All posts by sirshivam

A freelancer.

Jane Austen: A Glimpse of Her Past

-By Shivam Pathak
“I declare after all there is no enjoyment like regarding! – When I have a house of my own, I shall be miserable if I have not an excellent library”.
These are the words of an eminent novelist, Jane Austen from her novel Pride and Prejudice, which is one of the best known works of her life so far in
literature. On 16th of December Jane Austen was born in Steventon,Hampshire in the house of George Austen and Cassandra Austen. Jane had in total seven siblings with whom she was on good terms.

Due to some problems Jane was educated at home. Austen had unfettered access to her father’s library along with that of a family friend’s (Warren Hastings) library. She loved reading novels, but most oftenly she read her own compositions aloud to her family in the evenings. The environment of Austen’s home contributed a lot in order to shape her life as a writer. Gradually when Jane changed from a child into an adult, she became mostly home-centered. She wrote her novels only in the intervals permitted from the important domestic duties of a devoted daughter, sister, and aunt.

Austen achieved success as a published writer after the publications of her novels like-Sense and Sensibility, Pride and Prejudice, Mansfield Park, and Emma. A significant change in her career occurred in the year 1833, when her novels were republished in Richard Bentley’s Standard Novels series. Jane’s novels were known for critiques and comments upon the British social classes. Austen’s plots were often associated to the dependence of women on marriage in the pursuit of favorable social and economic status in the society.

On 18th July, 1817 Jane Austen breathed her last. Her mysterious death is still a topic of discussion. Some scholars believe that she died due to cancer or tuberculosis. In 1869 Austen’s nephew, James Edward Austen Leigh, published “A Memoir of Jane Austen” in order to give an introduction of Jane Austen’s compelling account of life. Following this he published a second edition in 1871, which included Jane’s unpublished writings.

Therefore, Jane Austen’s writings gave English literature new heights. Austen’s life and novels are both inspirational for every writer as well as
every reader throughout the world.

Jane Austen: A Glimpse of Her Past

-By Shivam Pathak
“I declare after all there is no enjoyment like regarding! – When I have a house of my own, I shall be miserable if I have not an excellent library”. These are the words of an eminent novelist, Jane Austen from her novel Pride and Prejudice, which is one of the best known works of her so far in literature. On 16th of December Jane Austen was born in Steventon, Hampshire in the house of George Austen and Cassandra Austen. Jane had in total seven siblings with whom she was on good terms. Due to some problems Jane was educated at home. Austen had unfettered access to her father’s library along with that of a family friend’s (Warren Hastings) library. She loved reading novels, but most oftenly she read her own compositions aloud to her family in the evenings. The environment of Austen’s home contributed a lot in order to shape her life as a writer. Gradually when Jane changed from a child into an adult, she became mostly home-centered. She wrote her novels only in the intervals
permitted from the important domestic duties of a devoted daughter, sister, and aunt. Austen achieved success as a published writer after the publications of her novels like-Sense and Sensibility, Pride and Prejudice, Mansfield Park, and Emma. A significant change in her career occurred in the year 1833, when her novels were republished in Richard Bentley’s Standard Novels series. Jane’s novels were known for critiques and
comments upon the British social class. Austen’s plots were often associated to the dependence of women on marriage in the pursuit of favorable social and economic status in the society. On 18th July, 1817 Jane Austen breathed her last. Her mysterious death is still a topic of
discussions. Some scholars believe that she died due to cancer or tuberculosis. In 1869 Austen’s nephew, James Edward Austen Leigh, published “A Memoir of Jane Austen” in order to give an introduction of

Republica Federativa do BRasil: A road to independence

By Shivam Pathak
At some point of time almost all countries had faced invasions and colonization, whether it is England (Invaded by Normans), China (Invaded by Mongolians), India (Invaded by Britishers), USA (Invaded by Britishers), etc. But in this article I would shed light only on the invasion and colonization of Brazil by Portugal. Before getting down to my topic I would like to answer one of the questions cultivating in your mind that- why it is so important to study about other countries history of independce from colonization. I will tell you why. I think scrutiny on
other countries history of independence is required for a comparative study of history. If we go deep into this topic we would uncover that the way each country fought against their enemies is quiet distinctive with each-others counterparts. For instance Mexico got indepence from Spain after a lot of bloodshed and armed conflict, but in case of Brazil, the way was rather peaceful and simple. Hope at the end of the topic you will be able to understand this topic in a laconic way.
Portugal, identical to Netherlands was a nation of seafarers and traders. So they always look for opportunities to trade. By following their underlying policy the estado of Portugal recognized that colonialism had bigger merchant capitalist elements, so in 16th century a Portuguese nobleman, Pedro Alvares Cabral hold sovereignty over the aboriginal
lands, part of what is now the territory of the Federative Republic of Brazil, under the sponsorship of the kingdom of Portugal. The expansion
of Portuguese colonization in Brazil took high pace when the monarchy of Portugal sensed constant threat of Spanish invasion of Portugal. Portugal started establishing itself in Brazil with a small trade post, which was then expanded by the considerable efforts of the Portuguese personnel. Early Brazil was divided into 15 colonies and granted to worthy elite
Portuguese. In the first century of settlement, it became evident that it was laborious to use Indians as slave labors because they were not docile, had high mortality when exposed to western diseases, could run away and hide quite easily. So the Portuguese turned to imported Africanslaves for manual labor. The ultimate fate of Brazilian Indians
was pretty like that of North American Indians. They were pushed beyond the boundaries of colonial society. In 1807 when imperial French corps and Spanish military troops invaded Portugal, Prince
Regent Joao 4th fled to Rio to escape the French invasion of the motherland. He brought about 10,000 of the mainland establishment with him- the aristocracy, bureaucracy and some of the military who set government and court in Rio and Petropolis running Brazil and Portugal as joint kingdom. In 1809, the forces under Arthur Wellesley, a British expeditionary (later the Duke of Wellington), expelled French forces from Portugal. In the meantime the status of Brazil was elevated from a
colony to a kingdom. When Portugal was liberated Joa 4th decided to return to his motherland,Portugal ,but his son Dom Pedro 1st denied to accompany him and decided to be in Brazil as its King. So, in 1822 Portuguese crown prince became the emperor of Brazil. Dom Pedro remained heir to the Portuguese throne after Portugal’s acknowledgement of Brazil’s independence in 1825, so that when his father Dom Joao died in 1826, he succeeded to the Portuguese throne. He was unable to wear both crowns according to the terms of the constitution he has vested upon Brazil in 1824. He abdicated in favor of his daughter Dona Maria and promulgated a constitution in 1826, Carta Constitucional, which he inflicted on Portugal. The Carta later marked the uncertain death of the Portuguese Empire. The Brazilian Empire became a Republic in 1889 without any fierce struggle. Later in 1831 Dom Pedro abdicated from the throne due to military takeover. Thereafter, Brazil maintained its status as a Republic.

Sources of information employed in this article entails- an article written on “Brazilian Development Experience from 1500 to 1929” by Angus Maddison, and an article on “In the shadow of Independence: Portugal, Brazil and Their Mutual Influence after the End of Empire (late 1820s-early1840s)” by Gabriel Paquette.

Republica Federativa do Brasil: A road to Independence

By Shivam Pathak
At some point of time almost all countries had faced invasions and colonization, whether it is England (Invaded by Normans), China (Invaded by Mongolians), India (Invaded by Britishers), USA (Invaded by Britishers), etc. But in this article I would shed light only on the invasion and colonization of Brazil by Portugal. Before getting down to my topic I would like to answer one of the questions cultivating in your mind that- why it is so important to study about other countries history of independce from colonization. I will tell you why. I think scrutiny on
other countries history of independence is required for a comparative study of history. If we go deep into this topic we would uncover that the way each country fought against their enemies is quiet distinctive with each-others counterparts. For instance Mexico got indepence from Spain after a lot of bloodshed and armed conflict, but in case of Brazil, the way was rather peaceful and simple. Hope at the end of the topic you will be able to understand this topic in a laconic way.
Portugal, identical to Netherlands was a nation of seafarers and traders. So they always look for opportunities to trade. By following their underlying policy the estado of Portugal recognized that colonialism had bigger merchant capitalist elements, so in 16th century a Portuguese nobleman, Pedro Alvares Cabral hold sovereignty over the aboriginal
lands, part of what is now the territory of the Federative Republic of Brazil, under the sponsorship of the kingdom of Portugal. The expansion
of Portuguese colonization in Brazil took high pace when the monarchy of Portugal sensed constant threat of Spanish invasion of Portugal. Portugal started establishing itself in Brazil with a small trade post, which was then expanded by the considerable efforts of the Portuguese personnel. Early Brazil was divided into 15 colonies and granted to worthy elite
Portuguese. In the first century of settlement, it became evident that it was laborious to use Indians as slave labors because they were not docile, had high mortality when exposed to western diseases, could run away and hide quite easily. So the Portuguese turned to imported Africanslaves for manual labor. The ultimate fate of Brazilian Indians
was pretty like that of North American Indians. They were pushed beyond the boundaries of colonial society. In 1807 when imperial French corps and Spanish military troops invaded Portugal, Prince
Regent Joao 4th fled to Rio to escape the French invasion of the motherland. He brought about 10,000 of the mainland establishment with him- the aristocracy, bureaucracy and some of the military who set government and court in Rio and Petropolis running Brazil and Portugal as joint kingdom. In 1809, the forces under Arthur Wellesley, a British expeditionary (later the Duke of Wellington), expelled French forces from Portugal. In the meantime the status of Brazil was elevated from a
colony to a kingdom. When Portugal was liberated Joa 4th decided to return to his motherland,Portugal ,but his son Dom Pedro 1st denied to accompany him and decided to be in Brazil as its King. So, in 1822 Portuguese crown prince became the emperor of Brazil. Dom Pedro remained heir to the Portuguese throne after Portugal’s acknowledgement of Brazil’s independence in 1825, so that when his father Dom Joao died in 1826, he succeeded to the Portuguese throne. He was unable to wear both crowns according to the terms of the constitution he has vested upon Brazil in 1824. He abdicated in favor of his daughter Dona Maria and promulgated a constitution in 1826, Carta Constitucional, which he inflicted on Portugal. The Carta later marked the uncertain death of the Portuguese Empire. The Brazilian Empire became a Republic in 1889 without any fierce struggle. Later in 1831 Dom Pedro abdicated from the throne due to military takeover. Thereafter, Brazil maintained its status as a Republic.

Sources of information employed in this article entails- an article written on “Brazilian Development Experience from 1500 to 1929” by Angus Maddison, and an article on “In the shadow of Independence: Portugal, Brazil and Their Mutual Influence after the End of Empire (late 1820s-early1840s)” by Gabriel Paquette.

Victoria Memorial: The Taj of British Raj

By Shivam Pathak
Victoria Memorial, an iconic substantial marble building in the middle of modern day Calcutta still epitomizes British Raj in India and resurrects the tumultuous decades of India’s struggle against British forces to retrieve freedom for their motherland. It was constructed in glory of Queen Victoria’s twenty-five years of reign in India. Queen Victoria took the grand title of the Empress of India in 1876 after the control of India came under British Paramountcy following the fierce revolt of 1857. It was under her rule that the British Empire advanced in India and touched its zenith. Her reign was ended with her death in 1901, preconizing Edward seventh as the new emperor of India. After the demise of Queen Victoria at the age of 81 years, the then viceroy of India, Lord Curzon ordered to erect a mausoleum befitting the magnificence and splendor of her majesty Queen Victoria. On the 4th of January 1906 the then Prince of Wales, George fifth laid the cornerstone of the memorial. It was after fifteen long years that the gates of the mausoleum were opened to the general public in 1921. It is believed that the memorial was intended to match up to the glory of Taj Mahal of Agra; sometimes as a matter of fact the Victoria Memorial is characterized as a Taj of British Raj in India. Very few are acquainted with the fact that before the Memorial was build up; the same place was served to house the Presidency Jail. The jail was built here in 1778. In due course of time the Presidency Jail was moved to Alipore in West Bengal in 1906 and the bygone structure was demolished to pave the way for Memorial. Up till this day the Memorial stands tall with all its grandeur in the heart of Calcutta city. Victoria Memorial museum is one of the most renowned museums in the country. Every year thousands of locals and tourists come to cast a glance on the baffling history of India’s fight for freedom. The museum has a collection of 28,000 antiquity exhibited across 25 galleries that capsulate the history of the subcontinent during British Raj. The focal point of the museum is a wide range of paintings, painted by the most renowned duo artists- Thomas and William Daniel. Though there are some other memorials of Queen Victoria existed in India, in cities like Lucknow, Chennai, and even Allahabad, but it was one in Calcutta that truly stands out. It is a prodigy of great Indo-Saracenic revivalist architecture in the city. Therefore, Queen Victoria never set foot on the land of India, but she left behind to the people of India, who were kept down by unjust use of authority, her mausoleum in the subcontinent which will serve as the memory of pain of the freedom fighters who were once crushed by the cruelties of Britishers by the mandate of Queen herself.