of death than those who didn’t take it.

The WHO has also changed the guidelines on the face mask and asks to loosen the social distancing.WHO spokeswoman Margaret Harris said that a key criterion for lifting lockdowns was slowing transmission and asks to loosen the social distancing.

“The epidemic, the outbreak, in Latin America is deeply, deeply concerning,” she told a news conference in Geneva. 

The positive cases all over the world are increasing every day. Coronavirus infected almost 6.7 million people and 4 lac deaths globally.

Every Nation is trying to recover from this pandemic after risking its economy into the deepest recession since the great depression of the 1930s.

This impacted even the country with the largest economy. The US with 1.9 million the highest number of COVID-19 positive cases and 1 lac death Mr. Trump is trying to bring the economy on the track again.

Mr. Trump also said the economy was bouncing back. “We had the greatest economy in the history of the world. And that strength let us get through this horrible pandemic, largely through, I think we’re doing really well,” he told reporters.