Tourism Marketing: – A Case Study of Himachal Pradesh

                                                                  Dr. Rajan Chauhan

                             Tourism which is a very complex industry because of its multifaceted activities produces together the Tourist ‘Product’ and various subsectors that are themselves complete industries, if considered independently (lodging industry, transport industry etc.). Its complexity furthermore, lies mostly in the fact that Tourist promotion in its various forms has to be directed at a large number of people in various lands of different socio-economic structures, having different needs-tastes, attitudes, expectation and behavior patterns. Efficient marketing is the one which succeeds in penetrating the people’s tasks and preferences.1

            Tourism is a growth industry and holiday taking is an established habit. The competition to entice potential tourists to take a particular type of holiday or visit a particular destination is intense. Tourism needs to be marketed, just as any other product, indeed more so, because it is an industry in which the customer still has an immense variety of choice. However, the marketing of tourist destinations differs in some important respects from the marketing of other goods and services and an awareness of these differences is important in a successful promotion of the images of tourist places.

            Marketing in Tourism means ‘Systematic and Co-ordinate execution of business policy by tourist undertakings whether private or State owned at local regional, national or international level to achieve the optional satisfaction of the needs of identifiable consumer groups and in doing so to achieve an appropriate return.

Tourist marketing, therefore, states with activities of converting customer purchasing power into demand and on the basis of this assessment asks for development of facilities and services. In the marketing of Tourism product cannot be transported to the ‘Consumer’ It is the ‘Consumer’ who comes to the ‘Product’ to consume it.

            The British Institute of Marketing defines Tourism marketing as “Marketing is the management function which organizes and directs all the business activities involved in assessing and converting customer power into effective demand for a Specific product or service and in moving the product or service to the final customer or user so as to achieve the profit target or other objectives set up by the company.”

            The marketing is aimed at generating customer satisfaction. So the task of the marketer is to identify the customer’s needs in order to guide the development of the suitable products and services, and another task is to motivate all the potential customers, through various means to purchase these products and services.

            Marketing is a management philosophy which in light of tourist’s demand, makes it possible through research forecasting and selection to place Tourism products on the market most in line with the organization’s purpose for the greatest benefit. Tourism marketing includes all direct and indirect promotional activities to sell travel destination.

            To achieve the maximum impact, all marketing activities should be closely knit while chalking out a marketing programme; one has to take into consideration the following points:

  • Level of economic development of the area
  • Political relatives
  • Magnitude of tourist supply components
  • Attitude of local travel trade
  • Local traditional taboos and restrictions

            The problems of marketing in tourism are somewhat different from the problems of traditional product marketing. The differences are the result of the characteristics of Tourism supply and demand. Tourism, first of all, is a service an intangible experience is being sold, not a material good that can be inspected prior to purchase. Since it is a service, production and consumption take place at the same time. In manufacturing, goods are produced, stored and sold.

            The inventory process serves as a way of linking these stages of production and consumption. Tourism supply cannot be stored. The hotel rooms, airline seats or restaurant seats which are not sold today lose that particular sale forever. So this puts a great deal of pressure on the producers to effectively plan the proper amount of facilities, to keep them as fully used as possible. This in itself creates a problem, for Tourism supply is relatively fixed. The resources and infrastructure of a destination cannot change as quickly as can the tourist demands.

            A second important factor that makes Tourism different from other industries is that the service provided on a vocation is in fact an amalgamation of several products and services. A vocation has a transportation component, a loading component, a food and beverage component, an attraction component and so on. These components are usually offered by different firms, and they may be marketed directly to the tourist or combined into a package in which they are offered as one vocation but the services are supplied by different firms. This lack of control over the entire vocation means a great deal of interdependence. A satisfied tourist results from many independent services, each providing a satisfying part of the total vocation. The marketing efforts of each of these are affected by the efforts of the others providing a part of the vocation. The satisfaction provided is also a function of the human elements providing the service. This is a function of the human element providing the service. This is also very difficult to control in terms of the consistent quality of the services provided.

            Another factor that makes Tourism industry different from other industries concerns the role of travel intermediaries, since most tourist services are located at distances far from their potential customers, specialized intermediary organizations operate between the producer and the tourists4.
Testing the effectiveness of promotional campaigns in International Travel Marketing, “World Tourism Organization Seminar”, Ottawa, 1975 considered it necessary to bridge the gap. Also, many Tourism producers have relatively meager means due to which they cannot afford to set up their own retail outlets. Thus, while in most industries, the producer exerts much control over every stage in the development and delivery of the product, in Tourism the travel intermediaries can influence, if not determine, which service should be offered to whom when and at what price.

            The last factor that makes Tourism different from other industries relates to demand. Tourism demand is highly elastic, seasonal in nature and to subjective factors such as taste and fashion and objective factors of demand such as price.

            Tourism can be damaged with the political unrest and economic instability caused by the inflation and currency fluctuations.

            Tourism must be prepared to show a much greater degree of sensitivity and willingness to adjust to new conditions than it has in the past.

            Normally, the products to be consumed are transported to the door of a consumer. In contrast to this in a tourist trade the consumer is required to move (flow) to the product (stock).

            It also helps in the sale of product which could never have been exported e.g., a view of a natural scenery of a region, the architectural museums and monuments.6

            This industry is highly susceptible to ‘seasonality’. It is governed by the climatic conditions prevailing in the tourist receiving areas Himachal Pradesh receives the largest number of visitors during the summer months due to the unfavorable climate in summer in plains and rest of the year the visitors are less. This seasonality rate of tourist industry affects the utilization rate of infrastructure. This unsatisfactory situation could be improved by staggering of holidays, the promotion off season holidays at reduced prices, and several other measures. Thus, the promotional effects are to be directed in such a way that tourist traffic would flow in regularly throughout the year.7

Tourism Product

            It plays an important role in the marketing. A tourist product is not a hotel bed or relaxation on a riverside or a lake but rather a ‘package’. The tourist product is a composite product, as an amalgam of attraction, transport, accommodation and of entertainment, architectural resources, natural resources, museum, monuments and culture. All these things are to be designed and presented according to the requirements of the tourist.

The tourist product can be analyzed in terms of:

  • Attractions
  • Facilities
  • Accessibilities

            The attractions are those elements in the tourist product which determine the choice of tourist to visit one destination rather than another. They are the factors which generate a flow of tourists to their location. They may be site attractions or those where the place itself is the major inducement for the tourists to visit it. The tourist facilities are those elements which provide the motivation for tourist flows. The absence of these facilities may deter the tourists from travelling to enjoy the attractions. They comprises of accommodation facilities, restaurants, cable ways, ski lifts, and picnic sites etc.

            Accessibility is the last component of the tourist product.

            It relates to the mode of transportation to the destination chosen by the tourists. This aspect of tourist product has to be further upgraded and augmented.8

Marketing Strategy for the Development of Tourism

            Like other products, the marketing of Tourism is also beset with a number of problems. It represents an unparallel challenge to the marketing world. The market is unlimited. The products are invisible and diverse. There is so much for the tourists here that it is difficult to pen down even a fraction of richness and beauty of the environment and the ancient Indian culture.9

            The geographical diversity of Himachal Pradesh ranges from Alpine Meadows and pastures to the stark grandeur of Himalayas. There is nothing which a tourist cannot find in one or the other part of this state. The nature’s glory is at its peak here. The forests of Himachal Pradesh have plenty of wild life for the hunters. Various animals like leopards, bears etc., are found here. There are different species of birds. To an angler, Himachal offers many beautiful rivers, lakes and streams. There is a trout and miskeey fishing here. For the trekkers and mountaineers, it is a paradise with its number of hill stations, which are refreshingly cool in the summers. The ancient temples, monuments and legendary tales, invite the curious tourists. This makes the task of marketing for Himachal Tourism quite easy.

But without proper development and marketing it would remain limited to static numbers.

            In recent years, the entry of the largest industrial and commercial firms into Tourism has demonstrated their practical reactions to the vast financial scope in this growing field. The application of marketing techniques used in business and exports in tourism has produced far reaching revolution in may industrialized tourist generation countries Tourism is now a product of for mass consumers’10

            While discussing the marketing of Tourism in Himachal, we must, first of all, know the product physically before the customers. It is a package of ideas and dreams. It is undefined in its scope and diversity. In view of the above nature of the product, the task of the salesman has increased in many folds. Every salesman of Tourism, would therefore have to start form the image of the region.11

            The marketing of Tourism has two angles. Firstly, it is to be marketed to those who are already in the tourist population. Secondly it is to be sold to those who have not so far joined the tourist population. Various methods than are adopted for marketing of Tourism are the following:

  1. Sales by correspondence
  2. Sales through travel agencies
  3. Sales through travel counters

            The product Tourism is to be co-related to the market. So we have to sell our product in those areas where the income level is such that it can afford to invest substantial amount in the travel cost. A tourist is basically a holiday maker. The question, therefore, arises as to how a holiday maker would like to travel Himachal for spending holidays after spending sizable amount on travel cost alone. No doubt a large number of tourists come to the state but they do not have a wide horizon to the Himachal Pradesh Tourism till today does not have a good market beyond Delhi”. The market beyond Delhi has to be fully explored as Himachal has organized its festival in Bombay and in some foreign countries, in which it got a great applause and commendation for its culture, art and handicrafts etc. Thus, we have to identify the potential areas for marketing. We have to pin point within an area as to who would like to make Himachal a tourist and holiday resort. The marketing of Tourism is also concerned with research into the principal and potential tourist markets, their size, socio-economic characteristics, preferences of tourists for food and accommodation, spending power and the likes, with sales promotion public relations, advertising, maintenance of overseas offices etc., and collaboratio1-1 with other states and countries in the same region.12

            Any marketing strategy for the promotion of Tourism has also to aim at the increased inflow of foreign and domestic tourists and their extended stay. While there is a need to review the quality and variety of services extended, it is necessary that services extended like information, transportation, transit-foods etc., are of consistent quality. Besides, an exhaustive research study furnishing information on the stated and implied needs of foreign tourists would help us develop an effective marketing strategy.

            It has been estimated that by the end of the Eighth Five Year Plan, the number of foreign tourists in “the region may be above 5 million.

            The Tourism industry has been growing at 3.5% per annum; the share of India in the world tourism is not even one percent. It is only about 0.4%. To attain the objective of earning a foreign exchange revenue of 5000 crore, the government, the industry and other institutions have to compare the existing status of the foreign Tourism in India and in its Tourism potentially states like Himachal Pradesh.

            The overall strategy has to address two issues increased inflow of foreign tourists and their extended stay in Himachal. It has been estimated that of the total foreign tourist arrivals in Himachal numbering about 1.59 millions, a majority comes from Europe, U.S.A. and our neighbouring countries like China, Sri Lanka, and Burma etc.

            Marketing for Tourism has to take into account the availability of adequate information on hotel accommodation and other factors related to Tourism. Information on the inflow and structure of foreign Tourism is inadequate. Lack of information especially of the qualitative type is a major constraint in improving the services for tourists. Data on tastes, preferences, availability of purchasing power in foreign currency are not sufficiently available.

            To overcome such problems it is essential to carry out an extensive market research study. The study may focus on those tourists who have come to Himachal and find out the reasons for their arrival and the measures which may be helpful for their extended stay. The scope of the study should also include the reasons responsible for the tourists opting other places after their short stay or reasons for any curtailment etc. In addition, the study should also answer problems like the image of Himachal, the extent of awareness and information available in various parts of this country and in foreign countries about this state. The emphasis should be on the promotion of group Tourism through holding of seminars and conferences.

The measures to promote group Tourism by children groups, foreigners, student groups, young couples and “retired ones may also be examined. Such inputs will develop and redesign the strategy relating to infra structure and marketing and other services for the promotion of foreign Tourism.13

            The increase inflow of foreign tourists may depend among
others, on the following factors:

            The standard systems and methods of hotel and transportation need constant review. Facilities should be at par with the international standards.

            There should be up gradation of three and four hotels at hill resorts. A massive promotional campaign should be launched to highlight cultural, tribal, architectural aspects, pilgrimage, flora and fauna, wildlife, meditation and dances etc.

            A considerable amount of resources have to be invested in the development of infrastructure for Tourism. However, a critical evaluation of these facilities would suggest that these require consolidation and marginal up gradation.

Tourism involves huge capital investment. So these may be undertaken by both private and public sectors. It is very essential that the two are arranged in such a way that they would complement each other. Unless the Government provides a necessary infrastructure, the private enterprise may not be able to invest in Tourism to secure a fair rate of return. So it is also necessary to provide incentives to the private sector for investing their funds in tourism.

             Incentives may be in the form of subsidies, loans at concessional rates, preferential treatment in respect of imports, availability of land, technical advice, entrepreneurship development and provision of training facilities etc. So the basic purpose of marketing is to make those products available which meet the consumer needs.

            The marketing profile of Himachal Pradesh as a Tourist destination is a combination of distinctive and appealing factors able to attract the foreign and domestic consumer.

A tourist image of a destination is of utmost importance in Tourism development.

            A choice of holiday resort is usually not made objectively, but according to the image projected. The tourist product is the concrete expression of the Tourism image.

            Its components are (1) resources at destinations, (Monuments, historical, cultural, religious and climate etc.) (2) Facilities at the destinations (accommodation, catering, sight-seeing, recreation, local transport, handicrafts etc.) The package is an amalgam of many such components. For the market organization there should be proper division and location of the responsibilities with a professional approach.

            Closer co-ordination is a matter of necessity within and outside the marketing organization. Within the marketing department itself, the special areas of responsibilities cover the marketing research, field sales, outlets, distribution channels, advertising, public relations, customer service etc. All these need to have a common outlook, conditioned by the overall marketing objectives of an organisation.’14

            Providing suitable executives and non-executives is the key to a successful marketing organization which should operate in an environment, which stimulates the people of the organization to exercise their capabilities to the fullest. One of the important elements of Tourism Marketing is Tourism Promotion. As applied to the Tourism industry the most important function of marketing is to bring about an awareness of the product in the minds of the overall market areas. This awareness about a particular product or a service is to be brought about through the medium called ‘messages’. Through an appropriate message the detailed information about the product is communicated to the consumers.

            There are several channels through which the message is to be communicated, like printing, electronic media, direct mail and persuasion, sales support and public relations. So all these activities form a part of overall Tourism promotion, the purpose of which is to inform, to persuade, to encourage or more specifically to influence the potential customers or trade intermediaries like travel agents, tour operators, reservation services, and hotel and charter brokers, through communication channels, to think and act in a certain manner.

            So the systematic communication, both, with the actual and the potential customers, as well as with trade intermediaries is very essential with a view to bridge the gap between the producer of the goods and the services, because successful marketing in Tourism cannot rely only on a product of the right kind, or a market related pricing policy, or reliable and effective distribution network alone.

            Tourism promotion is therefore, one main of the element of the markets mix and important tool for marketing. “The promotion has its own mix, which includes advertisement, Public Relation, Personal Selling and Sales Promotions. The promotion campaign consist of so many techniques out of which promotion planning is an important technique, which can be started after organizing the available information about the market. A promotion needs to be well planned and prepared to make it successful.

            The promotional mix tools and other techniques which can be used in the field of travel and Tourism are as follows:

Paid for Media Advertisement

            Include TV, Press, Radio and Outdoor. Also include tourist boards and other travel related guide books and brochures which accept advertising.

Direct Mail/Door to Door Distributions
Including general sales literature or print items specifically designed
for the purpose.

An alternative form of media for specific target group

Exhibition shows/Workshops
Important alternative form of distribution and display for reaching retail, wholesale and consumer target groups.
Personal Selling
Via meetings-Telephone contact, workshop, primarily aimed at distributions and intermediate purchasing for group of customers.
Sales Literature
Especially promotional brochures and other print used in a servicing sale.
Price discounting
A consumer forum of sales promotion includes extra commissions and bonuses to retailers.
Point of Sale displays
Boaters, displays of brochures other materials both of regular and temporary incentive bind.
For Trips
Ways to plate and facilitate distributions network through product sampling.
District Network and Commission
Organized way included central representative system and computer links between principal and distribution terminals.

            A few years back Tourism was a privilege of the rich and a luxurious people. But now-a-days it has witnessed a radical change, because it is no longer confined to rich class only. It has spread even among the people belonging to a lower income group, so it has necessitated a change in the marketing strategy.

            The marketing profile of Himachal Pradesh as a tourist destination is the combination of distinctive and appealing factors able to attract the foreign and domestic consumers. Based on the evaluation of Himachal Pradesh Tourism product, the source market study, sample survey of the tourists-foreign and domestic; coefficient of tourists demand supply, and analysis of competitive destinations, those positive features specific to Himachal Pradesh
which are likely to make the o state desirable as tourist destination have been identified. The marketing programme should concentrate on positive aspects and a product development programme should preserve and extend strong features as well as reduce adverse facts which are as follows:

  1. Himachal Pradesh has Tourism resources comparable to other mountain resorts like Jammu and Kashmir, though lacking the well developed image of Kashmir.
  2. By virtue of its location to the south of Jammu and Kashmir, the Himachal has the advantage of being close to Delhi the main Gateway City to the section of Himalayas.
  3. Shimla is the most popular hill station for the domestic tourists and the foreigners for its mountain scenery and a strong reminder of architecture and heritage of the British Raj Days.
  4. Manali region has good development potential if it is properly exploited, it might compete with Kashmir for the foreign adventure tourist market.
  5. The Himachal is also very famous for many ancient and hallowed places of pilgrimage which have been attracting devotees and pilgrims since times immemorial such as places like Chintpurni, Jawalji, Kangra and Chamunda Devi.
  6. The tribal areas like Kinnaur and Lahaul-Spiti which is now opened for tourists has vast potential for adventure, Tourism, trekking, mountaineering, and monasteries etc.
  7. Positive and friendly attitude of locals towards tourists.
  8. Handicrafts, wooden and woolen shopping opportunities.

            A Tourism development strategy for Himachal should, in any case, capitalize on these assets, which should be emphasized when building up a product image in the Indian and Foreign markets.
But despite its proximity to Delhi, transport and communications to and within the state are not well developed, inhibiting the growth in popularity of its tourists resorts and without air links to the major Tourism centers’, most of the potential for attracting large number of the foreign tourists have not be realized.

            Inadequate publicity and exposure of the Tourism resources of Himachal by several publicity media in source markets has resulted in continued low volume of foreign tourists. The image weakness as regarding infrastructure appears in most of the tourist centers’ to aggravate comparative disadvantage.

            Till now Tourism marketing is done by limited methods as found by the researcher during his informal talk with the Tourism authorities, officials and non-officials; they are as follows:

  1. By distribution of literature through Tourism Information Centers (TICs).
  2. By participation in fairs and festivals, tourist trade fair. IATO, FHRAI, FATAI seminars and exhibitions within and outside the state.
  3. By publishing quarterly newsletters started since January, 1994.
  4. By displaying Audio Visual Cassettes/translates etc.

            In the above study, the researcher has come to the conclusion that following suggestions put up by him should be taken seriously by the government:

  • Adequate promotional material to create awareness needs to be published specially by the P. Tourism Development Corporation, featuring the wildlife beauty of the State.
  • For entertainment purposes, folk dances like Naati, Lama Dance, Kinnauri dance and folk dramas as Karyala Notankis, Thoda and Rali folklores should be performed to capture the interest of the tourists and prolong their stay at the destinations.
  • Local accommodation units should be given priority so that it reflects the aura of the local lifestyle and it should be encouraged in the local architectural styles to have         semblance with the surroundings instead of creating concrete monstrosities in these             secluded peaceful areas.
  • Development of wayside amenities is an important aspect. Particular open spaces and spots on the wayside of roads must be identified to strategically locate petrol pumps, eating places, HPTDC units and public utilities.
  • Shopping opportunities which the tourists consider necessary should be developed in the tourist attraction centers based on local handicrafts.
  • Posters, directories, brochures, maps-pointing out location, post cards and calendars picturising the unique fauna can be published.
  • Advertising can be done through publication, and broadcasting features can be presented on air transmissions.
  • Off season marketing is also a strategy. Usually tourists flock to Himachal in good numbers during summers e., April-June or during September-November. About half the year is a lean period for Tourism. To avoid pressure in the peak seasons, adventure and Wildlife Tourism packages need to be promoted during the lean seasons. This can   be done by collaborating with school or educational institutions which agree to offer a break and excursion opportunity for the students and youths along with inculcating          awareness and desire for conservation of wildlife.
  • Selected marketing can also be done by means of Audio Visual Media like exposure          through Video tapes based on video films of faunal activity in the unexplored
  • There are now large number of trekkers who are visiting the Himalayas for adventure Tourism, day by day. Behind this unprecedented success, is a plan of Tourism communication which involved marketing, promotion, publicity and even public         There should be collection of photographs and colour transparencies of these areas which can be used in the book as well as in the audio-visual presentations. Before undertaking promotional tours, travel agencies should include Himalayan trekking programme in their pro motional literature. They should take the services of noted mountaineers to lead these treks. Fortunately as trekkers usually stay intents, so there is      no infrastructure problem.

            Trekking by its nature requires very little investment. Again, by its very nature, trekking is a highly dispersed activity, carrying benefits into remote areas, through the demand it creates for the services of porters and for wayside eating facilities and simple accommodation. For many people who have not been exposed to the wilderness before the possibilities of adventure, and the exposure to nature, an experienced trekking holiday offer, can contribute invaluably to their total education.

            This Tourism Marketing assumes a role in bringing the various ingredients of Tourism in Himachal Pradesh into a single framework of tourism system. This makes a meaningful exercise to see Tourism as consisting of interrelated parts than dealing with them in separation.

            The Tourism system given, here broadly consists of four components Consumer, Travel, Destination and Marketing.

  • The consumer segments involve the decision to travel through a process of becoming a tourist which is largely influenced by the perception of a destination and it’s ‘Tourism Image’. In Himachal Pradesh this component shows a definite weakness in the case of international tourists. It seems that the ‘tourists image’, of this region has not yet shaped up for the international tourists and it is only after entering the large sphere of tourist market in India that they get introduced to the existence of this tourist region.         For constructing a favourable image for the consumer segment coming from the international order, it is imperative to reach a high position in the domestic market and thus, identify with the national tourist image. This would help in gaining the considerable chunk of the international tourists market, particularly from the foreign countries.

               The domestic tourist segment of Himachal Pradesh shows a positive indication of capturing much larger share of the Tourism market. Although the reasons people give for taking vacation in the region are sufficient to explain their travel motivations but in other terms, their purchase decisions are largely influenced by a considerable reduction in alternatives available in the travel market for various reasons and other behavioral and perceptual biases.

The recent trends are characterized as:

  • The chronic, disturbance in Punjab and Jammu arid A Kashmir has caused a considerable shift of tourists to Himachal Pradesh. The recent influx of domestic tourists in Himachal can be clearly attributed to this fact.
  • Besides an impressive proportion of ‘repeat patronage’, more and more people are learning about the tourist destinations of this region from word to mouth publicity. In other words, the individual deciding on a vacation in Himachal Pradesh is learning from personal experience, or from the similar

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Experience of the others and from the information through commercial media. It is felt by the researcher that the purchase of Tourism product in Himachal Pradesh is generating a degree of satisfaction in the tourists and the momentum of purchase decision seems to have built up in its favors, overruling the other existing alternatives in domestic tourist market. However, the specific image of Tourism in Himachal Pradesh is emerging as positive, but a great care is needed in handling its various elements such as price, quality, service, availability and distinctiveness.

  • After committing the purchase decisions, customers enter the travel market and the choice of travel becomes the major consideration in terms of mode, time and place. But, such a choice is very restricted in the Tourism of Himachal Pradesh because of lesser alternatives present here. The travel alternatives for Himachal Pradesh Tourism too are primarily based in Delhi, Bombay and Chandigarh which, through, centrally placed, locate them outside the major regional catchments of the tourists. From the regional catchments, mostly the summers come to these points and make travel purchase for Himachal Pradesh. In absence of direct linkages in their respective regions and such transitory intake of tourist flow, the momentum of their purchase decision tends to get weakened or sometimes make them available with other tourist alternative. This implies astray need to improve the shape of travel to the destinations.

Further, the limitation in people mover alternatives seriously affects the segmentation of travel market in this region. The travel segments are found less diverse in Himachal Pradesh in terms of purpose and motivation. The existing alternatives are providing for mainly pleasure travel segment and personal travel segment. The expansion in travel alternatives would greatly help in developing the diversity of segmentation in its travel market and thus, a wide demand for travel purchase can be attained. Such segments for Himachal Pradesh could include the resort travellers, family travellers, business travellers, adventure travellers and the travellers in aspiration of health benefits.

  • In the tourist-buying process the factor of travel moves the customers to the destination which consists of attractions and services used by the travellers. Although attraction for the tourists concern the satisfaction perceived from various experiences, the task for the developer is to create an environment made up in part of attractions. Such natural environments are abundant in Himachal Pradesh which concern attractions, of a physical nature. They are primarily site attractions based upon the natural resources base of greater permanency than the event attractions. Since the site attractions are rooted into the land, their strategic change over landscape in accordance with the development of less accessible areas like Keylong, Kinnaur and Lahaul and Spiti is not possible. Nevertheless, the event attraction shows a greater flexibility in occurrence such as trekking, trailing, fishing boating, river rafting, in any part of this region. For an optional resort of Tourism the site and event attractions need to be combined in all the selected circuits.
  • Between the destination and customer exists a vital component of marketing which sells the Tourism product to the target segments through a specific approach. The target segmentation in Himachal Pradesh is less diverse, with a large proportion of regular and seasonal tourists. The target needs to be directed towards the selective tourist segments of high status and choice in domestic as well as international segments. Breaking into this high quality target needs an elaborate marketing mix.

            Thus, State should diversify its Tourism product in the Tourism promotional literature of the state there is a need for a more detailed description of the cultural characteristics of the local society. The fairs and festivals should be given more local favor. Possibilities of exploiting new areas should be explored because the local festivals and fairs are important means of developing local interests. Identification encouragement, conservation arid improvement of local art farm should be practiced. Locally produced handicrafts should be improved in variety and quality, with the emphasis in the state is creating awareness among the local public regarding the benefits of Tourism. A public awareness program can be launched amongst the host population to educate them about the positive impacts of Tourism and to avoid over exploitation and communication of their natural and cultural resources. The tourist needs to be educated to travel in a more responsible manner. Tourist brochures, posters in hotels, taxis, buses and railway tickets stating, some do and don’t in a destination area, can easily carry this message.

            Marketing strategy should be broaden the tourist based in existing markets explore new tourist markets, promote and facilitate intra-regional travel particularly from neighbouring states. A dynamic and programmatic approach has to be adopted in identifying regions from where tourist traffic to Himachal has been, growing potentially. Therefore, it has to be
developed as to cater to the tastes of the tourists from these regions. Special attention should be paid to develop social Tourism to benefit the rural sections of society.

Ruspinder S. Gill, Dynamics of Tourism Vol. 2 Tourism: Planning and Management, p. 292.

A.K. Bhatia “Tourism Development” Principles and Practices Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, p. 135.

Robert “Christie mill and Alastair M. Morrison “The Tourism System” An Introductory text Prentice Hall International inc U.S.A., pp. 357-358.

Dr. V.P. Bendra “Tourism in India” (Aurangabad Parimal Prakashan, 1979) p.10. Peters Michael, “International Tourism”. The Economic and Development of the International Tourist trade London.

Annual Report, English Tourist Board, 1971.

Rajiv Dubey. Tourism in the Economy of Madhya Pradesh, New Delhi, 1987, p. 127.
Donald E. Tourism Marketing and Management Washington: George Washington University, 1980).

Lansing, J.B.; Blood D.M. The Changing Travel Market (Michigan University of Michigan, 1964) p. 15.

Wakab Crampon Rathfield “Tourism Marketing” London: Tourism  International Press, 1976) p. 25.

R.E. Frank “Market Segmentation” (New Jersy Frntice Hall Inc. 1972).
The Economic Times Magazine, New Delhi, Tuesday 5 May, 1994, p. 2.
RN. Kaul “Dynamic of Tourism” A Tribasy Vol III. Transportational Marketing, pp. 534-44.