who am I? what are the factors determining the life existence ? what the rational reason behind the nature secrets ? what is it that bounds us in a group ? what are the beliefs in a religion what are the religious traditions, are scientists use one set of formulae to determine the result or they use different sets of formulae for determining the results all these questions can be sort out only by philosophy Philosophy ( philosophia, ‘love of wisdom’) is the study of fundamental questions about life reasoning of life existence art science and governing factors in philosophy these questions are answered but there is an emblematic concept about philosophy it regards every question as a research work wether it is sorted out or wether there is no explanation regarding the research.
The Beauty of philosophy lies in its failure to explain until a question is not answered it is the part of philosophy and when using the philosophical concept question gets its explanation it came out of scope of philosophy. Philosophers used philosophical methods: Arguements , critical concepts, rational questions, rational logics and well arranged structural representation of concepts to solve What is Virtual what is real ? what is significant what is not significant ? what is life ? what is its significance ? and much more than that from the ancient times philosophy studied astronomy, science, natural observations etc. Newtons 1687 book of Mathematical principles of natural philosophy later became book of physics.
The first historians studied the philosophy under three branches Natural philosophy ,Moral philosophy ,Meta physical philosophy, under the segment of natural philosophy all natural observations are studied factors responsible for physical transformation, change in the composition of physicality etc. under the segment of Moral philosophy all the issues questions and works related to basis of morality are studied what is wrong what is right ? what is justice ? factors which derive an authority to reach a conclusion deciding between the two who is rational and logical and hence right who is irrational and illogical and hence wrong ? And third branch of historical philosophy dealt with meta physical world the world of myths, mystic factors, beliefs, gods and supernatural powers abstract form of concepts. but todays world of dealing with different forms of philosophy like political philosophy ethical philosophy social philosophy economics biology cosmology all these are articulated and emerged from the three segments of historical philosophy for example physics and mathematics emerged from the concept of metaphysical philosophy moral philosophy gives birth to aesthetics social science ethical concepts etc. and concepts or subjects like cosmology astronomy etc. emerged out of natural philosophy.
Indian philosophy :
Indian philosophy (Sanskrit: darśana, lit. ‘point of view’, ‘perspective’) emerged from the very ancient period dealing with different philosophical concepts and aspects .Two forms of Indian philosophy ‘Jainism’ and ‘Buddhism’ originated to bring about the change in Indian Society suffering from myths different conceptions and Superstision and passive beliefs during the Vedic period then after ‘Hinduism’ emerged as fusion of diverse traditions. Hindus believes in ‘Vedas’ accepts the authority of brahmins gives birth to two philosophical concepts ‘nastik’ or ‘Aastik’. Aastik thought of school is followed by believers of ‘Hinduism’ while Nastik thought of school is followed by believers of ‘Buddhism’ and ‘Jainism’. ‘Ahimsa’ the concept of non violence ‘Karma’ the concept of performance ‘Dharma’ the concept of beliefs ‘Kama’ the concept of desire etc. are the philosophical concepts emerged in india. Philosophy is a subject of utmost importance which answers every question.
Charles dickens famous lines “it was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity, it was the season of light, it was the season of darkness, it was the spring of hope , it was the winter of despair”…seems to be articulated with todays period what we are witnessing. The innovated globe of world developing at its full pace showing the output of best technologies and practices to transmogrify the this mankind civilization tending to make it the the most Intellectual the most forward the most advanced Planetary species. But at a sudden stroke an unknown intruder ‘covid-19’ without any weapon without any corporeal shook the most advanced civilization the countries which considered to be medically advanced compelled to fold its wings of high flying. The civilization which had purposed CRISPR cluster regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) is the most advanced gene editing technology, Artificial organs ,wireless brain sensors , even mankind in this era produced clones and perform multitudes of technically advanced and innovative medical solution falters against ‘Covid-19’ we seems to be like helpless before it. And this helplessness caused many sufferings destroying and degrading many lives across the globes tolls of deaths and infected ones surging day by day and instead of doing something to control or to stop it we can do only the thing and that is expressing griefs and grievances for the loss and sufferings this civilization is facing. The civilization which had might and capabilities to convict the nature and its life forms surrendered under lockdowns. This is an irony those who considered themselves to be ‘Autocratic’ are put under Quarantine for months. for many it is the spring of Hapiness who are with their families, but for someone who is struggling even to witness the face of their beloved ones is a season of dryness struggling miles daily with a hope to touch their homes and shelter. Announcing packages brings little hopes for the Poor at least they can have one or two time bites to feed their bellies. Money transfer and ration transfer for every poor worker and farmer through Jan Dhan Bank Account, Kishan Samman Niddhi Yojna etc. gives a little support and hopes for living when Every employment providing manufacturing unit was at standstill. Stimulus package Of 20 lakh crore brings hopes and support for MSME’s etc. Amid of all these hopes and supporting hands the idea of returing of prawasi majdoor and others seems to be foolish under meager number of cases people prohibited to route their destiny to their homes but now when tools are growing with emblematic growth rate doors for Journeys to their homes are opened. People Struggled miles barefooted on cycles through rickshaw to head their journey to their homes and when they were about to reach their homes everything had opened this brings a contradiction that it might be conducted in the beginning when country got a slight indication. Reverse migration had commenced people had lost their jobs there is no hope for more livelihoods manufacturing units are on standstill industries outputs are folding Analysts purposed a significant shrinkage in GDP Forecast for forthcoming financial year. A country which was supposed to be the most energetic because of its demographic dividend falter to produce employments. And apart from these wisdoms and foolishness The ‘social Animal’ broke its adhesive power with its companions by performing social distancing this is the most tragic moment we had witness and therefore “it was the the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity, it was the season of light, it was the season of darkness, it was the spring of hope, it was the winter of despair….”
DEPARTMENT OF PHILOSOPHY, NNAMDI AZIKIWE UNIVERSITY, AWKA, NIGERIA.
The maturity of science in the physics of Copernicus, Galileo, and Newton brought with it philosophical, logical and methodological questions of its development. Such questions crystallized in robust, fecund and, sometimes acerbic, debates on the philosophy, logic and method of science amongst scientists and philosophers. This is to be expected because every mature discipline lays its rational foundation and defines its boundary by its philosophy, logic and method and these questions hardly go without debates. Karl Popper’s philosophical and methodological writings were mainly dedicated to articulating the rational foundation and logical-cum-methodological boundaries of science striving, in so doing, to demarcate science between non-science. Popper’s tool in the effort to demarcate science and non-science is his methodological criterion of falsficationism propounded in his magnum opus, Logic of Scientific Discovery 1968. The thesis of falsificationism is that a scientist should strive to falsify his theory and not to confirm it. This is contrary to the traditional inductivist or verificationist methodology of searching for confirming instances. Popper conceives the falsificationist methodology as a bulwark against dogmatism in science and authoritarianism in politics. But the scientist in his daily work employs induction and its attendant assumptions and questions the claim that a scientist should work to falsify his theory, among other heuristic components of falsificationism. Thus, a fortuitous debate ensued between Popper and his supporters on one hand, and the working scientist and his supporters, on the other hand. The result is a rich corpus on the logic and method of science. This essay x-rays such debate between Popper and the working scientist and, in so doing, contributes to the corpus.
KEYWORDS: WORKING SCIENTIST, LOGIC, METHOD, FALSIFICATIONISM, SCIENCE.