FISH PRODUCTION, POVERTY MITIGATION AND CO-OPERATIVE GOALS OF FAGAM CO-OPERATIVE FISH FARM IN KANO STATE, NIGERIA.

 

         M.A.Dambatta,1 O. A. Sogbesan,2 A.U.Fagge,1Suleiman I. Dutse,1A.U. Shuaibu3

Abstract:

 The effort was made to make this research project to become reality this was achieved by visiting (Fagam-farm) a case study area. With a view to explore how fish production mitigate poverty among the populace of Kano state and to identify the challenges facing the farmers  and marketing operation of fish produced, the socio-economic characteristic of the fish farmers of Fagam co-operative farm, the fish production form, marketing strategy and the co-operative  goals. Based on the above observation made, recommended that, female are not involves in the sector due to the religion purposes and the majority of the respondent are single within the age category of (8-25). Most of the respondents possess an educational certificate of secondary level were minority of them possess Qur’anic, primary and tertiary certificate. Also majority of the respondents are within the extended family and their family size are in the category of (5-10) where others are in the category of (11-15) it indicated that, all the respondents that interviewed in Fagam farm are purely Muslim in religion whereas no any Christian that work or employed in the farm. The highest numbers of pond that they use in Fagam farm are concrete ponds while others are earthen and plastic pond. Also the type of ponds size dimension are all largest size and the higher percentage of practical culture method they practice is mono-culture while the less percentage is poly culture and all the pounds were constructed manually. The type of feed they used is only imported and the majority type of farming management consider is intensive system while the minority is semi-intensive and the cost of feeding poor circle obtained is 100% high, because the farm has a big size and they practice intensive management system which consumes more capital than the other management system included in the farm.

KEY WORDS: POVERTY, MITIGATION, FAGAM, KANO STATE, COOPERATIVE.

 

 

 INTRODUCTION

Aquaculture continues to grow rapidly every day, and then became bigger industry every year. So, understanding the basic part behind aquatic production facilities is of increasing importance for all the working in this industry. Aqua-culture requires knowledge and skill of the many general aspects of production such as spawning, production of Nutrition etc (Anderson; 2004). Fisheries constitute an important sector in Nigeria agriculture providing valuable food and employment to millions of population and also serving as a source of livelihoods mainly for women. In coastal communities eg processing teenagers helps Sule and Raji (2011). Nigeria has a coastline of 3,122km (Earth trends, 2003) shared by 8 states (lagos, Ogun, Ondo, Delta, Bayelsa, River, Akwa-ibom and Cross-River respectively) out of total of 36 states in the country. Coastal fisheries are important and contributed at least 40% of fish production from all source. In Nigeria between 1995 and 2008 (FAO, 2010). According to the fisheries society of Nigeria, small scale fisheries provide more than 82% of the domestic fish supply, giving livelihood to one million fishers folks and up to 5.8 million fisher folks. In the secondary sector comprising processing preservation, marketing and distribution. The total contribution of fisheries to Nigeria’s gross domestic product is estimated at about $US 1 billion. According to estimates, Nigeria requires about 2.1 million metric tones (mm+) of fish/year but produce only 0.65 metric tons and imports over 990 metric tons/years at a value of US $800m to meet this short full (Ajiboso, 2009). Considering Nigerians has availability of water resources human capital and other natural endowments. The federal department of fisheries (FDF, 2004).

            OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

General objective

The broad objective of this study is to evaluate the fish production, poverty mitigation and co-operative goals of Fagam fish co-operative farm at Mariri, Kumbotso L.G Kano state, Nigeria.

            The specific objective includes:

  1. Identify the challenges facing the farmers and marketing operation fish production.
  2. describe the socio-economic characteristics of the fish farmers of Fagam co-operative farm
  • To study production demand and cost of feed in the production circle.

 

METHODOLOGY

 STUDY AREA

Kano state lies between latitude 130N (north) 110S (South); and longitude 80W in the (west) and 100E (east). Kano state is made up of fourty four (44) local government areas. E.G Albasu, Bunkure, Danbatta, Gaya, Wudil, Kumbotso, Doguwa, etc. The total land area of Kano state is 20,76059 kilometer with an average population of 9,383,682 (2006 census). Kano has mean height of about 472.45m above the sea level (Olofin and Tanko, 2002).  According to Kurawa (2003) the temperature of Kano state usually range between a maximum of 330c and a minimum of 15.80c although sometimes during the harmattan it falls down to a slow as 100c. Kano has two seasonal periods, which consist of 4-5 months of wet season and a long dry season lasting from October-April. The movement of the south-west maritime air masses originating from the Atlantic Ocean influences the wet season which starts from May and end in September. The commencement and length of wet season varies between northern and southern parts of Kano state. The average rainfall is between 63.3mmt to 48.2mmt in May and 133.4mmt, 59mmt in August, the wettest months. The movement of tropical maritime air masses from the south west to the north determines the weather of Kano state during the wet season. The air mass carries a lot of moisture from the Atlantic Ocean this moisture condenses when it is forced to rise by convection or over a barrier of high lands or air mass, it then fall back as rain. The period of the height occur when the sun passes over West Africa between March and June. The dry season starts from October and last till about April of the following years. Temperature are low during this period and because the sun is in the southern hemisphere and because of movement of the desiccating continental air mass, which originated from sahara area and  below from the north east carrying along with it then harming kano state(kurawa,2003). According to Kurawa (2003), the vegetation of Kano state is the semi-arid savannah. The sudan savannah to the sand witched by the sahel savannah in the north and the Guinea savannah in the south. The savannah has been described as the zone that provides opportunity for optimal human attainment. This is because it rich in faunal and floral resources, it is suitable for both cereals agriculture and livestock rearing and the environment is relatively easy for movement of natural resources and manufactured goods.

 

 

 DESCRIPTION OF FAGAM FARM

Fagam farm was opened in the year 2004 as a fish farm with seventy (70) employees/personnel. And they started by using earthen ponds, those were two hundred (200) in numbers and stocked five hundred thousand (500,000) fish in all ponds. In which each one out of ten ponds stocked four thousand, five hundred and fourty five (4,545) fishes. Only one pond stocked or contained four thousand, five hundred and fifty (4,550) fishes respectively.. And an additional pond for hatchery is up to twenty six (26) followed by eight (8) nursery ponds. The method of fish culture they practice is “Intensive fish culture”. And also Claries and tilapia are the type or species of fishes been cultured. In the year 2008 fagam re-employed additional thirty (30) employees/personnel. In the year 2013 they reduced the number of employees by three (3) people. Up to now 2014, the employees/personnel are (97) in number and all the descriptions above are still in progress.

MARKETING OF FISH IN FAGAM FARM

Harvesting of fish is carryout at every six (6) month when the fishes reach table size for consumptions patterns. The price of fish is N600/1kg; the fingerling is sells to the wholesaler at the price of N20-25 per 1 fingerling depending the amount which the producer needs. And the juvenile is also sale as wholesale at the price of N30-35 per 1 juvenile. The price depend upon the number or quantity of fish that a buyer buy or purchase i.e the higher the quantity the lower the price. Fagam farm is located at Kano east Maiduguri Road, yan-ice street in Dulo area in Kumbotso local government of kano state.

PROBEM MILITATING FAGAM FARM

  1. Insufficient power supply
  2. High cost of feed
  3. Inadequate found
  4. Lack of proper organization
  5. Lack of training personnel 6. Finance  7.Lack of proper storage/cool room

 

SAMPLING TECHNIQUE

The production and co-operative goals in fagam fish farm at Kano state, Kumbotso L.G.A was conducted irrespective of their socio-economic characteristics and demographic information e.g age, sex, marital status, educational attainment, employment, religion etc. questionnaire and interview were prepared to obtained the parameter of the respondents.

            DATA COLLECTION

The data include primary and secondary data. The primary data include 50 structure questionnaires. The secondary data include materials such as internet, journal and relevance text-book which can be used to analyze the data obtained in the study. Descriptive statistics tools used involve the use of tables, frequency distribution percentage etc.

 

 

 

 

 

               RESULT

In table 4.1 it shows that, all the respondent are male able bodies 50 (100%) whereas no female engage in the activities due to the Islam religion reason and un involvement in the Aquaculture practice. In table 4.2 it shows that, the generality of the respondents are within the age category of 18-25. This is because, most of the cooperative organization are mostly prefer to employ those that have young age for successful achievement of their goals which is tallying the finding of male C. (1985) in study of fish in Dadin kowa in Gombe state where stated that middle age are more better to be employed. In table 4.3 it shows that, majority of the respondent 40 (80%) are single, which revealed that they have the high percentage. While marriage are the surplus percentage up to 10 (20%). In table 4.4 the majority of the respondents 25 (50%) possess an educational certificate of secondary level and 18 (36%) with qur’anic, where 5 (10%) with primary certificate and 2 (4%) with tertiary certificate. The majority of the respondents possess secondary certificate, this is because they don’t have financial opportunity to proceed into tertiary. And qur’anic is the secondary educational level that the respondent have, its because qur’anic study require a few financial activities for governing it.Table 4.5 shows that the highest number that is 40 (80%) of the respondent are within the extended family, its because they do not have financial for getting marital partner. While only 10 (20%) of the respondents are in nuclear family. In table 4.6 it shows that, the family size of majority of the respondents 32 (64%) are within the category of (5-10), this is because they mainly having one wife while 18 (36%) of the respondents are within the family size category of (11-15) because they mainly having (2-3) wives. In table 4.7 indicated that majority of the respondents that interviewed  in Fagam farm are purely Muslims in religion which possess up to 50 (100%) whereas no any Christian that work or employed in the business. In table 4.8 it shows that, the highest number that is 30 (60%) of pond that they use is concrete pond, it’s because it retain water than the earthen pond and concrete pond is easy to manipulate and easy to care than the other types of pond, where 10 (20%) are earthen pond  and 10 (20%) are plastic pond. Table 4.9 shows that, the type of pond size dimensional that practice in the study area, up to 50 (100%) are largest pond in size this indicated that they contain large amount of stocking fish density. In table 4.10 it shows that, the high percentage of practical culture method they practice that is 40 (80%) is monoculture due to cannibalism and they don’t have good skill personnel those can avoid cannibalism while poly culture only 10 (20%) they practice.

Table 4.2.1 Indicated that, all the ponds were constructed manually that is 50 (100%) due to the lower cost as compare to mechanical method. In table 4.2.2 shows that, all the type of feed used that is (100%) is only imported, because it gives more good result than the others. Table 4.2.3 Indicated that, majority of type of farming management consider 40 (8%) is intensive system in order to get good farming result. The other management consider is semi intensive with 10 (20%) due to low production that the system gives as compare to intensive. In table 4.2.4 it shows that the cost of feeding per circle obtained is 50 (100%) that is its high, because the farm has a big size and they practice intensive management system which consumes more capital than the other management system included in the farm.

            SUMMARY

The research was conducted to asses how production of fish mitigates poverty among populace and to identify the challenges facing the farmers and marketing operation of the fish produced, the socio-economic characteristic of the fish farmers of Fagam co-operative farm and to study productive circle using Fagam fish farm as the research area. According to statistical analysis of data show that, all the respondents were male able bodies that is (100)% where as no female engaged in the activities. Although the generality of the respondents were within the age category of 18-25. And majority of the respondents that is (80%) were single while married were (20%). Also majority of the respondents that is (50%). Were secondary certificate owners where (36%) with Qur’anic and (10%) with primary certificate while (4%) with tertiary certificate.

The highest number that is (80%) of the respondents were within the extended family while only (20%) were in Nuclear family. The family size of majority off the respondents that is (64%) were within the  category of (5-10) where (36%) were in (11-15) family size category. All respondents in Fagam farm that is (100%) where Muslims where as no institution that work in the business. The highest number of pond that they use that is (60%) were concrete ponds while (20%) earthing ponds and (20%) plastic. The type of pond size dimension they use were (100%) largest. The practical culture method they practice is (80%) monoculture while only (20%) as polyculture. However, all the ponds that is (100%) were constructed manually where there was no mechanical construction. Then, the type of feed that use in Fagam farm is (100%) imported only. The type of management consider is (80%) intensive system where only (20%) is semi intensive system. The cost of feeding particle that they obtained was (100%) high.

 

            CONCLUSION

Conclusively, the result of this research revealed that all the respondents in Fagam farm were male and most of them were within age category of 18-25 which means they have yong age that enable them to do work in the farm hardly and properly than the above age. The study showed that majority of Fagam farm workers were single and majority of them possess. Secondary certificate. The study showed that the highest number of the respondents were within extended family and the family size were within the category of (5-10). And best of the research of showed that all the respondents were Muslim. The study showed the highest number of ponds that they use were concrete pond and the practical culture method that they practice was almost (8%) monoculture and the ponds were all constructed manually. The research indicated that, Fagam fam use only imported feed and the type of management consider that they practice were intensive system and particularly semi-intensive system according to the study, it showed that in Fagam farm the cost of feeding per circle was almost high.

REFERENCES

Anderson (2004) Invasion of Nigeria waters by water Hyacinth” Journal of West African Fisheries (1): Pp 4-14.

Federal Department of Fisheries (2004); Fishermen statistic of Nigeria. Federal Department of Fisheries Federal Ministry of Aquaculture Abuja.

Food and Agriculture Organization (1991) of United Nations. The state of world fisheries and Agriculture. FAO. Fisheries department, Rome Italy, Pp. 30.

Ibrahim A. Kurawa (2006); Geography and History of Kano state. Publications of the Research and Delimination Directorate Pp 16-19, ISBN-928-8092-09-08.

M.A Danbatta (2014) Socio-economic and profitability of fisheries enterprises in Kano state, Nigeria unpulished M. Tech thesis in Modibbo Adama university of Technology Yola, Adamawa State, Department of fisheries and   Aquaculture Pp 39-62.

Male. C (1985): Economic analysis of fish marketing in Dadin Kowa, Gombe state Unpublished Msc. thesis university of Maiduguri.

Olafin E.A and Tanko, A.I (2002); Metropolitant kano in Geographical perspective view. Bayero university press, kano Pp 14-45.

Sule O.D; Raji A. (2001) Involvement of fishermen children in fishing activities in Lake chad region. Journal of Arid zone fish Volume (1) 74-88. Pp 74-88.

                                                      APPENDIX

            SOCIO ECONOMIC CHRACTERISTIC OF THE RESPONDENTS

4.1       GENDER

Variable Frequency Percentage %
Male 50 100
Female
Total 50 100%

  Source: field survey, 2015

4.2       AGE

Variable Frequency Percentage %
18-25 23 46
26-30 20 40
31-35 3 6
36-40 4 8
Above 45yrs
Total 50 100%

  Source: field survey, 2015

4.3       Marital Status

Variable Frequency Percentage %
Single 40 80
Married 10 20
Widow
Widower
Total 50 100%

  Source: field survey, 2015

 

 

 

 

 

 

4.4       Educational Status

Variable Frequency Percentage %
Primary 5 10
Secondary 25 50
Tertiary 2 4
Qur’anic 18 36
Total 50 100%

  Source: field survey, 2015

4.5       Family types

Variable Frequency Percentage %
Nuclear family 10 20
Extended Family 40 80
Total 50 100

  Source: field survey, 2015

4.6       Family size

Variable Frequency Percentage %
5-10 32 64
11-15 18 36
16-20
21-25
26-30 50 100%

  Source: field survey, 2015

4.7       Religion Practice

Variable Frequency Percentage %
Islam 50 100%
Christianity
Traditional
Total 50 100%

  Source: field survey, 2015

 

 

    FISH PRODUCTION FORM

4.8       POND CULTURE SYSTEM

Variable Frequency Percentage %
Concrete pond 30 60
Earthing pond 10 20
Plank or wood pond
Plastic tank pond 10 20
Total 50 100%

  Source: field survey, 2015

4.9       Pond size dimension

Variable Frequency Percentage %
Smallest
Largest 50 100
Total 50 100%

  Source: field survey, 2015

4.10     Practical culture method

Variable Frequency Percentage %
Monoculture 40 80
Poly-culture 10 20
Total 50 100%

  Source: field survey, 2015

4.2.1    Construction method

Variable Frequency Percentage %
Manual 50 100
Machine
Total 50 100%

  Source: field survey, 2015

 

 

 

 

4.2.2    Type of feed used

Variable Frequency Percentage %
Imported only 50 100%
Imported and local feed only
Local feed only
Total 50 100%

  Source: field survey, 2015

4.2.3    Level of management consider

Variable Frequency Percentage %
Intensive 40 80
Semi-intensive 10 20
Extensive
Total 50 100%

  Source: field survey, 2015

4.2.4    Estimate the cost of feeding per circle

Variable Frequency Percentage %
High 50 100%
Lower
Moderate
Total 50 100%

  Source: field survey, 2015

 

 

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