Awareness Among Consumers About Green Marketing In Tanjore District

 

 Dr M. Mary Anbunathy

  ABSTRACT

             According to the American Marketing Association, green marketing is the marketing of products that are presumed to be environmentally safe. Thus green marketing incorporates a broad range of activities, including product modification, changes to the production process, packaging changes, as well as modifying advertising.  The movement of green marketing has been expanding rapidly in the world, no exception to India particularly in Tamilnadu. Consumers’ awareness and motivational champion are the driving force in the market, they go for green marketing. Now a day the environment has been changed and the mindset of the consumers also changed go for green marketing. When compare to other countries in India, the level of awareness is lower about the green marketing like organic food and eco friendly products ect.  The Indian consumer has much less awareness of global warming issues. Initiatives from industry and the government are still ice blue. Green is slowly and steadily becoming the symbolic color of eco-consciousness in India. The growing consumer awareness about the origin of products and the concern over impending global environmental crisis there are increasing opportunities to marketers to convince consumers. With this background data have been collected to know the level of awareness’ of the consumers in Tanjore town. For the purpose of the study both primary data and secondary data have been collected and chi square test is used for testing the hypothesis. The study reveals that there is a relationship between the educational qualification and their income level of the consumers in Tanjore town.

IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY Green marketing definitions can be a little confusing, since green marketing can refer to anything from greening product development to the actual advertising campaign itself. Going by alternative names such as sustainable marketing, environmental marketing, green advertising, eco marketing, organic marketing, all of which point to similar concepts though perhaps in a more specific fashion, green marketing is essentially a marketing message in order to capture more of the market and services that are better for the environment. There are many environmental issues impacted by the production of goods and rendering of services, and therefore there are also many ways a company can market their eco-friendly offerings. Green marketing can appeal to a wide variety of these issues such as the items can save water, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, cut toxic pollution, clean indoor air, and be easily recyclable. Now a day there is awareness among the consumers about the green products. With this back ground the study is considered as an important one.

Review of Literature

  • Merilänen, S., Moisander, J. & Personen, S. (2000). The Masculine Mindset of Environmental Management and Green Marketing. Business Strategy and the Environment, 9(3), pp. 151-162. Environmental management systems and green marketing programmes have gained increasing popularity in western market economies.  They are viewed as cost-efficient, effective and just means of tackling problems associated with the impact of economic activity on the environment.  It is argued in this article, however, that these optimistic views are based on a number of ideas, images and metaphors that retain many and centric and inadequate assumptions about self, society and nature that may be incompatible with long-term environmental protection goals.
  • Prothero, A. & Fitchett, J.A. (2000). Greening Capitalism: Opportunities for Green Community. Journal of Macromarketing, 20(1), pp. 46-56. In this paper, the authors argue that greater ecological enlightenment can be secured through capitalism by using the characteristics of commodity culture to further progress environmental goals.  The authors reject both naive ecological romanticism and revolutionary idealism on the grounds that they fail to offer any pragmatic basis by which greater environmental responsibility can be achieved.  Drawing on the now well-established theoretical tradition of post-Marxist cultural criticism, the authors offer a conceptual justification for the development and implementation of a green commodity discourse.  For this to be achieved and implemented, prevailing paradigms regarding the structure, nature, and characteristics of capitalism must be revised.  Marketing not only has the potential to contribute to the establishment of more sustainable forms of society but, as a principle agent in the operation and proliferation of commodity discourse, also has a considerable responsibility to do so.
  • Oyewole, P. (2001). Social Costs of Environmental Justice Associated with the Practice of Green Marketing. Journal of Business Ethics, 29(3), Feb, pp. 239-252. This paper presents a conceptual link among green marketing, environmental justice, and industrial ecology.  It argues for greater awareness of environmental justice in the practice for green marketing.  In contrast with the type of costs commonly discussed in the literature, the paper identified another type of costs, termed ‘costs with positive results,’ that may be associated with the presence of environmental justice in green marketing.  A research agenda is finally suggested to determine consumers’ awareness of environmental justice, and their willingness to bear the costs associated with it.

Objectives of the study

  1. To know the evaluation of green marketing
  2. To know the contribution of companies towards the green marketing
  3. To know the challenges for green marketing
  4. To know the level of awareness of consumers about the green marketing
  5. To know the attitude among the consumers towards green products.

Methodology of the study   For the purpose of the study, both secondary and primary data have been collected and analyzed. The secondary data have been collected from articles, reports and professional information concerning green marketing studies in general using the internet and academic databases.  The primary data was collected through questionnaire. The statistical methods used for the analysis are percentage analysis and chi square test

Hypotheses for the study

  • There is no significant relationship between the Income and Awareness about the green products
  • There is no significant relationship between the occupation and Awareness about the green products.
  • There is no significant relationship between the educational level and Awareness about the green products.

Evolution of Green Marketing Green marketing term was first discussed in a seminar on ―Ecological Marketing‖ organized by American Marketing Association (AMA) in 1975 and took its place in the literature. The term green marketing came into prominence in the late 1980s and early 1990s. The first wave of green marketing occurred in the 1980s. The tangible milestone for the first wave of green marketing came in the form of published books, both of which were called Green Marketing. They were by Ken Pattie (1992) in the United Kingdom and by Jacquelyn Ottman (1993) in the United States of America. According to Peattie (2001), the evolution of green marketing has three phases.

  • First phase was termed as “Ecological” green marketing, and during this period all marketing activities were concerned to help environmental problems and provide remedies for environmental problems.
  • Second phase was “Environmental” green marketing and the focus shifted on clean technology that involved designing of innovative new products, which take care of pollution and waste issues.
  • Third phase was “Sustainable” green marketing. It came into prominence in the late 1990s and early 2000concerned with developing good quality products which can meet consumers need by focusing on the quality, performance, pricing and convenience in an environment friendly way.

Characteristics of Green Products

  1. Products those are originally grown.
  2. Products those are recyclable, reusable and biodegradable.
  3. Products with natural ingredients.
  4. Products containing recycled contents and non toxic chemical.
  5. Products contents under approved chemicals.
  6. Products that do not harm or pollute the environment.
  7. Products that will not be tested on animals.
  8. Products that have eco-friendly packaging i.e. reusable, refillable containers etc.

Initiatives Taken Up By Business Organizations’ towards Green Marketing

  • Going Green: Tata’s New Mantra Tata Motors is setting up an eco-friendly showroom using natural building material for its flooring and energy efficient lights. The Indian Hotels Company, which runs the Taj chain, is in the process of creating Eco rooms which will have energy efficient mini bars, organic bed linen and napkins made from recycled paper. And when it comes to illumination, the rooms will have CFLs or LEDs. and Paper Sector. The initiatives undertaken by this top green firm in India includes two Clean Development Mechanism projects and a wind farm project that helped generate 2,30,323 Carbon Emission Reductions earning Rs. 17.40 Crore.
  • Oil and Natural Gas Company (ONGC) India’s largest oil producer, ONGC, is all set to lead the list of top 10 green Indian companies with energy-efficient, green crematoriums that will soon replace the traditional wooden pyre across the country. ONGC’s Mokshada Green Cremation initiative will save 60 to 70% of wood and a fourth of the burning time per cremation.
  • Wipro Green It. Wipro can do for you in your quest for a sustainable tomorrow- reduce costs, reduce your carbon footprints and become more efficient – all while saving the environment.
  • Wipro’s Green Machines (In India Only) Wipro Infotech was India’s first company to launch environment friendly computer peripherals. For the Indian market, Wipro has launched a new range of desktops and laptops called Wipro Greenware. These products are RoHS (Restriction of Hazardous Substances) compliant thus reducing e-waste in the environment.
  • India’s 1st Green Stadium The Thyagaraja Stadium stands tall in the quiet residential colony behind the Capital’s famous INA Market. It was jointly dedicated by Union Sports Minister MS Gill and Chief Minister Sheila Dikshit on Friday Dikshit said that the stadium is going to be the first green stadium in India, which has taken a series of steps to ensure energy conservation and this stadium has been constructed as per the green building concept with eco-friendly materials.
  • Suzlon Energy The world’s fourth largest wind-turbine maker is among the greenest and best Indian companies in India. Tulsi Tanti, the visionary behind Suzlon, convinced the world that wind is the energy of the future and built his factory in Pondicherry to run entirely on wind power. Suzlon’s corporate building is the most energy-efficient building ever built in India.
  • Tata Metaliks Limited (TML) Every day is Environment Day at TML, one of the top green firms in India. A practical example that made everyone sit up and take notice is the company’s policy to discourage working on Saturdays at the corporate office. Lights are also switched off during the day with the entire office depending on sunlight.
  • Tamil Nadu Newsprint and Papers Limited (TNPL) Adjudged the best performer in the 2009-2010 Green Business Survey, TNPL was awarded the Green Business Leadership Award in the Pulp soon replace the traditional wooden pyre across the country. ONGC’s Mokshada Green Cremation initiative will save 60 to 70% of wood and a fourth of the burning time per cremation.
  • IndusInd Bank Green banking has been catching up as among the top Indian green initiatives ever since IndusInd opened the country’s first solar-powered ATM and pioneered an eco-savvy change in the Indian banking sector.

Present trends in Green Marketing in India  Governmental Bodies are forcing Firms to become more responsible. In most cases the government forces the firm to adopt policy which protects the interests of the consumers. Competitors’ Environmental Activities pressure the firms to change their Environmental Marketing Activities.

The Future of Green Marketing There are many lessons to be learned to avoid green marketing myopia, the short version of all this is that effective green marketing requires applying good marketing principles to make green products desirable for consumers. Evidence indicates that successful green products have avoided green marketing myopia by following three important principles

  1. Consumer Value Positioning
  • Design environmental products to perform as well as (or better than) alternatives.
  • Promote and deliver the consumer desired value of environmental products and target relevant consumer market segments.
  • Broaden mainstream appeal by bundling consumer desired value into environmental products.
  1. Calibration of Consumer Knowledge
  • Educate consumers with marketing messages that connect environmental attributes with desired consumer values.
  • Frame environmental product attributes as “solutions” for consumer needs.
  • Create engaging and educational internet sites about environmental products desired consumer value.
  1. Credibility of Product Claim
  • Employ environmental product and consumer benefit claims that are specific and meaningful.
  • Procure product endorsements or eco-certifications from trustworthy third parties

Challenges of Green Marketing Implementing green marketing is not going to be an easy job. The firm has to face many problems while trading products of green marketing. Challenges which have to be faced are listed under

  • Green marketing encourages green products / services, green technology, green power / energy.
  • The firm ensures that they convince the customer about their green product, by implementing
  • Eco labeling schemes. Eco labeling schemes offer its “approval” to “Environmentally harmless” products and they are very popular in Japan and Europe. Convincing the Indian customer’s is a great challenge.
  • The profits will be very low since renewable and recyclable products and green technologies are more expensive. Green marketing will be successful only in long run.
  • Many customers may not be willing to pay higher price for green products which may affect the sales of the company.

Analysis of Primary Data

       The following table gives the socio economic back ground of the respondent those who are purchasing the green products for their use in Tiruchirapalli district.

TABLE – 2  DEMOGRAPHICAL   PROFILE OF THE RESPONDENTS
Particulars No. of the Respondent % of the respondent
Age of the respondent Up to 25yrs 18 18
  25-35yrs 39 39
  35-45yrs 17 17
  45-55yrs 15 15
  Above 55 years 11 11
  Total 100 100
Gender of the respondent Male 53 53
  Female 47 47
  Total 100 100
Education  level of the respondent Up to 12th std 12 12
  Graduate 36 36
  PG 41 41
  Professional 7 7
  Others  4  4
  Total 100 100
Marital status of the respondent Married 72 72
  Unmarried 28 28
  Total 100 100
Occupation of the respondent Student 6 6
  Housewife 27 27
  Employed 38 38
  Entrepreneur 26 26
Retired persons 3 3
Total 100 100
Monthly income of the respondent No income 4 4
  Below Rs.10000 22 22
  10001-20000 34 34
  20001-30000 27 27
  Above30000 13 13
  Total 100 100

Sources primary data

        With the help of the above table it is observed that 39% of the respondents are from the age group of 25 – 35. 53 percent of the respondents are male. 41 percent of the respondent have been completed their post graduation.72 of them are married. 38 of them are working people, of which majority of them are in private sector institutions. Majority of them are getting a monthly salary of Rs more than 10000 and less than 20000 per month.

 

TABLE – 2

SOURCES OF INFORMATION ABOUT THE GREEN PRODUCTS

Sl.No Particulars No. of Respondent % of Respondent
1 Friends and Relatives 36 36
2 News paper and Magazines 22 22
3 Television and Radio 9 9
4 Internet 26 26
5 others sources 7 7
  Total 100 100

              Sources primary data

       With the help of the above table, it is observed that 36 of the respondent have got the information about the green products from their friends and relatives. The major media of spreading the awareness is ward of mouth.  The web site is another media among the youngsters for getting information.

 

TABLE -3

 AMOUNT SPEND FOR A MONTH FOR PURCHASING THE GREEN PRODUCTS

                                                                                                          Rs in Hundreds

Sl.No Particulars No. of Respondent % of Respondent
1 Below 500 18 18
2 500 -750 27 27
3 750 – 1000 32 32
4 1000-1250 14 14
5 above 1250 9 9
  Total 100 100

             Sources primary data

With the help of the above table, it is observed that 32 percent of the respondent spending up to 1000 for their monthly purchase of green products.

TABLE -4

NATURE OFGREEN PRODUCTS PURCHASED IN A MONTH

Sl.No Particulars No. of Respondent % of Respondent
1 Organic Food items like Vegetables, Rice, Fruits etc 34 34
2 Cosmetics(soap, Shampoo ect) 47 47
3 Toiletries 9 9
4 Electricals 6 6
5 others 4 4
  Total 100 100

               Sources primary data

               With help of the above table 4 shows the purchase of type of Eco friendly products. 34% of respondents purchase organic food items like rice, vegetables, and fruits only. 47% of the respondent purchased cosmetic items and minority of them are purchased toiletries, electrical and others.

Testing of Hypotheses

  • There is no significant relationship between the Income and Awareness about the green products
  • There is no significant relationship between the occupation and Awareness about the green products.
  • There is no significant relationship between the educational level and Awareness about the green products.

 

                Factors                  Method Calculated value Table value(5% level significance, 12 Degree of freedom) Result
Income Awareness about the green products   42.47 21.026 Rejected
Occupation Awareness about the green products 38.96 21.026 Rejected
Educational level Awareness about the green products 28.96 21.026 Rejected

 

FINDINGS The findings of the study were summarizes and presented.

  • 39% of the respondents are from the age group of 25 – 35
  • 53 percent of the respondents are male.
  • 41 percent of the respondent have been completed their post graduation.
  • 72 of them are married
  • 38 of them are working people, of which majority of them are in private sector institutions.
  • Majority of them are getting a monthly salary of Rs more than 10000 and less than 20000 per month.
  • 36 of the respondent have got the information about the green products from their friends and relatives. The major media of spreading the awareness is ward of mouth. The web site is another media among the youngsters for getting information.
  • 32 percent of the respondent spending up to 1000 for their monthly purchase of green products.
  • There is a significant relationship between the Income and Awareness about the green products
  • There is a significant relationship between the occupation and Awareness about the green products.
  • There is a significant relationship between the educational level and Awareness about the green products.

Suggestions

  • Manufactures’ should concentrate to produce recyclable products, reuse of packaging and they can use energy saving equipments for production and other purpose.
  • More green products should be offered to the retailer, and then they can sell green products to the consumers.
  • Government should offer subsidies for purchasing the equipments and machinery helping in keeping environment green. The manufacturers can be offer loans from the banks to install the equipments at lower rate of interest.
  • Word of mouth and internet (social networks face book, whats app) play a vital role in promoting the awareness about the green products and the advantages of green products. The advertisement should be modified and explain in detail about the green products and then it will reach the consumers.
  • Government should make necessary for creating the awareness about the benefit of green products.

Conclusion

                   The current low levels of consumer awareness about global warming, environmental pollution the Government of India, manufacturers, and retailers need to help raise consumer consciousness. Indian manufacturers have yet to find a market for green products, even as consumers have a low awareness of them because of the insufficient efforts made by the marketers.  Overall, it is clear that the Indian consumers especially Tanjore consumers are having less awareness about the usage of green products. Now a day consumers are spending lesser amount to purchase green products. But they ready to pay more prices for the products which are causing less environmental pollution. They also prefer promotional campaign which protects the environment, and distribution channels which are not causing environmental pollution. Government, companies, consumers and other stockholders have to join hands to come out of the situation. The opinion of the retailers is green products are liked by consumers but because of poor awareness and high prices have not been fully adopted by them. As far as consumers are concerned the awareness level is increasing and has started implementing them in their normal life.  The intermediaries should include consumer’s attitude measurement programme in their marketing plan and adopt all aspects of green marketing, then only they can achieve their goal and fulfill the social responsibility of their business concern. There is a need in this situation to save our earth is  joint hands actions from Government, NGOs, Manufactures’, retailers regulators, scientific community and environmental education groups should create an awareness programmes among the consumers at regular intervals for reviving, maintaining and safeguarding the earth’s eco system.

RERFERENCES

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