All posts by akanksha262001

What is essential Practice test?

Recently, the action of some pre-university colleges in Karnataka refusing entry to Muslim girl students wearing hijabs, or head scarves , has now become a national controversy. While the girls have been protesting against being denied access to education, the counter protests by a section of Hindu students wearing saffron shawls and turbans have led to a tense situation outside some campuses . The action of the college where the row broke out in Udipi is now being questioned in the Karnataka High Court. The court , by an interim order , has directed that students should not wear attire linked to any religion until it resolves the legal questions arising from the issue.

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But the main question that rises among many other questions is that whether students can be kept out of educational institutions merely because they are wearing a piece of clothing indicating their religion.

While students are arguing in favour of their freedom , the Government is of the view that compelling a student to remove the head-scarf is not a violation of Article 25 .

Going by the Government’s stand, the issue can also be framed differently: whether the wearing of head scarves will have an adverse impact on law and order by pitting two communities against one another , and thereby , enable the government to prohibit religious attire in the interest of public order – one of the grounds on which a right under Article 25 can be curbed . The question whether educational institutions can bar religious attire as part of their power to prescribe uniforms for students is also linked to the constitutional question whether the ban on such attire will come within the power to restrict freedom of religion in the interest of public order , health and morality. Yet, another question is whether the denial of entry into schools amounts to violation of the students’ right to education under article 21A .


Study finds high viral shedding in Asymptomatic people

The Imperial College London has concluded the first study on 36 participants aged 18-29 years who were deliberately exposed to low dose of SARS-cOV-2 virus through the nose, and the various facets of infection were studied. All the volunteers had no previous infection or vaccination . In all, only 18 of the 36 participants became infected, and the viral load in these people increased steeply before peaking on day five post-exposure.

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Virus was first detected in the throat but the viral load increased to significantly higher levels in the nose than in the throat. Viral shedding began within two days of infection and the viral load increased to high levels and remained detectable for as long as 12 days after exposure to the virus. The results are posted as a preprint server Research Square. Preprints are yet to be peer-reviewed.

“This paper is the first of a series of deep analyses that this unprecedented consortium will produce. The manufacture of a delta challenge agent is nearly complete,” imunologist Dr. Christopher Chiu from the Imperial College of London who led the team tweeted.

Since some participants continued to shed infectious virus even 12 days after virus introduction, and, on average, viable virus was detectable 10 days post-symptom onset advocated i many guidelines to minimise onward transmission,” they note.

Neutralising antibodies were generated in all infected participants 14 days post inoculation and further increased at 28 days.

The wild oranges of INDIA

Limes,lemons and oranges are taste giving and nutrition -enriching elements of our diet. It is estimated that there are about one billion trees of the citrus genus on earth. Over 60 different citrus fruits are popular in the world today, all of which are hybrids of the three fruits mentioned below, or hybrids of hybrids,and so on: (1) The large, sweet & spongy skinned Pomelo; (2) the tasteless Citron, which is used in traditional medicine, and (3) the loose skinned and sweet Mandarin Orange that we associate with Nagpur.

Each citrus variety has some distinguishing feature as a USP: for example , the rare Tahiti orange , a descendant of the Indian Rangpur lime ,looks like an orange -colored lemon and tastes like a pineapple .

The first oranges

Where did the citrus originate ? Botanist Chozaburo Tanaka was an early proponent of the Indian origin of the citrus . An exhaustive study of the genomes of many citrus varieties concluded that the last common ancestor of all the varieties we see today grew about eight million years ago in what is now Northeast India and adjacent regions of Myanmar and southwest China . This region is , famously , one of the world’s richest biodiversity hotspots . A biodiversity hotspot is defined as a region that contains at least 1500 species of native plants and has lost at least 70% of its vegetation. The north east corner has 25% of India’s forests and a large chunk of its biodiversity. Here you will find tribes such as the khadi and garo , and nearly 200 spoken languages. This area is also a rich repository of citrus genomes , with 68 varieties of wild and developed citrus found here today.

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The fruit of ghosts

Of special interest is the wild Indian citrus, a progenitor species of citrus that is native to Northeast India . Some experts believe that it may even be the original member of this group. Our own wild orange has been studied in the Garo hills of Maghalaya where only scant patches remain .

Recent searches , along with detailed molecular comparisons , have led to its rediscovery in the Tamenglong district of Manipur, a thickly forested place with a population density of just 32 per square kilometre. The Manipur team could find three isolated clusters of Citrus indica ,the largest of which had 20 trees . High rainfall and high humidity prevails here , with annual temperature extremes of 4 and 31 degrees Celsius .The manipuri tribes call it Garuan-thai (came fruit) , but they appear to have neither cultivated nor culturally assimilated this fruit, as has been done by the Khasi and Garo people . The Garo name for the fruit is Memang Narang (ghost fruit) , because of its use in their death rituals . Traditional medical uses involve digestive problems and common colds. Villages attentively tend their Memang trees.

10 Travel Destinations Across India

India is most diverse destination in the world . From old palaces in Rajasthan to beaches of Goa, from soothing north east to scenic beauty of west, from adventure tourism of Kashmir to the southernmost tip of Indian subcontinent, kanyakumari , from high mountain ranges to sandy deserts, you name it and INDIA has it all. So, today I will be talking about 10 travel destinations across INDIA . Let’s begin:-

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1. First Of course has to be the Taj Mahal , situated on the south bank of Yamuna river in the city of Agra. One of the 7 wonders of the world, it is a white marble large tomb built in 1632 by a Mughal emperor. It was also designated as a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1983.

2. Now, let’s talk about the capital, the heart of India , New Delhi. It is full of rich diversity of places to explore, discover and learn. The Red fort or Lal Qila is a must visit historical fort . Qutub Minar , this 72.5 meter high tower has to be in your bucket list .Mixture of different architectural styles , this is the world’s tallest brick tower . Lodi Gardens, the first garden tomb on the Indian subcontinent that is Humayun’s tomb , Gurudwara Bangla Sahib ,Lotus temple are some of the places you will love in Delhi.

  1. If you are a nature lover & attached to biodiversity, you must visit the states of North East India. From green valleys of Manipur , to the view of snowcapped mountains of Sikkim and by the way just to inform you the third highest peak in the world, Kanchenjunga is also visible from this State. The breathtaking beauty of Nagaland & the peaceful , calm nature of Mizoram will surely make you fall in love with the place.
  2. If you are someone who loves history, rich culture , different traditions and cuisines, trust me Rajasthan is the place for you. Beautiful monuments, historical forts , Royal palaces of kings, it has everything.
  3. And how can we not talk about the most visited religious place of the world that is Golden temple in Amritsar where everyday about one Lakh people are fed food with reverence .
  4. My sixth destination has to be the beaches of Goa . After traveling so much who doesn’t want to chill and relax for some time and what’s better than relaxing by the side of a beautiful beach.
  5. One of the finest rock cut caves you will ever see in your life is the Ajanta and Ellora caves in Aurangabad district of Maharashtra.
  1. How can you not visit the city of dreams or Mayanagri when you are in Maharashtra? Yes , you got that right I am talking about Mumbai. The Gateway of India, Taj palace ,Sanjay Gandhi National Park & Red carpet wax museum are some of the best places to visit here.
  2. If you love hill stations , you will love the enthralling experience SHIMLA has to offer. The scenic beauty will leave you mesmerized and is worth watching.
  3. And last but not the least ,has to be Kerala in the down south. Lush green vegetation, beautiful landscapes and natural beauty of Kerala is sure to leave you in splits.

Being the most diverse country of the world , India is home to many travel destinations. Here , I have mentioned just 10 of my favourite beautiful places , but there are many more which are beyond the scope of this article.


Lata Mangeshkar whose voice defined not one or two decades but generations across South Asia, died in hospital in Mumbai at the age of 92. She worked with nearly all of INDIA’S famous music directors over a career that spanned more than 70 years.


If we start taking about her accomplishments, the list goes on and on. She started out singing at religious gatherings with her father. She recorded her first song for Bollywood when she was just 13 years old. She won dozens of singing awards including Dadasaheb Phalke award in 1989, Maharashtra Bhusan award and she was also awarded the Bharat Ratna , India’s highest civilian honour , in 2003. The government of France conferred on her its highest civilian award, Officier de la Legion d’Honneur, in 2007.

MY VOICE IS A GIFT FROM GOD,” she once told an interviewer. Her songs were always filled with emotions and made almost everyone fell in love with her voice . Condolences poured in from entire world on her demise. From Pakistan to Nepal everybody tweeted for her , as it was not just the end of an era but end of many eras. Prime minister Narendra Modi described her death as a ” void in our nation that cannot be filled”.

Mangeshkar never married . She is survived by her four siblings, all accomplished singers and musicians .

7 Reasons why you should read Helen Keller’s autobiography

The best and most beautiful things in the world cannot be seen or even touched . They must be felt within the heart . This is a quote by Helen Adams Keller, we all have read about her in our school textbooks but have you ever tried to go beyond what books taught you ? If no, then you must. Her autobiography titled “The Story Of My Life ” is a must read book not just because it inspires people in so many ways to get out of your comfort zone and hustle to achieve your goals and aspirations but also because it teaches us that no problem in this world is big if you are determined to tackle it. So, Let’s talk about 7 reasons why you must read Helen Keller’s autobiography :-

  1. The book depicts the greatest lesson that is the value of PERSEVERANCE & HARDWORK. It talks about how a blind and deaf girl with her hard work and never giving up attitude is able to achieve what many would consider impossible. She says ” Optimism is the faith that leads to achievement .Nothing can be done without hope and confidence.”
  2. Secondly , there is nothing impossible in this world. Only condition is- one must get association of able and right persons .She talks about her teacher ANNE SULLIVAN and says that it was her teacher who unfolded the mysteries of the world to her. She says ” When she came, everything about me breathed of love & joy & was full of meaning. She has never since let pass an opportunity to point out the beauty that is in everything , nor has she ceased trying in thought & action & example to make my life sweet & useful.”
  3. Thirdly, a teacher can be a true guide & philosopher if he/she takes his/her job sincerely. And if he/she performs it honestly even mountains can give safe passage. Any teacher can take a child to the classroom, but not every teacher can make him learn. He will not work joyously until he feels that liberty is his, whether he is busy or at rest; he must feel the flush of victory & the heart sinking of disappointment before he takes with a will the tasks distasteful to him & resolves to dance his way bravely through a dull routine of textbooks.
  4. Fourthly, a pupil must have unflinching faith in her teacher. Helen Keller says ” My teacher is so near to me that I scarcely think of myself apart from her . How much of my delight in all beautiful things is innate , & how much is due to her influence , I can never tell, I feel that her being is inseparable from my own ,& that the footsteps of my life are in hers. All the best of my belongs to her—there is not a talent , or an aspiration, or a joy in me that has not been awakened by her loving touch.
  5. Fifthly, the only religion in the world is ‘the religion of universal love’. The sooner it is understood, the better it would be . She says ” The only thing worse than being blind is having sight but no vision”.
  6. Sixthly, whenever stress and strain envelopes a person , he should look into his mind & try to understand the situation and devise ways to come out of it. She says ” Character cannot be developed in ease and quiet. Only through experience of trial and suffering can the soul be strengthened , vision cleared, ambition inspired and success achieved. Although the world is full of suffering , it is full also of the overcoming of it”.
  7. Seventhly, one should not form on opinion which is unchangeable & staunch. One must be ready to undergo change & accept & adopt what is right & correct . Dogmatic attitude can never help. Very rightly said by her ” The highest result of education is tolerance . True education combines intellect, beauty, goodness, & the greatest of these is goodness .

Last thing I would like to drive in your mind is that there are people in this world who have suffered so much , gone through a lot in their lives emotionally , physically sometimes mentally but they came out victorious only because of their hard work , dedication , and never giving up attitude. And may be Helen Keller has left us physically but her story will continue to inspire generations .

Need of a robust politico -legal framework

Recently, a video from villagers of Sarguja district of Chattisgarh went viral on social media . The video shows the villagers taking an oath to implement an economic boycott of Muslims. The problem does not end here because this move was motivated by a Hindutva outfit. The Vishva Hindu Parishad (VHP) is known to distribute pamphlets calling for the economic boycott of those whom they consider “anti national, anti hindu, love jihadists” .

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Also ,one more incident came to limelight from INDORE of Madhya Pradesh where a 25 year old bangle seller was brutally thrashed. The attack was a result of a communal campaign pushed by hindutva groups on different social media handles for an economic boycott of muslim vendors in the country.

A progressive re-articulation of the concept of untouchability or a re-reading of the anti discrimination legislation is required to end this.

Now, the problem is that the fundamental rights enshrined in our constitution under articles 14,15 and 17 do not talk about religion driven economic boycott.

In India, mere provision of rights has proved to be insufficient to prevent marginalisation owing to the practice of untouchability and hence, the legislature and the judiciary have had to make and interpret special laws to that effect. Two laws which explicitly make social and economic boycotts punishable are The Scheduled Castes and the scheduled Tribes ( Prevention of atrocities) Act, 1989 , and Maharashtra protection of people from Social boycott ( prevention, prohibition and redressal) act,2016 . However ,the scope of both is restricted to criminalising caste-based discrimination and boycotts .

The many Indians who oppose such targeting of Mulims need to stand up and resist the current trend in their own individual ways. only then and not till then we as a nation will be on the path of progress .

These grave new developments need to be taken into cognisance and an urgent politico-legal response to such public calls for economic boycott of any religion is required . India is known for its unity in diversity. Let’s cherish this legacy and any attempt to demean it should be taken very seriously.

5 Reasons why you should read Abdul Kalam’s autobiography

Dr. A.P.J ABDUL KALAM , 11th President of our country known as PEOPLE’S PRESIDENT and also the very successful scientist who was responsible for the development and operation of AGNI and PRITHVI missiles for which he also got a name ” MISSLE MAN OF INDIA ” . We can continue talking about his accomplishments and the list goes on and on. Recently, I read his autobiography titled ” WINGS OF FIRE” and today I will be sharing with you 5 reasons why that book is a must read . So, let’s begin :-

  1. Despite being a brilliant scientist , his firm belief in God and religion. He says ” I feel convinced that there exists a divine power that can lift me up from confusion ,misery, melancholy and failure, and guide one to one ‘s true place. And once an individual severs his emotional & physical bondage , he is on the road to freedom, happiness and peace of mind. I WONDER WHY SOME PEOPLE TEND TO SEE SCIENCE AS SOMETHING WHICH TAKES MAN AWAY FROM GOD. AS I LOOK AT IT,THE PATH OF SCIENCE CAN ALWAYS WIND THROUGH THE HEART. FOR ME, SCIENCE HAS ALWAYS BEEN THE PATH TO SPIRITUAL ENRICHMENT & SELF REALISATION”.
  2. His secular & democratic values are what we need in today’s world. He says “ I never doubted that the prayers in the temple reached the same destination as the ones offered in our mosque.” This book teaches us that you have to dream before your dreams can come true . Some people stride towards whatever it is that they want in life ;others shuffle their feet & never get started because they do not know what they want—-& do not know how to find it either.
  3. His attachment with the nature . Once while he was working on one of his projects in CHANDIPUR , he saw that there was a beautiful bird sanctuary there and the work of engineers might disturb the birds so he himself went to the engineers and asked them to design the test range without disturbing the bird sanctuary.
  4. He gives the best definition of a productive leader. He says ” In my opinion , a productive leader must be very competent in staffing . He should continually introduce new blood into the organization . He must be adept at dealing with problems & new concepts . The leader must be capable of instilling enthusiasm in his team. He should give appropriate credit where it is due, PRAISE PUBLICLY,BUT CRITICIZE PRIVATELY. “

HIS WORDS ” Let the latent fire in the heart of every Indian acquire wings, & the glory of this great country light up the sky.” will always remain etched in our memories and will motivate us to work towards the development of our great nation. Let’s not leave these leaders behind in books, monuments and places but work together to make our INDIA what they had dreamt of .


Autobiography is the story of a person’s life written by that person. We all want to read about successful people and know what they did different or how were they able to achieve so much in life and when it comes to autobiographies the best that I can recall so far is of Mahatma Gandhi ,the FATHER OF OUR NATION.So ,have you ever tried to know more about his life other than what you have studied in books? If no, then today I will be giving you 5 reasons why you should read MAHATMA GANDHI JI’S AUTOBIOGRAPHY titled The story of MY EXPERIMENTS WITH TRUTH. So, let’s begin.

  1. He talks about truth in the most harsh manner possible. He says that ” The seeker after truth should be humbler than the dust. The world crushes the dust under its feet, but the seeker after truth should be so humble that even the dust could crush him . Only then, and not till then will he have a glimpse of truth. He further says ” In judging myself I shall try to be as harsh as truth, as I want others also to be “.
  2. He talks about one incident from his childhood where some guest had come on a visit of inspection to his school and the guest had asked students to write five words as spelling test. One of the word was ‘Kettle’ and Gandhiji miss spelt it and he says “the teacher tried to prompt me with the point of his boot , but I would not be prompted . It was beyond me to see that he wanted me to copy the spelling from my neighbour’s slate, for I had thought that the teacher was there to supervise us against copying. The result was that all the boys, except myself, were found to have spelt every word correctly. Only I had been stupid. The teacher tried later to bring this stupidity home to me. but without effect. I never could learn the art of ‘copying’.

Yet the incident did not in the least diminish my respect for my teacher. I was by nature blind to the faults of elders. Later I came to know of many other failings of this teacher, but my regard for him remained the same. For I had learnt to carry out the orders of elders, not to scan their actions.” Here , we learn how respectful Gandhi ji was towards his elders and teachers.

3. Gandhi ji also talks about how once he stole a bit of gold from his brother’s armlet when he was about 15 years old. Later on , he was very guilty and decided to write out the confession to his father . He says “

A clean confession, combined with a promise
never to commit the sin again, when offered before the one who has the right to receive it is the purest type of repentance. I know that my confession
made my father feel absolutely safe about me, and increased his affection for me beyond

4. And the best thing that he tells is ” Let every youth take a leaf out of my book and make it a point to account for everything that comes into and goes out of his pocket, and like me he is sure to be a gainer in the end”.

5. Last but not the least he says ,” When every hope is gone, WHEN HELPERS FALL AND COMFORTS FLEE, I find that help arrives somehow from I know not where . Supplication, worship, prayer are no superstition ; they are acts more real than the acts of eating, drinking, sitting or walking. It is no exaggeration to say that they alone are real, all else is unreal.

At the end , I just want to say that these were just the 5 things that i felt important but once you read that book you will realize that it is full of many life lessons and is a must read book.



Everyone has their own definition of it nowadays , for some it means equal rights in educational field ,for some it might be equal say in decision making process, for some it might be something else. But if you ask me , i would say women empowerment is protecting women’s sense of SELF WORTH,SELF PERSPECTIVE, their ability to voice their opinions, taking a stand for what they believe in.

IF YOU EDUCATE A MAN ,YOU EDUCATE AN INDIVIDUAL.BUT IF YOU EDUCATE A WOMAN, YOU EDUCATE A GENERATION. But even today, girls are not allowed to pursue higher education as they are married off early. And the million little hopes that bride has , a vision of what her life should be like, her own thoughts on the kind of life she wants to live are killed there only and actually celeberated.


There are many but to begin with lets talk about the most difficult one. Every time we see a news regarding domestic violence, rape cases, physical or mental harassment or abuse ,we feel bad ,then news channels cover it for a week or month depending on whether people still want to watch it or not basically depending on their TRP rate. Instagram , Facebook, Whatsapp are flooded with messages of women empowerment ,education and respect. People in thousands come on streets and protest with catchy slogans and demand for justice. AND IN THE MIDST OF FORGETTING THAT ONE INCIDENT ANOTHER INCIDENT COMES IN THE LIMELIGHT THAT SHAKES THE SOUL OF EVERY LITTLE GIRL ON THIS EARTH.


Society makes clear differences between boys and girls. And if we think about it ,this difference is created in the smallest and most everyday things. How girls must behave, what games they should play or how they should talk gently or how boys need to be tough and then there are things like boys don’t cry . All these are ways of telling boys that the opposite gender is different, is weak and will need their support to survive. There are still places in INDIA and across the world where the birth of a boy is greeted with great joy while the birth of a girl is seen as something to be sorry about.


TIMES USE SURVEY 2019 revealed that 92% Indian women take part in unpaid domestic work; only 27% men do so. On the other hand , only 22% of women participated in employment and related activities compared to 71% of men.

83.6% of working women in INDIA are engaged in agricultural work. Their work includes planting, weeding, harvesting and threshing. Yet, when we think of a farmer we only think of a man.——-NSS 61ST ROUND (2004-05).


The social system that existed in INDIA always attributed a secondary and sub ordinate position to women. With the continued efforts of feminist activism after independance, the government has come up with a lot of laws that protect women but there is still a lot to be done .The department of women and child development( DWCD) has taken up various projects directed towards advancement of women.

Women’s education at the university and college levels have been diversified and reoriented in tune with the changing requirements of society , industry and trade. Women’s empowerment has become a significant topic of discussion in development and economics .

So, slowly and gradually things are changing and we hope for better things to come up in the future .