MKPUGHE CHRISTIANA IFEYINWA (DR)
This study focused on the effect of socio-economic status of parents on the academic performance of students in Technical Colleges in Delta State. Two research hypotheses were formulated. There is no significant difference between Academic Performance of Students from poor background compared to those from wealthy homes, there no significant correlation between students from intact homes and that of broken homes. Recommendations were made based on the findings.
Keywords: Profession/Vocation, Educational level, Socio-Economic Status and family type.
The role parents in the upbringing of the child cannot be overemphasized and as such it’s socioeconomic status is of vital importance. Students have shown that parental influence manifests itself in parental values and experience, education, vocation/profession of parents, religion and socio-economic background of parents. Parental socio-economic status and intelligence have either facilitating or inhibitory effect on the child depending on the traits inherited and the environment in which he is brought up. The self and work roles begin early in life and the home in conjunction with it’s related social system have great influence on them. The parents or family provides the initial social encounter through socialization process, also provides the 3models with which the child can identify, usually a child may consciously or unconsciously, learn from the parents by imitation. Parental set standard may greatly affect the life’s of adolescents and so motivate them to be achievement oriented. Thus a family where some particular careers are of great priority tend to orient it’s children in achieving that goal.
Therefore, the socio-economic status of a parent goes a long way to mould a child’s personality both morally, academically, economically, socially, spiritually or otherwise. Jacquelynm and Eccles and Pamela Daviskean (2005)
Statement of the Problem
The socio-economic status of parents can motivate or hamper the child’s academic performance in schools. For students to have excellent performance in schools, they should be reared in a home free quarreling and rancor, should have enough parental security and financial security, readiness to learn to the part of the student a good learning environment and learning materials. A lot of problems are faced by students in Technical Colleges in Delta State.
The Concept of Socio-economic status
This study focused on the effect of socio economic status of parents on students in Technical. Colleges in Delta State. The concept of socio economic status based on socio-economic factors represnts one of the major systems of stratification. Social stratification arises out of the recognition in all societies people are ranked or evaluated at a number of levels of social class is common to most societies ancient or modern. Infact almost every community has within it, groups which think of themselves being somewhat alike.
The member of these groups may exhibit similarities in choice of food, housing, dressing, language, occupation, income values, social behaviour and even colour or race. Farooq (2011) emphasized that the social class of parent is a dominant factor in the academic performance. The academic abilities and the socio-economic background of youth impose considerable constraints upon the performance of students and on the type of vocation they can make. He able boy from a middle class family has a wider range of possibilities open to him than a boy from a poor socio-economic class. Okoh, (1980) in his work say that students have shown that children from low income homes come to school with a two-fold handicap.
Their innate intelligence is under developed in certain aspects that are important for success in present day educational systems and their personality is structured that they are not likely to do well in school. The child from the low social class according these studies has not his spare time carefully organized for. He has a very notion and is incapable of planning and pursuing long term projects. To such a child, luck, rather than vigorously planned work appears to be reason for success.
According to Rothesetein (2004) the social class of parents are fundamental to the individual’s educational and vocational decisions. He went further to explain that social membership influence and is influenced by occupational membership. Other factors identified which exert considerable influence on the individual include sex, family age, race, culture school and economy. Azhar Nadeem, Naz Perveen & Sameen (2015) testifies to the fact that much of the child’s educational development starts at home, before he actually starts the formal education, to him the middle class homes are always able to provide the necessary prerequisites success. For example, they can provide good environment, motivation, the necessary financial help and also hi1ighted some facts on the influence of socio economic status of either the parents, home or environment on the occupational preference of youths. They postulated that a child’s particular socio-economic inheritance may a direct and important effect on the occupation open or life attractive to him. The economic an occupational level of the home affects performance of the students, Farooq (2011).
The study was organized under the following headings
- Occupation of parents
- Parental background
- Type of family
- Wealth of the family
- Broken family
Occupation of Parents
This involves the type of work or job done by the parents of these student this go a long way to affect the performance of those students. There are parents whose work do not give time for their children as such the students are affected negatively Duke, (2000), Sewell, William and Robert, Hauser (1975). Most time you discover that most students or children are influenced by the occupation of their parents or stimulated by what they find their parents doing, parental or family set-standard may greatly affect performance of their children either positive or negatively even in the occupational choice of their children later in their lives and so motivate them to be achievement oriented. Thus a family where some particular careers are of great priority, tend to orient it’s children towards achieving that goal. In some families because the family head is a lawyers the children will want be lawyer or even doctors, nurse or teachers or accountants because their parents are one or have set such standard for them. Studies have shown that a child’ particular socio-economic inheritance may have a direct and important effect on the career open or attractive to him than does his physical inheritance. The economic and occupational level of home affects the vocational goals of the youth by influencing their aspirations to be similar to those held by their parents and by Halsey, Health and Ridge (1980) discouraging aspirations to levels much above or below the parental occupational. The child’s biological endowments in terms of personality traits are transmitted to him in form of genetic inheritance. If both parents possess high intellectual capabilities and transmit the traits for indigence to the child, that, child is very likely to be highly intelligent and benefit from education which will likely enhance his opportunity for occupations on the hand, a child of very low intellectual parents who inherited this trait may turn out to be an imbecile who may later find it difficult to be properly educated and be gainfully employed. So, the occupation of parents has a vital role to play in the lives students in Technical Colleges. Halsay, health and Ridge (1980).
Parental socio-economic status and intelligence have either facilitating or inhibitory effect on the child depending on the traits inherited and environment in which he is brought up. The self and work roles begin early in the life and home in conjunction with its related socio system have great influence on the them. The family comprising of parents, siblings, relatives, friends and neighbours, providing the initial social encounter through socialization process, also provides the models with which the child can identify. Usually the child may consciously or unconsciously learn from the parents by role playing or imitation. Parental background with talk about whether parents of children is high socio-economic status, middle or low socio-economic status as a long way to play in the performance of students in technical Colleges. Azhar, Nadeem, Naz, Perveen and Sameen (2015).
A family could be classified as either of high or low socio-economic status. The question might be asked how do we dichromize between high and low socio-economic family background Owalabi (1988) criteria for classifying Nigerian parents could be adopted, here. For him parents who are professional senior civil servants, graduates and non-graduates teachers, clerks, traders and businessmen and women of appreciable income parent who have post primary and higher education are referred to as being of high socio-economic status while parent who are craftsman artisans and farmer and parents who have no schooling or have elementary education are referred to as being of low socio-economic status. Differential access to education theory is apparently true in Nigeria, thus, children of low socioeconomic families do not have as much access to education as children of high socio-economic family background are found mostly in good quality post primary institutions such as the Federal Government Controlled Colleges which are adequately provided with qualified teachers and materials to Ramey and Ramey (1994) the disadvantage of brilliant children from poor homes. One of the implications of such differential access to education could be that children from high socio-economic families especially in careers of greater social demands and status.
Also it was discovered that some students who failed the West African School Certificate (WASC) Examinations who would have preferred to go back to their schools or other schools to repeat the year were prevented from doing so because of the inability of their parents to meet up-financially the cost of their going back to school. He further revealed that consequently, such students went into the teacher training colleges which were free thereby choosing teaching as career circumstantially while others went into other unskilled jobs. Finally parental family background plays important or affects the child performance the school. Ramey and Ramey (1994).
Types of Family
Under types of family we are looking at whether, the children or child is born into a polygamous home, monogamous family and so on. The type of family which the students are born into can affect them either positively or negatively. A child born by polygamous parents will find it very difficult to meet up with the financial demands of his school. Since there are a lot of children and wives to take care and as such the financial responsibility on the family will be very high such child will be affected negatively except the family is buoyant. Femi Ogushola and Adewale (2014).
Also even in a monogamous homes if the number of children in the family is large there will be great financial responsibility on the parents. The child may be affected negatively but if the numbers of children are reduced the parents will able to meet their needs easily considering the family income. Also in families where the breadwinner of the house is late (either the men or women). There will high financial responsibility especially on our women if it was the man who died. So, the children will be affected negatively and it will hinder their academic performance in the school, Anderso and Sullivan (1998).
The wealth of family
The wealth of the family is of paramount importance, if the family is wealthy, children’s needs whether academic or otherwise will be met easily without much stress but where the family poor, the academic need of the children will not be met easily, this goes a long way to affect the child performance negatively. There are situations where the parents of students may not have money to pay their children’s school fees and children are sent of out of school for non-payment of school fee and other necessary fees, in such cases, the child or students may not be allowed take their examination. The wealth of the family talks about the family income whether it is high or low. Ramsey and Ramsey (1994), Memon, Joubish and Khurram (2015)
A child from broken home is never happy or a child from a home where there quarreling and fighting is never happy because of the environment that he or she is coming from. Also a child whose mother left the house because the frequent fighting and quarrellings in home or immoral behaviours of their father, will never be happy in school and will not concentrate in his studies, his mind will easily go back to the occurrence of home or a child that is under care of his mother and not being accepted by his stepfather because he is not that man’s child will never be happy in the class and invariably, will not do well in his studies.
Furthermore, a child living with the father, where the mother is no longer in home may receive ill-treatment from the father’s wife or wives especially if is the wicked and bad type. Such child will never be happy in class and if a child not happy, there is every tendency that child or student’s performance will be affected negatively except for a determined child who Wants to excel through work undermining the situation at home.
- Is there any significant difference between the academic performance of students from poor background and those from wealthy home?
- Is there any correlation between the academic performance of students from broken homes and those from intact homes?
Purpose of the Study
- The main purpose of the study is to determine effect of socio-economic status of students in Technical Colleges.
- To determine the difference between the academic performance of students poor background and those from wealthy homes.
- To determine the relationship between the academic performance of student from broken homes and from those of intact homes.
Significance of the Study
There has been a general motion that increase, monetary rewards and academic ability are the major influences on the performance of students. The socio economic status of parents is hardly linked with these factors. The finding of this study will be beneficial to government, parents teachers and the society at large. It will serve as a guide to administrators and education planners when making decisions it will affect students.
It will serve as an eye opener on the effects social economics status of parent on their children and how the negative effects can be corrected. This study will help educational or guidance counselors to identify students whose parents are from the lower social class and profit solution to their problems. It will also help students in career choices and the available resources at their disposal.
Definition of important Terms
- Profession / Vocation: This is defined as definable work activity that occurs in many different setting.
- Education Level: The educational height of an individual whether is an individual is highly educated or not.
- Socio-economic status: This refers to ones social and economic standing within a social stratification or classes and are explained a follows:
- a) An upper class: These are wealthy individuals who frequently did not and constitute about 25% of the population.
- b) An upper middle class: These are mostly skilled workers whose sons were generally apprenticed to same or some other skilled trade frequently they become clerks but seldomly merely labourers.
- c) Low middle class: These are unskilled workers and domestic workers or servants. In this class children usually augment the family income by manual work at an early age.
- d) Lower Class: These are unskilled workers who are predominantly poor. Their standard of living is very low and their children worked from an early age and receive about ¼ of the pay of an unskilled workers.
This is the description of the methods used in carrying out the study, which include, the following headings.
- Design of study
- Population of study
- Sample of selection
- Sample area
- Administration of question
Design of Study
This design of study employed is the survey method, survey study is a descriptive research method. It is aimed at discovering relative, incidence, distribution and inter-relationship of educational, sociological, physiological, political and economical variables. The researcher examined the opinion attitudes or feelings of individual about a particular problem.
Population of study
The population of this study comprises is all the Technical Colleges in the State (Delta), Sample of the study
The study was carried out in randomly selected Technical Colleges in the State. The randomly selected schools induce specific the no before history
- Issele-Uku Technical College, Issele-Uku
- Agbor Technical College, Agbor
- Sapele Technical College, Sapele
- Delta Career Warn
The instrument used for this study was questionnaire. It consists of two sets. That of teachers and the students. The teacher questionnaires consist of twenty items is divided into section A & B section A consists of personal data of the respondents while section B deals with the questions based on the hypothesis. The teacher questionnaire consists of two sets. That of teachers and students. The teacher questionnaire consist of twenty. It is divided into section A & B, section A consists of personal data of the respondents while section B deals with the questions just as in the teacher questionnaire.
Administration of Instrument
The entire questionnaire was administered by the researcher through a visit to the sampled schools. This enable the researchers to get responses from teacher and students. In each school were given questionnaires were collected by the researcher. About two hundred questionnaires were distributed.
Method of Data collection or Analysis
The data collected were tabulated and analysed using the chi-square test of contingency. It’s formula is given as
x2 = ∑(O -E)2
Where X2 = Chi-square
∑ = Summation sign
O = Observed data
E = Expected data
This test has a level of significance of 0.05 with degree of freedom as one (1) and two (2) where necessary.
Validation of Instrument
The questionnaire is the outcome of the intensive process of validation. The questionnaire is carefully designed to meet the targeted goal, the questionnaire was submitted to two lectures and it was properly scrutinized and deleted substandard questions (if any). Thus; this helped in selecting the needed basic objectives of study. The items were pruned appropriately and as such the questionnaire was described as valid in content and context.
Data Analysis, Presentation of Result
It deals with analysis of data in respect of the questionnaires already administered on the proposed sample. The analysis, presentation of result and discussion was pointed towards verifying the hypothesis earlier formulated.
Testing of the hypothesis
Hypothesis One: Ho1 states that there is no significant difference between academic performance of students from poor background compared to those from wealthy homes. To test the above hypothesis the chi-square of test contingency was employed which was performed at 0.05 level of significance.
The test result is presented in the table below:
Table One: Distribution of the findings analysis on the response of students of Technical College on the effect of family
The x2 was computed as 0.37 the critical value of the df(1) = 3.38 and 0.05 level of significance. The hypothesis was accepted because the calculated value is lower than the expected value.
Hypothesis Ho2: There is no correlation between students academic perfirmance form intact homes and those from broken homes.
Distribution of The Findings
Table two: Analysis on the response of students of Technical Colleges on the effect of broken and intact homes on academic performance.
Where X = stands for intact homes
Y = Broken homes
The hypothesis is rejected because from the calculation — I shows a very high relationship and are both affected by socio-economic status of parents
Summary of findings
- There no significant difference between academic performance of students from poor background compared to those from wealthy homes.
- From the result of findings it shows there is no correlation performance between intact homes and broken homes.
Discussion of Findings, Conclusion And Recommendation
The findings from analysis will be discussed as follows;
The finding of the researcher says that there is no difference between academic performances of students from poor background compared with those from wealthy.
This result is in line with the view of Hill et al (2004) which states Socio-Economic status of parents does affect student’s academic performance but makes possible for both children from rich and poor families to compete with each other.
The findings of the research states that there is no significant difference between the academic performance of children from intact homes and those of broke homes. This shows that whether the students are from intact homes or broken homes, it has nothing to do with their academic performance. There are cases where even when students are living with parents, their parents never have time to check their children’s work; are always too busy, never found at home, only at nights to move very early the next morning, the children hardly have a taste of their parents also there are cases where even when children may not be living with the parents or is living with one of the parent, is determined to make the best of the situation by hard work and much studies, such a child might do well.
This shows that both are affected by socio-economic status. According to Azhar, Nadeem, Naz, Perveen and Sameen (2015) stated that the child’s educational development should start from home, before he actually starts the formal education. Proper attention should paid to educational development of the children for better performance at school.
The study showed that there is relationship between socio-economic status of parents and the choice course made by the students, so parents should try as much as possible to supervise the work of their children, and counseling them into making right career choices, these should be not based or the wealth of family. Also hypothesis one shows that there was no significant different between the performance of children from intact home and broken homes. This reveals that once a child is determined work or study, making use of the human and material resources available to him, whether broken home or not, the sky is his limit, they are encouraged to be serious with their studies whether living with their parent or not. Parents should strive to live together for proper up bring of their children, in order to avoid having dropouts and nonentities as children.
Parents as well as government should provide good learning atmosphere for the students to enhance better performances of the students, on the other hand students should make use these learning materials provided for them by the government and parents and stop perambulating around the streets of Nigeria, and stop forming different cults and nefarious groups that does foster their academic performance in schools. Teachers also have a role to play by making sure these students are well taught, occupied with assignments and class-work so as to create sense of seriousness in them. These assignments should be marked and recorded as continuous assessment. Quizes and test via examination should also be administered by the teachers. Workshop practice should also be taught in all the technical colleges to make them self-reliant and practically oriented.
The recommendations are made based on the findings and conclusion of this study.
- Parents should endeaviour to support and supervise their children’s academic work in and out of school.
- Parents should try as much as possible to live together for the proper upbringing of their children and avoid separation or broken homes.
- Parents and government should try as much as possible to see to needs of students in technical colleges.
- Government should furnish their libraries with current text books not the old fashioned and outdated ones; they should equip their laboratories, workshops and typing pools for effect studies.
- Government should provide and install computers in all Technical Colleges employ competent hands who can manage these computers.
- Government should ensure that salaries of teachers and worker in Technical Colleges are paid as and when due.
- Also workshop practice should be made compulsory for all students in Technical Colleges so as to be practically oriented and self-reliant.
- Furthermore practical allowances should be paid to teachers of Technical Colleges by the government.
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