All posts by raviranjan2405

Technology

Technology affects people all over the world. Advances in technology have made our countries safer and our lives easier, they have also negatively affected our lives. Technology have brought us online banking, smart cars, smart TVs, lightning fast computers, and the virtual reality. Also there include cyber warfare, hackers, identity theft, cyber stalking, and a host of other bad things.

The society has been changed with the evolution of technology. Life was burdensome and everyday chores consumed too much of our time, before the advent of modern day technology. The access to education, medicine, industry, transportation etc. has been simplified due to development in modern day technology. Due to the convenience and efficiency provided by technology, our lives have improved. Information technology give a new face to traditional libraries that include both digital collections and traditional, fixed media collections. We know that traditional libraries are limited by its storage space, but the digital information requires little space to contain information, so digital libraries have the potential to store more documents. The use of information technology in digital libraries that will increase the number of users and increased the expectations of the users.

Technology has also brought about efficiency and quality in the manufacturing sector. Technological advancement has reduced the risk. Development is closely related with technology and the stage of development the human being has arrived could have been possible without the advancement in technology.

Agriculture, industry, profession, health, education, art, political processes, recreation, religious activities and daily life activities all are under the influence of technology now. There are some modern technological developments that play a major role in making our daily life more effective. Television is also good servant, it’s considered as the cheapest source of information and entertainment nowadays. Technological progress has merely provided us with more efficient means for going whether forwards or backwards as well. It has enable Us to increase our comfort and to achieve efficiency in all sectors of life .We can’t achieve any progress or development, without technology. We can modernize our industry so life becomes easier for us and next generations through the developed technologies. 

Diversity in Indian Architecture

Ajanta-Ellora Caves:

Built during the time period of 2nd century B.C. to 6th century A.D., these caves are the finest examples of rock-cut caves. Honed out of volcanic ballistic formations while existing in a linear pattern, there are 34 caves, containing the remnants of Buddhist, Hindu, and Jain temples. These walls are equipped with engravings showing the life of Lord Buddha. The purpose of these caves was to provide a sanctuary for the monks to meditate. Ellora in particular is famous for the world’s largest monolithic excavation leading to the discovery of the great Kailasa temple.

VIRUPAKSHA TEMPLE, KARNATAKA

Located in Hampi, Karnataka, and part of grouped monuments, designated as UNESCO world heritage site. This temple was dedicated to Lord Virupaksha, a form of Shiva. The temple is the main center of Hampi and built by Vijayanagara Empire situated near the Tungabhadra River. If we talk about its architecture, you will find a shrine hall with a number of pillars, and three anti-chambers. There are pillared monasteries, courtyards, a few small shrines, and entrances that surround the temple. This temple has found several engraved inscriptions of Lord Shiva and considered a holistic sacred retreat.

Vittala Temple Complex, Hampi, Karnataka

At its prime, the historic temple town of Hampi was one of the richest and largest cities in the world. Today, it is recognized as a UNESCO World Heritage Site and a key attraction for tourists visiting India. Located within the ruins of Vijayanagara (city of victory), which used to be the capital of the historic Vijayanagara Empire (1336-1646 C.E.). Out of the many building complexes that make up the ruins, the Vittala Temple is particularly well known. Featuring an iconic stone chariot, famous musical pillars, and impressive sculpture work, the temple is a wonder everyone should aim to see at least once.

Tawang Monastery, Arunachal Pradesh

The largest monastery in India and the second largest in the world, Tawang Monastery in the state of Arunachal Pradesh was built in 1680-1681 as per the wishes of the 5th Dalai Lama. Located at an elevation of about 10,000 feet, with a remarkable view of the Tawang River valley and nearby mountains, the majestic three-storey-high building features striking and colourful details as well as an 18-foot-high image of the Buddha. The monastery also has an impressive library featuring several rare ancient scriptures.

Hawa Mahal in Jaipur: A Stunning Palace of Breeze

Hawa Mahal in Jaipur: A Stunning Palace of Breeze

With a history of over 200 years, Hawa Mahal is perhaps the most iconic monument in Jaipur. What makes this palace one of the top attractions in Jaipur for travelers is its unique architecture that comprises 953 windows. If the Pink City of India is next on your list of holiday destinations, keep aside some time to explore this iconic structure once you step out of your hotels in Jaipur.          

Swami Vivekanand

Vivekananda, original name Narendranath Datta, Datta also spelled Dutt, (born January 12, 1863, Calcutta [now Kolkata]—died July 4, 1902, near Calcutta), Hindu spiritual leader and reformer in India who attempted to combine Indian spirituality with Western material progress, maintaining that the two supplemented and complemented one another. His Absolute was a person’s own higher self; to labour for the benefit of humanity was the noblest endeavour.

Swami Vivekananda’s inspiring personality was well known both in India and in America during the last decade of the nineteenth century and the first decade of the twentieth. The unknown monk of India suddenly leapt into fame at the Parliament of Religions held in Chicago in 1893, at which he represented Hinduism. His vast knowledge of Eastern and Western culture as well as his deep spiritual insight, fervid eloquence, brilliant conversation, broad human sympathy, colourful personality, and handsome figure made an irresistible appeal to the many types of Americans who came in contact with him. People who saw or heard Vivekananda even once still cherish his memory after a lapse of more than half a century.

In America Vivekananda’s mission was the interpretation of India’s spiritual culture, especially in its Vedantic setting. He also tried to enrich the religious consciousness of the Americans through the rational and humanistic teachings of the Vedanta philosophy. In America he became India’s spiritual ambassador and pleaded eloquently for better understanding between India and the New World in order to create a healthy synthesis of East and West, of religion and science.

In his own motherland Vivekananda is regarded as the patriot saint of modern India and an inspirer of her dormant national consciousness, To the Hindus he preached the ideal of a strength-giving and man-making religion. Service to man as the visible manifestation of the Godhead was the special form of worship he advocated for the Indians, devoted as they were to the rituals and myths of their ancient faith. Many political leaders of India have publicly acknowledged their indebtedness to Swami Vivekananda.

The Swami’s mission was both national and international. A lover of mankind, he strove to promote peace and human brotherhood on the spiritual foundation of the Vedantic Oneness of existence. A mystic of the highest order, Vivekananda had a direct and intuitive experience of Reality. He derived his ideas from that unfailing source of wisdom and often presented them in the soulstirring language of poetry.

The natural tendency of Vivekananda’s mind, like that of his Master, Ramakrishna, was to soar above the world and forget itself in contemplation of the Absolute. But another part of his personality bled at the sight of human suffering in East and West alike. It might appear that his mind seldom found a point of rest in its oscillation between contemplation of God and service to man. Be that as it may, he chose, in obedience to a higher call, service to man as his mission on earth; and this choice has endeared him to people in the West, Americans in particular.

In the course of a short life of thirty-nine years (1863-1902), of which only ten were devoted to public activities-and those, too, in the midst of acute physical suffering-he left for posterity his four classics: Jnana-Yoga, Bhakti-Yoga, Karma-Yoga, and Raja-Yoga, all of which are outstanding treatises on Hindu philosophy. In addition, he delivered innumerable lectures, wrote inspired letters in his own hand to his many friends and disciples, composed numerous poems, and acted as spiritual guide to the many seekers, who came to him for instruction. He also organized the Ramakrishna Order of monks, which is the most outstanding religious organization of modern India. It is devoted to the propagation of the Hindu spiritual culture not only in the Swami’s native land, but also in America and in other parts of the world.

Swami Vivekananda once spoke of himself as a “condensed India.” His life and teachings are of inestimable value to the West for an understanding of the mind of Asia. William James, the Harvard philosopher, called the Swami the “paragon of Vedantists.” Max Muller and Paul Deussen, the famous Orientalists of the nineteenth century, held him in genuine respect and affection. “His words,” writes Romain Rolland, “are great music, phrases in the style of Beethoven, stirring rhythms like the march of Handel choruses. I cannot touch these sayings of his, scattered as they are through the pages of books, at thirty years’ distance, without receiving a thrill through my body like an electric shock. And what shocks, what transports, must have been produced when in burning words they issued from the lips of the hero!”

India tourism:growth and classification

Tourism is an important socio-economic activity. It provides enormous scope for economic development of a particular area.

According to Ziffer (1989), “Tourism involves travelling to relatively undisturbed or uncontaminated natural areas with the specific object of studying, admiring and enjoying the scenery and its wild plants and animals, as well as any existing cultural aspects (both past and present) found in these areas.”

In India, temple towns, historical monuments and sea beaches were traditionally sought out as tourist attractions. But now the fabric of tourism is changing rapidly as nature, heritage, and recreational destinations are gaining more importance. In this background, eco-tourism has of late become a top attraction for the tourists.

Tourism growth in India

For a country that is surrounded by the Himalayas to the north, the Indian Ocean to the south, The Bay of Bengal to the east, and the Arabian Sea to the west, India quite hasn’t tapped into the full potential of tourism. Even the tourism industry is the largest service sector in India, the tourism growth in India is something that is still a work in progress.

With 37 UNESCO heritage sites and a land blessed with rich heritage and cultural diversity, each region in India has a unique story to tell. People have different expectations for tourism. Some prefer beaches, while others may like forests, some other people may be into deserts, etc. No matter what the preference, India has different regions to cater to everyone’s expectations. 

As per the WTTC (World Travel and Tourism Council), about 9.2 percentage of India’s GDP in the year 2018 came from Tourism. From just over 2 million tourists in 2000 to over 42 million jobs in the Indian travel and tourism industry in 2018, and 10 million foreign tourists visiting the country in the same year, the growth of tourism in India has been steady. Despite these good tourism growth statistics, India has a long way to go to fully exploit this domain.

Tourism Development in India

The growth of tourism in India, although steady, is quite not up to the expectation. For a country with a population of 1.25 billion people, that is a minimum of 1.25 billion tourist visits. India, as a result, is doing great when it comes to domestic tourism with over 1.6 billion tourist visits to other states. However, when it comes to international tourists, this isn’t the case. The FTAs ( Foreign Tourist Arrival) in India is way below other developed countries. With an FTA of just over 10 million, it is almost one-eighth of what France has. Granted that this could be due to the free travel between Schengen countries, but there are several non-Schengen European countries, as well as other nations, such as Mexico, Turkey, Russia, etc that have FTAs more than twice that of India. One of the main reasons for this is the stringent immigration rules in India. Apart from this, other reasons that restricted a full flow of tourism in India were underdeveloped travel infrastructure, poor sanitation, as well as concerns about safety. These are aspects that every tourist look for while visiting a country. 

Areas of apprehension

Medical tourism: Indian has been the origin of Ayurvedic therapy, and even after centuries, the country is successful in sustaining its remedial inventions. Over the years, several specialised hospitals are incorporated in India, which are served by many skilled doctors. In addition, the presence of well-equipped medical facilities has also taken the standard of medical dealing of the country to a new feat of success across the globe. The government should understand the need of medical tourism in India and excel on various tourism policies targeting the medical tourism destinations like Kerala, Chennai and Mumbai. Accordingly, various infrastructural initiatives can be put into practice to promote medical tourism in India.

Medical tourism

Pilgrimage tourismHarmony in diversity; this can best be experienced when in India. The country is laid out with plenty of religious destinations creating immense exposure for pilgrimage tourism. It is observed that most of the popular religious Indian sites are visited by thousands of pilgrims on regular basis. In addition, there are certain places as well which are believed to be quite religious but due to lack of promotion and government intrusion, these destinations are out of limelight. Hence, the respective state tourism authority should step forward in promoting pilgrimage tourism in India.

Pilgrimage tourism in India

Eco tourism: It is something new in Indian tourism sector, which invites tourist to visit and explore various locations without impacting its fragile ecosystem. Eco tourism in India basically aims to create environment awareness amongst the visitors and service provider. Starting from wildlife reserves to naturally blessed regions, there are plenty of enticing spots in India that are idyllic for eco tourism. Through eco tourism, the rich variety of flora and fauna in the country can be preserved for tourists. Therefore, by bringing in various initiatives pertaining to energy efficiency, water reuse and recycling of waste products, the concept of eco tourism can be made more impactful in the country. And most importantly, the revenue generated from eco tourism can further be utilised for funding various conservation projects and training programs.

Eco tourism in India

Youth tourism: This kind of tourism is specifically targeted for the youth travellers, who not only enjoy exploring new places but very adventure enthusiasts as well. Youth travel and tourism can also be included in the academic excursion wherein, the institute will arrange effective tourism program for the youth students. Besides, the craze of biking and many other rousing activities can equally be encouraged under such tourism schema. Today, youth visitors are considered as the most candid travellers all over the globe. Keeping in mind the volume of youth travellers, youth tourism market can further be segregated into independent youth travel and youth group travel. Independent youth travel may include an individual traveller or a group of independent travellers. On the other hand, independent youth travel includes a group of 6 or more youth (school/non-school group).  Under Youth Tourism, government should execute more enticing and academic execution program for the students.

Youth tourism in India

Cultural tourism: One should visit India to witness its cultural diversity. India is full of fiestas and traditional practices all round the calendar making the country one of the worth visiting destinations across the globe. Apart from religious variety, one can also get influenced by the diverse range of cuisines, languages, music tastes and architectures in the country. Considering the cultural affluences in the country, government and tourism authority should join hand in developing awareness program on cultural tourism.

Cultural tourism in India

Heritage tourism: The scope of heritage tourism in India is immense. Over the periods, it has been emerged as a major segment in tourism industry and an important source of revenue. Stepping in India will portray you its flourishing history that can still be witnessed in various majestic monuments, imperial fortress, holy shrines and other historic destinations. Indian government should come along various private enterprises in developing and preserving the significance of heritage tourism in India. Based upon the wide scope of heritage tourism in the country, this segment can further be grouped into various segments like industrial heritage, majestic heritage, religious tourism, ethnicity and urban renewal.

Heritage tourism in India

Agricultural tourism: Agricultural tourism or agritourism is a rapid growing sector today, which invites travelers to visit and explore various agricultural properties, farms, wineries and ranches. Under agritourism program, traveller can visit the working farms, involve into various activities and buy different agricultural products. In a country like India where majority of the populace is involved in farming and cultivation, agritourism should be promoted at higher level. Government should utilise its farming land by accommodating small gardens, activity areas, relaxation zone where traveller can come and spread its utility to enhance the scope of agricultural tourism in India.

Agricultural tourism in India

Artificial Intelligence is Changing the Information Technology Sector

Artificial Intelligence has become the keyword which defines the future and everything that it holds. Not only has Artificial Intelligence taken over traditional methods of computing, but it has also changed the way industries perform. From modernizing healthcare and finance streams to research and manufacturing, everything has changed in the blink of an eye.

Through the use of algorithms and computer-based training, Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning can effectively be used to create expert systems that will exhibit intelligent behavior, provide solutions to complicated problems, and further help to develop stimulations equivalent to human intelligence within

Building Secure Systems:
Data security is of the utmost importance when it comes to securing confidential data. Government organizations, as well as private organizations, store tons of customer, strategic, and other forms of data, which need to be secured at all times. Through the use of algorithms, Artificial Intelligence can provide the necessary security and help to create a layered security system which enables a high-security layer within these systems. Through the use of advanced algorithms, Artificial Intelligence helps identify potential threats and data breaches, while also providing the necessary provisions and solutions to avoid such loopholes.

Improved Productivity:
Artificial Intelligence uses a series of algorithms, which can be applied directly to aid programmers when it comes to writing better code and overcoming software bugs. Artificial Intelligence has been developed to provide suggestions for coding purposes, which increase efficiency, enhance productivity, and provide clean, bug-free code for developers. By judging the structure of the code, AI can provide useful suggestions, which can improve the productivity and help to cut downtime during the production stage.

Automating Processes:
The benefit of automation is that almost every piece of work can be done without human intervention. Through the use of deep learning applications, organizations can go a long way in automating backend processes, which help enable cost savings and reduce human intervention. AI enabled methods improve over time as the algorithms adjust to enhance productivity and learn from mistakes.

Application Deployment:
Deployment control entails various stages during software development, which means that the software versioning control is a beneficial and vital role during the deployment stage. Since Artificial Intelligence is all about predicting issues, it can be a useful and integral tool in predicting problems during the versioning stage, which can be overcome, without any hiccups; this also helps overcome issues as they arise, and developers don’t have to wait until the last stage to improve the application’s performance.

Quality Assurance
Quality assurance is all about ensuring the right tools are used in the software development cycle. Simply put, by using Artificial Intelligence methodologies, developers can use AI tools to fix bugs and issues within the applications, and adjust them automatically during development cycles. Tools like “Bugspots” can be used effectively to ensure all software bugs are eliminated, and all possible gaps are plugged, without human intervention.

Server Optimization
Often, the hosting server is bombarded with millions of requests on a day to day basis. The server, in turn, is required to open web pages which are being requested by the users. Due to the continuous inflow of requests, servers can often become unresponsive and end up slowing down in the long run. AI, as a service, can help optimize the host server to improve customer service and enhance operations. As IT needs progress, Artificial Intelligence will be increasingly used to integrate IT staffing demands and provide seamless integration of the current business functions with technological functions.

Artificial Intelligence has helped developers broaden their horizons and carry out operations which were otherwise considered impossible. Developers have seen a rapid change in software development, architectural planning, and even driving quality assurance; this automation has further led to the useful enhancement of application development, making it an instant hit with developers and organizations at large.

Advantages of artificial intelligence

1) Reduction in Human Error:

The phrase “human error” was born because humans make mistakes from time to time. Computers, however, do not make these mistakes if they are programmed properly. With Artificial intelligence, the decisions are taken from the previously gathered information applying a certain set of algorithms. So errors are reduced and the chance of reaching accuracy with a greater degree of precision is a possibility.

Example: In Weather Forecasting using AI they have reduced the majority of human error.

2) Takes risks instead of Humans:

This is one of the biggest advantages of Artificial intelligence. We can overcome many risky limitations of humans by developing an AI Robot which in turn can do the risky things for us. Let it be going to mars, defuse a bomb, explore the deepest parts of oceans, mining for coal and oil, it can be used effectively in any kind of natural or man-made disasters.

Example: Have you heard about the Chernobyl nuclear power plant explosion in Ukraine? At that time there were no AI-powered robots that can help us to minimize the effect of radiation by controlling the fire in early stages, as any human went close to the core was dead in a matter of minutes. They eventually poured sand and boron from helicopters from a mere distance.

AI Robots can be used in such situations where intervention can be hazardous.

3) Available 24×7:

An Average human will work for 4–6 hours a day excluding the breaks. Humans are built in such a way to get some time out for refreshing themselves and get ready for a new day of work and they even have weekly offed to stay intact with their work-life and personal life. But using AI we can make machines work 24×7 without any breaks and they don’t even get bored, unlike humans.

Example: Educational Institutes and Helpline centers are getting many queries and issues which can be handled effectively using AI.

4) Helping in Repetitive Jobs:

In our day-to-day work, we will be performing many repetitive works like sending a thanking mail, verifying certain documents for errors and many more things. Using artificial intelligence we can productively automate these mundane tasks and can even remove “boring” tasks for humans and free them up to be increasingly creative.

Example: In banks, we often see many verifications of documents to get a loan which is a repetitive task for the owner of the bank. Using AI Cognitive Automation the owner can speed up the process of verifying the documents by which both the customers and the owner will be benefited.

5) Digital Assistance:

Some of the highly advanced organizations use digital assistants to interact with users which saves the need for human resources. The digital assistants also used in many websites to provide things that users want. We can chat with them about what we are looking for. Some chatbots are designed in such a way that it’s become hard to determine that we’re chatting with a chatbot or a human being.

Example: We all know that organizations have a customer support team that needs to clarify the doubts and queries of the customers. Using AI the organizations can set up a Voice bot or Chatbot which can help customers with all their queries. We can see many organizations already started using them on their websites and mobile applications.

6) Faster Decisions:

Using AI alongside other technologies we can make machines take decisions faster than a human and carry out actions quicker. While taking a decision human will analyze many factors both emotionally and practically but AI-powered machine works on what it is programmed and delivers the results in a faster way.

Example: We all have played Chess games in Windows. It is nearly impossible to beat CPU in the hard mode because of the AI behind that game. It will take the best possible step in a very short time according to the algorithms used behind it.

7) Daily Applications:

Daily applications such as Apple’s Siri, Window’s Cortana, Google’s OK Google are frequently used in our daily routine whether it is for searching a location, taking a selfie, making a phone call, replying to a mail and many more.

Example: Around 20 years ago, when we are planning to go somewhere we used to ask a person who already went there for the directions. But now all we have to do is say “OK Google where is Visakhapatnam”. It will show you Visakhapatnam’s location on google map and the best path between you and Visakhapatnam.

8) New Inventions:

AI is powering many inventions in almost every domain which will help humans solve the majority of complex problems.

Example: Recently doctors can predict breast cancer in the woman at earlier stages using advanced AI-based technologies.

Disadvantages of artificial intelligence

1) High Costs of Creation:

As AI is updating every day the hardware and software need to get updated with time to meet the latest requirements. Machines need repairing and maintenance which need plenty of costs. It’ s creation requires huge costs as they are very complex machines.

2) Making Humans Lazy:

AI is making humans lazy with its applications automating the majority of the work. Humans tend to get addicted to these inventions which can cause a problem to future generations.

3) Unemployment:

As AI is replacing the majority of the repetitive tasks and other works with robots,human interference is becoming less which will cause a major problem in the employment standards. Every organization is looking to replace the minimum qualified individuals with AI robots which can do similar work with more efficiency.

4) No Emotions:

There is no doubt that machines are much better when it comes to working efficiently but they cannot replace the human connection that makes the team. Machines cannot develop a bond with humans which is an essential attribute when comes to Team Management.

5) Lacking Out of Box Thinking:

Machines can perform only those tasks which they are designed or programmed to do, anything out of that they tend to crash or give irrelevant outputs which could be a major backdrop.

SUMMARY:

These are some advantages and disadvantages of Artificial Intelligence. Every new invention or breakthrough will have both, but we as humans need to take care of that and use the positive sides of the invention to create a better world. Artificial intelligence has massive potential advantages. The key for humans will ensure the “rise of the robots” doesn’t get out of hand. Some people also say that Artificial intelligence can destroy human civilization if it goes into the wrong hands. But still, none of the AI applications made at that scale that can destroy or enslave humanity.

Kori-o-Kamal (Sharp and Flats)

In 1884, Tagore wrote a collection of poems Kori-o-Kamal (Sharp and Flats). He also wrote dramas – Raja-o-Rani ( King and Queen) and Visarjan (Sacrifice). In 1890, Rabindranath Tagore moved to Shilaidaha (now in Bangladesh) to look after the family estate. Between 1893 and 1900 Tagore wrote seven volumes of poetry, which included Sonar Tari (The Golden Boat) and Khanika. In 1901, Rabindranath Tagore became the editor of the magazine Bangadarshan. He Established Bolpur Bramhacharyaashram at Shantiniketan, a school based on the pattern of old Indian Ashrama. In 1902, his wife Mrinalini died. Tagore composed Smaran ( In Memoriam ), a collection of poems, dedicated to his wife.

Photo by RODNAE Productions on Pexels.com

In 1905, Lord Curzon decided to divide Bengal into two parts. Rabindranath Tagore strongly protested against this decision. Tagore wrote a number of national songs and attended protest meetings. He introduced the Rakhibandhan ceremony , symbolizing the underlying unity of undivided Bengal.

In 1909, Rabindranath Tagore started writing Gitanjali. In 1912, Tagore went to Europe for the second time. On the journey to London he translated some of his poems/songs from Gitanjali to English. He met William Rothenstein, a noted British painter, in London. Rothenstien was impressed by the poems, made copies and gave to Yeats and other English poets. Yeats was enthralled. He later wrote the introduction to Gitanjali when it was published in September 1912 in a limited edition by the India Society in London. Rabindranath Tagore was awarded Nobel Prize for Literature in 1913 for Gitanjali. In 1915 he was knighted by the British King George V.

In 1919, following the Jallianwala Bagh massacre, Tagore renounced his knighthood. He was a supporter of Gandhiji but he stayed out of politics. He was opposed to nationalism and militarism as a matter of principle, and instead promoted spiritual values and the creation of a new world culture founded in multi-culturalism, diversity and tolerance. Unable to gain ideological support to his views, he retired into relative solitude. Between the years 1916 and 1934 he traveled widely.

1n 1921, Rabindranath Tagore established Viswabharati University. He gave all his money from Nobel Prize and royalty money from his books to this University. Tagore was not only a creative genius, he was quite knowledgeable of Western culture, especially Western poetry and science too. Tagore had a good grasp of modern – post-Newtonian – physics, and was well able to hold his own in a debate with Einstein in 1930 on the newly emerging principles of quantum mechanics and chaos. His meetings and tape recorded conversations with his contemporaries such Albert Einstein and H.G. Wells, epitomize his brilliance.

In 1940 Oxford University arranged a special ceremony in Santiniketan and awarded Rabindranath Tagore with Doctorate Of Literature. Gurudev Rabindranath Tagore passed away on August 7, 1941 in his ancestral home in Calcutta.

Rabindranath Tagore

Rabindranath Tagore (1861-1941) was the youngest son of Debendranath Tagore, a leader of the Brahmo Samaj, which was a new religious sect in nineteenth-century Bengal and which attempted a revival of the ultimate monistic basis of Hinduism as laid down in the Upanishads. He was educated at home; and although at seventeen he was sent to England for formal schooling, he did not finish his studies there. In his mature years, in addition to his many-sided literary activities, he managed the family estates, a project which brought him into close touch with common humanity and increased his interest in social reforms. He also started an experimental school at Shantiniketan where he tried his Upanishadic ideals of education. From time to time he participated in the Indian nationalist movement, though in his own non-sentimental and visionary way; and Gandhi, the political father of modern India, was his devoted friend. Tagore was knighted by the ruling British Government in 1915, but within a few years he resigned the honour as a protest against British policies in India.

Tagore had early success as a writer in his native Bengal. With his translations of some of his poems he became rapidly known in the West. In fact his fame attained a luminous height, taking him across continents on lecture tours and tours of friendship. For the world he became the voice of India’s spiritual heritage; and for India, especially for Bengal, he became a great living institution.

In 1884, Tagore wrote a collection of poems Kori-o-Kamal (Sharp and Flats). He also wrote dramas – Raja-o-Rani ( King and Queen) and Visarjan (Sacrifice). In 1890, Rabindranath Tagore moved to Shilaidaha (now in Bangladesh) to look after the family estate. Between 1893 and 1900 Tagore wrote seven volumes of poetry, which included Sonar Tari (The Golden Boat) and Khanika. In 1901, Rabindranath Tagore became the editor of the magazine Bangadarshan. He Established Bolpur Bramhacharyaashram at Shantiniketan, a school based on the pattern of old Indian Ashrama. In 1902, his wife Mrinalini died. Tagore composed Smaran ( In Memoriam ), a collection of poems, dedicated to his wife.

In 1905, Lord Curzon decided to divide Bengal into two parts. Rabindranath Tagore strongly protested against this decision. Tagore wrote a number of national songs and attended protest meetings. He introduced the Rakhibandhan ceremony , symbolizing the underlying unity of undivided Bengal.

In 1909, Rabindranath Tagore started writing Gitanjali. In 1912, Tagore went to Europe for the second time. On the journey to London he translated some of his poems/songs from Gitanjali to English. He met William Rothenstein, a noted British painter, in London. Rothenstien was impressed by the poems, made copies and gave to Yeats and other English poets. Yeats was enthralled. He later wrote the introduction to Gitanjali when it was published in September 1912 in a limited edition by the India Society in London. Rabindranath Tagore was awarded Nobel Prize for Literature in 1913 for Gitanjali. In 1915 he was knighted by the British King George V.

In 1919, following the Jallianwala Bagh massacre, Tagore renounced his knighthood. He was a supporter of Gandhiji but he stayed out of politics. He was opposed to nationalism and militarism as a matter of principle, and instead promoted spiritual values and the creation of a new world culture founded in multi-culturalism, diversity and tolerance. Unable to gain ideological support to his views, he retired into relative solitude. Between the years 1916 and 1934 he traveled widely.

1n 1921, Rabindranath Tagore established Viswabharati University. He gave all his money from Nobel Prize and royalty money from his books to this University. Tagore was not only a creative genius, he was quite knowledgeable of Western culture, especially Western poetry and science too. Tagore had a good grasp of modern – post-Newtonian – physics, and was well able to hold his own in a debate with Einstein in 1930 on the newly emerging principles of quantum mechanics and chaos. His meetings and tape recorded conversations with his contemporaries such Albert Einstein and H.G. Wells, epitomize his brilliance.

In 1940 Oxford University arranged a special ceremony in Santiniketan and awarded Rabindranath Tagore with Doctorate Of Literature. Gurudev Rabindranath Tagore passed away on August 7, 1941 in his ancestral home in Calcutta.

Health and wellness

People often use the terms health and wellness interchangeably. Although a person cannot have one and not the other, they are two different concepts that are quite variable, and their meanings are different.

World Health Organization (WHO) defines health as “a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity (illness).”

WHO defines wellness as “the optimal state of health of individuals and groups,” and wellness is expressed as “a positive approach to living.”

The primary difference between health and wellness is that health is the goal and wellness is the active process of achieving it. You truly cannot have health without first achieving wellness. Wellness has a direct influence on overall health, which is essential for living a robust, happy, and fulfilled life.

Caring for your physical health through proper diet and nutrition

Whether meal preparation is for yourself or your family, focus on making smart, healthy meals. Tips for success include:

  • Make an effort to have more home-cooked meals. This can help encourage healthy eating. Also, it promotes more family time.
  • Let your kids help plan what to eat. Kids love to help make meals and snacks.
  • Keep healthy snacks on hand to help kids make good choices. Have more fresh fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. Have fewer chips and sweets.
  • Teach kids to eat when they’re hungry, not when they’re bored, sad, or angry. Respect their ability to know when they feel full.
  • Breakfast helps jump start the day. It provides fuel for an active lifestyle and gives you and your child the energy to think faster and more clearly.
  • Play “Put the Fork Down” at meals. Put your forks down between bites and take turns sharing your day.
  • Balance. Balance what you eat to meet your need for nutrition and enjoyment.
  • Variety. Enjoy all foods from important food groups (fruits, vegetables, lean sources of protein, low-fat dairy, and whole grains).
  • Moderation. Focus on feeling comfortable instead of being too full after you eat. Use moderation when choosing less nutritious foods.

How many dimensions of wellness are there?

Wellness is more than just physical health; it is holistic and multidimensional. It comprises six dimensions that include physical, intellectual, emotional, environmental, social, and spiritual wellness.

1.Physical wellness

Physical Wellness is listening to and taking care of your body for optimal health and functioning. Taking care of your physical body will help you get through the stress that comes with college.

2.Intellectual wellness

Intellectual wellness refers to active participation in scholastic, cultural, and community activities. It is important to gain and maintain intellectual wellness because it expands knowledge and skills in order to live a stimulating, successful life. In order to improve intellectual wellness, it is important to value creativity, curiosity, and lifelong learning. 

3.Emotional wellness

Emotional wellness is defined as an awareness and acceptance of a wide range of feelings in yourself and others. An emotionally well person understands his/her own limitations and knows how and when to seek support to cope with the challenges life can bring.

4.Environmental wellness

Environmental wellness refers to your sense of safety, comfort, and connection with your physical surroundings. Environmental wellness can be enhanced by living more in harmony with the planet and your community.

5.Social wellness

Social wellness refers to the relationships we have and how we interact with others. … Social wellness involves building healthy, nurturing and supportive relationships as well as fostering a genuine connection with those around you,” according to the University of California, Davis.

6.Spiritual wellness

Spiritual wellness is being connected to something greater than yourself and having a set of values, principles, morals and beliefs that provide a sense of purpose and meaning to life, then using those principles to guide your actions.

Culture capital of India-Rajasthan

A country as diverse as India is symbolized by the plurality of its culture. India has one of the world’s largest collections of songs, music, dance, theatre, folk traditions, performing arts, rites and rituals, paintings and writings that are known, as the ‘Intangible Cultural Heritage‘ (ICH) of humanity.

Unity in variety is one of the major characteristics of Indian culture which makes it unique. A synthesis of various cultures came about through the ages to give shape to what is predictable as Indian culture today.

India is characterized by different castes. People of different castes possess different living standard. Even people of dissimilar castes live life with different standards and values. Each caste has its divide rituals and traditions of marriage and other religious ceremonies.

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History of Rajasthan

History of Rajasthan

Rajasthan, one of the most sought-after destinations for domestic and international travelers, exudes an aura of royalty, culture and tradition. With varied locales to offer, ranging from hills, golden desert, lakes and forests, Rajasthan is a land of wonder. Home to the erstwhile Indian royalty, the state has many forts which are reminiscent of the rich lives and opulence of the kings and queens. Architectural marvels in themselves, the forts, temples and other historical sites leave the tourists in complete awe.

Rajasthan is known to be atleast 5000 years old with many parts being occupied by Indus Valley Civilization. Kalibunga in northern Rajasthan is one of the famous excavation sites which have revealed ancient human settlement. Rajasthan has witnessed the rule of the kings since the early 11th century upto 19th century when the British rule took over. During these years, many empires flourished in the state, leading to the development of varied architectural styles, traditions, rituals, clothing styles, cuisines and culture. Many temples, mausoleums, dargahs and forts were built during these centuries, each one outdoing the other.

Culture of Rajasthan

Rajasthan has a collective belief in “Atithi Devo Bhava”, meaning that God resides in every guest. The people of this state are warm, indulgent and happy to assist visitors and tourists in every way. With a lot of people involved in hospitality and tourism here, one will not find any problem in travelling here.

From colourful clothes, jewellery, dances and food, it is a delight to be here.

  • Clothes :Women like to dress in an attire called “odhni” which consists of a dupatta, blouse and a skirt. Available in different colours and materials, the dressing is attractive and vibrant. Men like to dress in kurta and pajama with a headgear called “pagdi”.
  • Folk music and Dance :Rajasthan has varied forms of folk music and dances. One of the few folk music groups include Manganiyars, Langas, Banjaras, Mirasis and Jogis. These groups are divided because of geographical diversity and follow their own set of beliefs which are reflected in the music and performing styles. Famous dancing styles belonging to this state are Tejali, Ghoomar, Chang, Bhopa and Kathipuli. Most of these performances revolve either around sagas of bravery or love.
  • Food :Rajasthan is known for its various hot spices and sweets. Famous eating items include dalbati choorma, kachori, ghewar, laal maas and more. These delectable items are traditionally prepared in pure ghee and have their roots in the royal kitchens. Spices are said to ignite the fire in the bodies of royal warriors and sweets are said to calm the mind.
  • Handicrafts :Unique handicraft items like blue pottery, metal work, marble and stone statues and decoratives are famous in Rajasthan. Mirror work, embroidery, bati work and tie-and-dye are also famous here. These make for lovely souvenirs for tourists coming here.

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Frescoes of Rajasthan

Frescoes of Rajasthan

The Shekhawati region of India lies in the eastern part of the state of Rajasthan. The region is very large and has many buildings which were once where the royals of Rajasthan lived. The buildings, mostly havelis, are either abandoned or rented out to the local people

The Shekhawati region is situated in the middle of the former major trade route or the ‘SILK ROAD’ which connected the modern-day India, Pakistan and China. This benefited the local traders, called the Marwari, who built these havelis as a public show of their wealth. With the decline of the Silk Road, the Marwari’s moved on but left behind the treasure trove of the art and architecture that is their homes.

The havelis depict many themes – the daily life of the locals, gods and goddesses, folk mythology and the relatively newer buildings, those of the 19th and 20th century, depict the advent of the British. Each haveli is a piece of splendour and each has its own story to tell. The frescoes in these buildings are made with natural pigment. The oldest frescoes use ochre, red, white lead, lamp black, Indian yellow. The newer ones use synthetic pigments that were imported from Europe.

For the most part, the frescoes depict the god and goddess and folk mythology. The meeting of the gods, the armies and their battles are all depicted in rich colours and few of them gilded in 22 karat gold leaves. The gods Ganesha and Krishna have been depicted several times over. The popular loves stories of Laila -Majnu and Heer-ranjha , the equivalent to Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet have been depicted, besides these, Rajasthan’ s most popular romantic tale of Dhola and Maru and also of other lesser known tales are recurrently seen. The murals depicting the Europeans have a funny undertone and are an insight into how they were viewed by the Indians there.

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Jewellery of Rajasthan

Jewellery of Rajasthan

Other than the historical monuments the amazing thing to explore in Rajasthan is the market place. Markets in Rajasthan are glorious. Many different varieties of things can be found in there, people are often amazed to see how beautiful, colourful and variant those markets are.

Let us tell you about the most eye-catching product in these markets, the ethnic jewelleries. First of all, you can see people dressed in colourful ethnic outfits. Women’s mainly wear ‘Lehenga choli’ or ‘Saree’ and these outfits usually come in vibrant colours like red, orange, yellow and green or the bright shades of other colours and to compliment these bright ethnic dresses comes the ethnic jewellery. These jewelleries are not just limited for women but men in Rajasthan also wear some special jewelleries.

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Leather Embroidery in Rajasthan

Leather Embroidery in Rajasthan

Most of the dresses in Rajasthan are vibrant in colour and have some work done on it like mirror work bandhani work or embroidery. These works are not just limited to fabrics they are also done on jewellery, shoes, hats, bags, containers and other products. Leather embroidery is one of the specialities of this State.

When exploring the markets one can notice that the most common thing in almost every product there is the embroidery. It is like the identity that the product is bought from Rajasthan. Many bright colours are used for the embroideries. There are different types of embroideries and done on different products. Rajasthani Embroidery gives everything an ethnic look and these multi coloured embroidered products matches with almost every outfit.

5.Miniatures of Rajasthan

Miniatures of Rajasthan

The Miniature painting of Rajasthan is an old art form known for its intricate painting and rich colours. The first evidence of this art form exists in the form of illustration of old Buddhist texts which were executed by the Palas of Northern India. The 16th century painting were presented to the rulers by their partisans as a symbol of a significant event. These were collected by rulers and displayed in their courts.

But the miniature paintings developed mostly in the Mughal period when the emperor Humayun brought Persian artists into India. The next emperor, Akbar set up a National painting school, in which an atelier for the miniature painting, artists from various parts of India trained under the Persian masters. Simultaneously several other school of painting were set up in Mewar (Udaipur), Bundi, Kotah, Marwar (Jodhpur), Bikaner, Jaipur, and Kishangarh.

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Pottery in Rajasthan

Pottery in Rajasthan

Rajasthan is a state marked by its distinct art and culture. Hand crafted products are a major speciality here and one of those specialities is Pottery. There are varieties in this category too. Some of them are Blue pottery from Jaipur, Black pottery from Sawai Madhopur, Kagzi Pottery from Alwar, Golden Pottery from Bikaner etc.

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Wood work and Furniture

Wood work and Furniture

The existence of jungles in some parts of Rajasthan like Jaipur, Kota and Udaipur is what gave rise to Suthars or the carpenter class of craftsmen. Suthars either belong to the Meghwal community who are known for the cots and camels’ carts or from Barmer, who are known for their intricate craftsmanship

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Stone Carving in Rajasthan

Stone Carving in Rajasthan

Rajasthan is a land of rich culture. It is famous for its heroes and their valorous deeds and sacrifices. It is also very famous for its architectural monuments made of stone. Rajasthan is home to temples, forts, palaces which have no competition.

The architecture in Jaipur grew under the Rajputs. The marble and the sandstone are used in the City Palace, Jantar Mantar ,Amer Fort, Hawa Mahal and Tripola gate in Jaipur. Jantar Mantar and Amer Fort are world Heritage sites. These architectural master pieces have been instrumental in putting the city in the world map. Jaipur forms part of the golden triangle, consisting of Delhi, Agra and Jaipur. The Golden Triangle is called so because they are three most visited places in India.

Jhodpur is another city with palace like the Ummed Bhawan and Chittar Palace, forts made with red sandstone. The perfect beauty and brilliance of the palaces will be bound to sweep you off your feet.

The city of Jaisalmer is situated in the heart of the Thar Desert is called the ‘The Rose in the Desert’ because of its red stone buildings. Places of interest include the Jaisalmer fort with its massive sandstone walls which turn into a magical honey gold as the sun sets.

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Rajasthan’s Travelling Temples: Phad Paintings

Rajasthan’s Travelling Temples: Phad Paintings

For almost 700 years ago, every evening the Bhopa and Bhopi, the priest and his wife, unroll their scrolls of Phad paintings depicting the deities and performed dramatic renditions of stories from Ramayana and Mahabharata any other mythological tales. The priest and the priestess belong to a nomadic tribe which are a tribe of camel and goat herders Originating from the Bhilwara region of Rajasthan, this tribe realising that there was no one temple they could visit, travel from village to village with their ravanhatta, a two-string instrument, performing their own form of oral worship.

Phad paintings are scroll paintings which are created on hand-woven coarse cloth. It is a complex process which takes a certain level of talent and hard work in equal proportions. The threads of the cloth are made bulkier and is starched and rubbed with moonstone to make a smooth canvas. The colours are derived from flowers and herbs and are mixes with gum which acts as a binding agent.

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Paper Making Industry

Paper Making Industry

Paper making industry is another interesting thing to know about Rajasthan. The art of making paper was given importance in those areas by the Mughal emperors centuries ago. This paper making industry is quite different from other paper making industries. A lot of factors make it different from others. The prime factor here is that its eco- friendly.

8 Online Business Ideas That Generate Sustainable Revenue

With more people trying to make money online, thousands of articles give advice on how you can generate some cash in the digital world. No wonder there are so many online business ideas out there!

1. Self-publish Books  

No one cares whether your book is self-published or published by a traditional publisher. The quality of your book is what matters. One of the most successful books in recent years is Can’t Hurt Me by David Goggins. He received some offers from publishers but decided to publish the book by himself. That way he owns all the rights.

And today, everyone can do that too. You can do the whole process yourself, or you can hire people to do it for you like David Goggins. You can even hire a ghost-writer.

2. Create An App  

Until just a few years ago, it would’ve been unimaginable to sleep in other people’s homes on a regular basis for cheaper accommodation. Yet, as Airbnb has shown in the travel and hospitality market, this concept has now become the norm. All these transactions are done with the app. 

But that doesn’t mean you need to create the next big-time app like Airbnb or Uber. Even without knowing how to code, anyone can build an app. There’s a list of no-code app-makers you can use online to do this.

The most important part of an app is your business model. Too often, we see apps that are great but don’t have a business plan.

3. Sell Other People’s Products  

Don’t want to build your own products? Then sell existing products, also known as affiliate marketing. It sometimes gets a bad rep but it’s a solid business model.

The best platform for this strategy is a website (or multiple sites). 

Once you have a website, you can start creating content that attracts people who are interested in the products you’re offering.

4. Create An Online Course  

I’m a big fan of Peter Drucker’s advice of focusing on your strengths so you can provide more value. This is about leveraging your knowledge, experience, and expertise for the benefit of other people. Maybe you’ve been training for a long time and you’re ready to become a fitness coach. Or you’ve been teaching history, and now can teach people how to adapt well to changes based on historical lessons.

We always want to learn. The popularity of online courses shows that there is great demand. And it’s easier than ever to sell a course. With the right tools, you are able to save time, maximize your efforts, and create courses that students can easily consume.

5. Start A Paid Newsletter  

One of the leading examples of a paid newsletter is Ben Thompson’s “Stratechery.” He popularized this digital product and he’s now generating millions of dollars. 

But you and I don’t need to become the next Ben Thompson. If you can generate a small but loyal following that’s willing to pay, you can make a good living with a newsletter.

In terms of technology, there are many solutions you can use. I’ve seen people using Substack.

6. Build An Online Community  

Most digital entrepreneurs work from home, so they barely interact with new people (often, just clients) on a daily basis. It can be a lonely pursuit.

The Sounding Board—a facilitated community where like-minded people can join, share their goals, insights, and even test their business ideas before implementing them. It’s a safe space for anyone in need of motivation and honest insights. But you can create a community around any topic.

7. Start A Coaching Program  

With the recent global crisis, more people are switching their offline activities (like being coached by a trainer in a gym) into digital programs. Now, you can have your trainer right there with you at home through your smartphone or laptop. 

This isn’t limited to fitness coaches. You can do nearly every type of 1-on-1 coaching over Zoom or Skype. Again, it’s all about what you’re good at. People want to pay for expertise. With enough experience, you can gradually expand to group coaching and booking multiple sessions. 

8. Build A Freelance Practice  

Yes, it’s easy to get on those freelancing sites, but you’re not building anything for yourself. Plus, you’ll be pitching to prospects all the time. You might as well use that time to build your own site, with your own rules.

The problem with freelance sites is that they lock you into a cycle of looking for clients and pitching to them. Many of the jobs offered are also one-time projects that pay lesser. These tactics may get you a handful of small clients at first, but you won’t build a loyal customer-base doing that. 

Building your own site, publishing your own content, and attracting high quality, well-paying clients take much more time. But the pay-off is so much more rewarding and sustainable.