In federal authorities powers are divided among the country wide governments and the local governments via way of means of the Constitution and each of them function of their respective jurisdictions independently.In a federal shape of authorities,country wide authorities is called Federal authorities.The word ‘federation’ is derived from a Latin word ‘foedus’which means “settlement”or “treaty”., Therefore A federation is a brand new political device that’s shaped through a settlement or treaty among numerous units.US,Switerland, Australia,Canada,Russia,Brazil, Argentina have the federal version of authorities.The framers of our constitution has followed the federal device due to vital reasons-1.Country’s socio-cultural diversity2.The massive length of the country.
Framers of the constitution thought that federal system not only ensures the efficient governance of the country but also reconciles national unity with regional autonomy.
The Indian federal device is primarily based totally at the ‘Canadian version’ and now no longer at the ‘American version’.Since the time period federation has now no longer been used withinside the Constitution.But Article 1 of the Constitution describes India as a ‘Union of states’.According to Dr.BR Ambedkar who’s the chairman of the Drafting committee The time period ‘Union of states’has been desired to ‘Federation of states’ that suggests matters that are-
1.the states don’t have any authority to divergence from the federation.
2.the indian federation isn’t always the end result of treaty the various states just like the American federation.The Indian federation resembles the Canadian federation in following ways-1.By manner of disintegration2.in it is choice to the word ‘Union’3.vesting greater powers withinside the centre as evaluate to states.
FEATURES OF FEDERAL SYSTEM-
There are a few functions of the federal device of india-
1.Written constitution-The constitution of India is most effective written constitution withinside the global beside this it’s also Lengthiest constitution because it contains Preamble,395 articles and eight schedules.At present 470 articles and 12 schedules.It indicates the organization,structure,powers and features of each the valuable and kingdom governments.
2.Dual Polity-The constitution establishes a twin polity consisting the state on the outer edge and union on the centre.Each one in all them can excersied their powers which assigned to them separately.The union governments offers with the subjects of country wide significance like overseas affairs,currency,defence, communique etc.The state governments offers with the subjects of local and nearby significance like agriculture,health,nearby governments.public order etc.
3.Division of Powers-The constitution divided the powers among the kingdom and centre in phrases of 3 lists withinside the seventh schedule,the union listing,state listing,concurrent listing.The union listing includes ninety eight topics,the state listing includes fifty nine topics and the Concurrent listing includes fifty two topics.Both the centre and kingdom could make legal guidelines at the topics of concurrent listing,however in case of warfare centre regulation prevails.The residuary topics are given to the centre which aren’t cited in any of the 3 lists.
4.Independent Judiciary-The constitution establishes an unbiased judiciary headed via way of means of the very best courtroom docket for 2 purposes-First one is to shield the supremecy of the charter and 2nd one to settle the disputes among the centre and states.The charter has numerous measures to make the judiciary unbiased of the authorities like constant carrier conditions,safety of tenure to judges etc.
5.Bicameralism-The charter presents a bicameral legislature having an Upper house(Rajya Sabha) and a lower house(Lok Sabha)The Rajya Sabha represents the states of Indian federation alternatively the Lok Sabha represents the humans of India as a whole.
6.Supremacy of the Constitution-The charter is the very best authority of the land.The legal guidelines carried out via way of means of the centre and the states have to comply with it is provisions in any other case they may be declared invalid via way of means of the excessive courtroom docket or the very best courtroom docket thru their powers.