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THE CHALLENGING JOURNEY OF KFC IN INDIA

Kentucky Fried Chicken, popularly known as KFC, is a fast food restaurant chain that is known for its fried chicken. Headquarted in Louisville, Kentucky, the United States, KFC is the world’s second largest chain restaurant after McDonald’s. Currently, KFC has more than 18,000 outlets in over 100 countries. Every day, more than 12 million customers are served at KFC outlets around the world. KFC is a subsidiary of Yum! Brands, which also owns Taco Bell and Pizza Hut. KFC was the first foreign fast food restaurant chain to enter India in 1990s after the Indian government implemented the LPG policy. At that time, KFC received permission from Indian government to open 30 outlets across the country.

The first KFC outlet in India was opened in Bangalore in June 1995 and from these outlets, the number has grown to 296 today. Fast food restaurants have gained popularity in India because of their customized menus that suits the taste-buds of the citizens. When KFC first entered the Indian market, there were a lot of protests, and the Bangalore outlet was repeatedly ran-sacked. Many Indians were worried that the western culture would seep into the Indian roots, leading to the dilution of indigenous traditions. Another KFC outlet was opened in Delhi in the same year but the combined revenue of both the outlets was not sufficient to continue the KFC business in India. The reason why KFC didn’t gained the popularity is because anti-KFC movements that accused KFC of using illegally high amount of mono-sodium glutamate, which are harmful to health. Also, the anti-KFC movements claimed that KFC sold food that was cooked and fried in pork fat. Because of these KFC had to abandon Indian market.

Once the Indian market cooled down, KFC returned to the country in 1999, and set up an outlet in Bangalore. Until 2004, KFC only operated 1 outlet in India, As the sole outlet started making money, KFC expanded its operation throughout India and today, KFC outlets can be found in a number of cities.

It is the tenacity, that won the hearts and stomachs of millions of Indians, to finally decided to embrace KFC’s dishes and gave KFC a second chance.

“THE BARD OF AVON” : WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE

  • Introduction and birth
  • Shakespeare’s Lost years
  • Career and his works
  • Writing style
  • His famous quotes

“All the world’s a stage, and all the men and women merely players. They have their exits and their entrances, and the one man in his time plays many parts.”

William Shakespeare was an English poet mystery, playwright and actor of the Renaissance era who is considered one of the greatest writers to ever use the English language. He was an important member of the King’s Men company of theatrical players from roughly 1594 onward. He is also the most famous playwright in the world, with his plays being translated in over 50 languages and performed across the globe for audiences of all ages known colloquially as“The Bard” or “The Bard of Avon,” Shakespeare was also an actor and the creator of the Globe Theatre, a historical theatre, and company that is visited by hundreds of thousands of tourists every year. Shakespeare’s writings capture the range of human emotion and conflict and have been celebrated for more than 400 years.

His birth records does not exist, but an old church record indicates that a William Shakespeare was baptized at Holy Trinity Church in Stratford-upon-Avon on April 26, 1564. Shakespeare was educated at the King’s New School, a free chartered grammar school that was located in Stratford. There he studied the basic Latin text and grammar, much of which was standardized across the country by Royal decree. He was also known to partake in the theatre while at the school . As a commoner, Shakespeare’s education was thought to finish at the grammar school level as there is no record of him attending university, which was a luxury reserved for upper-class families.

Shakespeare’s Lost years –
In 1582, an 18-year-old Shakespeare married Anne Hathaway. After the birth of his twins in 1585, Shakespeare disappeared from public record until 1592, when his works began appearing on the London stage. These seven years are known as “Shakespeare’s Lost Years,” and have been the source of various stories that remain unverified, including a salacious story involving Shakespeare escaping Stratford prosecution for deer poaching.

Career –
William Shakespeare first made his appearance on the London stage, where his plays would be written and performed, around 1592. He was, however, well known enough to be attacked by critics in newspapers, and thus was considered to be already an established playwright.

After the year 1594, Shakespeare’s plays were solely performed by a company owned by a group of actors known as the Lord Chamberlain’s Men, which became London’s leading company.
Between about 1590 and 1613, Shakespeare wrote at least 37 plays and collaborated on several more. His 17 comedies include The Merchant of Venice and Much Ado About Nothing. The most famous among his tragedies are Hamlet, Othello, King Lear and Macbeth. Shakespeare also wrote 4 poems, and a famous collection of Sonnets which was first published in 1609.

Early Works and after 1600: Histories and Comedies

  • Henry VI (Parts I, II and III), Richard II and Henry V – Shakespeare’s first plays were mostly histories.
  • Tragic love story Romeo and Juliet.
  • Julius Caesar portrays upheaval in Roman politics that may have resonated with viewers at a time when England’s aging monarch, Queen Elizabeth I, had no legitimate heir.
  • Comedies – the whimsical A Midsummer Night’s Dream, the romantic Merchant of Venice,the wit and wordplay of Much Ado About Nothing and the charming As You Like It and Twelfth Night.
  • Other plays before 1600 include Titus Andronicus, The Comedy of Errors, The Two Gentlemen of Verona, The Taming of the Shrew, Love’s Labour’s Lost, King John, The Merry Wives of Windsor and Henry V.
  • After 1600: Tragedies and Tragicomedies- Hamlet, Othello, King Lear and Macbeth. In these, Shakespeare’s characters present vivid impressions of human temperament that are timeless and universal.
  • In Shakespeare’s final period, he wrote several tragicomedies – Cymbeline, The Winter’s Tale and The Tempest.
  • Other plays written during this period include All’s Well That Ends Well, Measure for Measure, Timon of Athens, Coriolanus, Pericles and Henry VIII.

Writing Styles –
Shakespeare’s early plays were written in the conventional style of the day, with elaborate metaphors and rhetorical phrases that didn’t always align naturally with the story’s plot or characters.
However, Shakespeare was very innovative, adapting the traditional style to his own purposes and creating a free flow of words.
With only small degrees of variation, Shakespeare primarily used a metrical pattern consisting of lines of unrhymed or blank verse, to compose his plays. At the same time, there are passages in all the plays that deviate from this and use forms of poetry or simple prose.
While it’s difficult to determine the exact chronology of Shakespeare’s plays, over the course of two decades, from about 1590 to 1613, he wrote a total of 37 plays revolving around several main themes: histories, tragedies, comedies and tragicomedies.

Today, his plays are highly popular and constantly studied and reinterpreted in performances with diverse cultural and political contexts. The genius of Shakespeare’s characters and plots are that they present real human beings in a wide range of emotions and conflicts that transcend their origins in Elizabethan England.

Various famous quotes of william Shakespeare

“Love all, trust a few, do wrong to none.”

“A fool thinks himself to be wise, but a wise man knows himself to be a fool”.

“The empty vessel makes the loudest sound”.

“We are time’s subjects, and time bids be gone”.

Are those in power only responsible FOr poverty in india?

If poverty is a disease that infects the entire community in the form of unemployment and violence, failing schools and broken homes, then we can’t just treat those symptoms in isolation. We have to heal that entire community.” — President Barack Obama

INDIA : One of our ironies of our rapidly developing nation is that condition of poor continues to remain constant. Miseries of poor people or what we call as poverty is not a new word to Indian ears. High poverty levels are synonymous with poor quality of life, deprivation, malnutrition, illiteracy and low human resource development. When we start finding reasons behind this situation, we come up with a obvious reason- political background. Holding those in power responsible for increasing miseries of poor people is normal as they are expected to construct it. But as it is said A coin has two sides . If we talk about the different way of looking this situation, there are more reasons which also contribute to the miseries of poor rather than posing politics for this misery.

  • Population Explosion- Population has been rising in India at a rapid speed. Growing population has forward and backward linkages with the other economic dynamics particularly poverty. Poverty and population growth are said to be interrelated and the impacts of a growing population on the carrying capacity of the environment is continually observed. At global level, In the presence of poverty and population growth the ability to achieve sustainable development has proved to be difficult in many regions of the world. People have to spend a large portion of their resources for bringing up of their wards. It results into less saving and low rate of capital formation. Rapid growth of population accounts for low standard of living in India. Even the bare necessities of life are not available adequately. Also, high population growth affects the per capita income and makes per capita income even lower. ‘It is expected that population in India will reach 1.5 billion by 2026 and then India will be the largest nation in the world’. Rising population is accompanied by a rise in the labour force of the community which leads the substantial chunk of population to unemployment. In the year 2000, the planning commission of India estimated that around 70 percent of the poor including both transient and chronically poor lived in rural areas.
  • Illiteracy- Poverty and illiteracy are closely linked and with the second largest population in the world. Illiteracy affects all areas of life. Those with low literacy skills are far more likely to live in poverty, face health problems because they can’t read prescription labels or instructions, and grow in a isolated world. Eradicating illiteracy in a country with a massive population is undoubtedly a gigantic task. Again, we cannot only criticize government for not doing well in this sector. But willingness of getting educated is also important. There are many areas in the country where still education is out of reach for girls and even for boys. Sometimes, it is a matter of willingness that children and their parents are not aware about the importance of education. They prioritize other things than education. Instead they have to either start working from a very young age as child labourers or find other means through illegal acts. It is the social responsibility of all literate and rich people to make some concerted efforts to rid society of this problem. There are many children who wish to study and also to aware them about education.

So, keeping in mind all the factors, we cannot only expect from the government to work on it. As a citizen of nation there are many responsibilities for an individual also to get a solution to it. Solution to any social problem must be worked out with community level. Criticism and complaining cannot reach to the solution. For a massive population, people sitting in political positions can not only eradicate the junk embedded from so many years. We can’t just move off the faces saying responsibility of Government. Just, because, political power has been given position, its not their sole responsibility for such miserable condition of poor people in our nation. There is nothing any government in the world can do. Instead it has to be a collective effort. Everyone has to unite for the sake of humanity.

Beautiful moments while falling in love

“Love is like the wind, you can’t see it, but you can feel it” – Nicholas Sparks

Love is one of the most beautiful emotions we experience as humans. Though we can invite it into our lives, we do not have the control over the how, when and where love starts to express itself. The act of caring and giving to someone else having someone’s best interest and well-being as a priority in your life. Love is commitment and unconditional moment of one’s life. Being in love is the beautiful feeling in the world. Love is something, defined as give and take of emotions and care. It’s natural to wonder about the one thing that millions of people can’t stop thinking about. Songs are written about it, art is done around it, so each and everyone is in love with some one another.

Sleeplessness, racing heart, feeling free, feeling special are some inner thoughts which surrounds a person’s mind in love. A person in love considers light of the life.

Love is not the easiest emotion that can be explained, it needs words, connection to the lover to express. There are various signs or symptoms that show a person in love. Have a look to it-

  • Daydreaming the beloved- When you’re in love, you begin to think your beloved in every aspect of life. The person tries to fill every moment of life with him/her . He/she wants to experience every joy, pain with the other. One thinks about future aspects with his/her beloved.
  • Thinking this one is special- A person in love begin to think his love is unique and special. He thinks that she is the one who can fill his world with happiness.One wants to spend more and more time.
  • They become priority- The person in love takes his beloved at priority. He tries to fulfil all what he wants.
  • Everything feels new and exciting- The one who falls in love, experiences his surrounding world to be new and full of joy.Suddenly everything seems to be wonderful.
  • Catch yourself smiling- Thought of lover leads to smile on a face of the lover. He/she catches himself smiling for no reason many times.
  • Focusing on the positive side- Being a lover, tend to focus on the positive qualities of their beloved, while overlooking his or her negative traits.
  • Aligning interests- Being in love, person starts taking interest in the likes of his partner. Falling in love is marked by a tendency to reorder your daily priorities and change your clothing, mannerisms, habits or values so that they better align with those of their beloved. person in love tries to learn new things to impress his love. If you find yourself drawn to more new ideas and experiences than you’ve ever been interested in before, chances are, you’re in love.
  • Feeling insecure- Feeling of insecurity increases with love. One secures insecure of their activities which you will not be able to digest. A little bit jealousy is natural. It’s understandable because you want your partner to be only exclusive to you.
  • Feeling affectionate towards the person- The one in love get attracted towards his love day by day more and more. Often a lover is curious to know that his lover ever thinks about him or not. He wants mental satisfaction of being loved or not.
  • Feeling empathy- Feeling empathy towards your love makes you want to make tiny sacrifices for them which creates happiness.
  • Experiences butterflies in heart- At the sight of lover, person in love feels butterflies in heart. His presence gives sweet feeling in his heart.Everything seems to be lovely.
  • World revolves around them- It seems to the person in love that his world revolves around his love. Everyone seems to be his love and him. He is not able to focus on work.
  • Emotional instability- As usual, falling in love often leads to emotional and physiological instability. Mood swings, accelerated heartbeat is commonly observed. People in love regularly exhibit signs of emotional dependency including possessiveness, jealousy, fear of rejection, and separation anxiety. 
  • Memorizes past events- A person in love often thinks about the time spent with the person he loves.He feels happy inside his heart thinking about beautiful moments of love.
  • Starts planning for the future- When you truly love someone, you know that you don’t have plans to let them go any time soon, if ever.He plans for future life with the lover.

Every moment that they make you fall in love all over again is why being in love is so unbelievably incredible because, life is just a string of happy and unhappy moments, and love just composes many of the happy ones.

Often times, in the beginning, great love just happens. Sometimes, great love is easy and it is mutual. Love does not have to be complicated. Love does not have to be challenging. Sometimes, love is just right. Sometimes, loving another human being is so very natural. Keep Loving Keep Expressing….!!!!!

“Love is composed of a single soul inhabiting two bodies”- Aristotle

“SMILE”:A POWERFUL WEAPON

Did you smile today?? – No, then smile a little before reading this article. A smile on a face is the most powerful gesture to a human being.

Smile is a beautiful, positive facial expression which provides happiness to the person observing and the one itself. Smile is a powerful weapon which connects to other people. ‘Scientific studies have confirmed that a genuine smile is generally considered attractive to others around us’. Smiles help you make great first impression in all aspects of your life.

“A smile cost nothing, but gives much. It enriches those who receive, without impoverishing those who give. It happens in a flash and the memory of it sometimes lasts forever.”– Dale Carnegie

How Smile acts as a Weapon? Let us understand-

  • To defeat bad mood- in your bad and frustrating mood, showing a smile to the world can actually give your brain a happy boost.
  • To conquer your enemy- a smile with confidence marks a strong effect on the enemy side. Jealous people are conquered by a smile which make them think that you a strong.
  • Smiling is contagious- Smile also has the power to elevate others mood and make things positive.It passes on the feeling of happiness from one to another.
  • Smiling makes a person attractive- We are naturally drawn to people who smile. There is a real physical attraction factor linked to the act of smiling.Use the attraction power of smile to draw people in.
  • Lowers stress- smiling relieves stress.It activates neuropeptides which are known to fight off stress. 
  • Keeps away from depression- a smile on the face keeps us away from depressed thoughts in mind.
  • Promotes positive thinking- Smiling can help you develop stronger paths in your brain for positive thinking.The more you smile, the more you get positive thoughts.

Smiles may strengthen the body on a cellular level. When you smile you reduce the rigidness of your cells and this relaxation can help reduce the risk of stress-induced cell mutations.

Think of how you feel when someone passing by gives a gesture of smiling, now imagine the same feeling of acceptance that you can give to someone…..

Now, you choose how to live your life-with smile or without. “Stay Happy Stay Healthy”

Keep Smiling….!!!!

Amazing Female Photographers You Should Know

AMI VITAL

Ami Vitale

Nikon Ambassador and National Geographic magazine photographer Ami Vitale has traveled to more than 100 countries, bearing witness not only to violence and conflict, but also to surreal beauty and the enduring power of the human spirit. Throughout the years, Ami has lived in mud huts and war zones, contracted malaria, and donned a panda suit— keeping true to her belief in the importance of “living the story.” In 2009, after shooting a powerful story on the transport and release of one the world’s last white rhinos, Ami shifted her focus to today’s most compelling wildlife and environmental stories. Instyle Magazine named Ami one of fifty Badass Women, a series celebrating women who show up, speak up and get things done. She appeared alongside a group of incredible women including Jane Goodall, Christiane Amanpour and Ruth Bader Ginsburg. She has been named Magazine photographer of the year in the International Photographer of the Year prize, received the Daniel Pearl Award for Outstanding Reporting and named Magazine Photographer of the Year by the National Press Photographers Association, among others. She is a five-time recipient of WorldPress Photos, including 1st Prize for her 2018 National Geographic magazine story about a community in Kenya protecting elephants. She published a best-selling book, Panda Love, on the secret lives of pandas. She is a featured speaker for the National Geographic LIVE series, and frequently gives talks and workshops throughout the Americas, Europe, and Asia.

Her photographs have been commissioned by nearly every international publication and exhibited around the world in museums and galleries. She is a founding member of Ripple Effect Images, an organization of renowned female scientists, writers, photographers and filmmakers working together to create powerful and persuasive stories that shed light on the hardships women in developing countries face and the programs that can help them. She is also on the Photojournalism Advisory Council for the Alexia Foundation.

Currently based in Montana, Ami Vitale is a contract photographer with National Geographic magazine and frequently gives workshops throughout the Americas, Europe and Asia.

Samburu warriors stand at the top of the northern Kenya’s Mathews Range where the 850,000 acre Namunyak Wildlife Conservancy is situated. The area is home to Africa’s second-largest elephant population. There community-based wildlife keepers, like these Samburu warriors, are working to rehabilitate abandoned and orphaned elephants in order to eventually return them to the nearby wild herds. In many ways, community based conservation is likely to be the only viable alternative for vast tracts of Africa, in the parts beyond agriculture and where big animals and nomadic pastoralists still make their home. This elephant sanctuary is the culmination of a two-decades long process of tipping conservation upon its head, protecting wildlife for, and not just from people. In that sense the sanctuary is as much about people as it’s about elephants.

RANIA MATAR

Rania Matar was born and raised in Lebanon and moved to the U.S. in 1984. As a Lebanese-born American woman and mother, her cross-cultural experience and personal narrative inform her photography.

Matar’s work has been widely published and exhibited in museums worldwide, including the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, the Carnegie Museum of Art, National Museum of Women in the Arts, and more. A mid-career retrospective of her work was recently on view at the Cleveland Museum of Art, and at the Amon Carter Museum of American Art, in a solo exhibition: In Her Image: Photographs by Rania Matar

She has received several grants and awards including a 2018 Guggenheim Fellowship, 2017 Mellon Foundation artist-in-residency grant at the Gund Gallery at Kenyon College, 2011 Legacy Award at the Griffin Museum of Photography, 2011 and 2007 Massachusetts Cultural Council artist fellowships. In 2008 she was a finalist for the Foster Award at the Institute of Contemporary Art/Boston, with an accompanying solo exhibition.

Her work is in the permanent collections of several museums, institutions and private collections worldwide.

She has published three books: L’Enfant-Femme, 2016; A Girl and Her Room, 2012; Ordinary Lives, 2009.

She is currently associate professor of photography at the Massachusetts College of Art and Design.

GEORGINA GOODWIN

Georgina Goodwin is a documentary photographer and Canon Ambassador born and based in Kenya with a focus on women, refugees, social issues and environment. Known for her award-winning work on Kenya’s post-election violence, cancer in Kenya and Westgate terror attack, and most recently refugee children in Tanzania, Georgina is a contributor to Getty Images and Everyday Climate Change and a member of Women Photograph and African Photojournalism Database, a collaboration of World Press Photo and Everyday Africa. Her work has been published by NY Times, Elle, Vogue, AFP and many others, and has been exhibited in Times Square NYC, Tokyo Japan and The Louvre Paris amongst others. Georgina was a speaker at TEDxKakumaCamp, the first TED talks to be held at a refugee camp, and one of 19 finalist speakers at TEDx Nairobi in 2017.

Amina Suleiman Gas, 45 stands amidst the carcasses of her dead animals, piled for burning outside the compound where she has lived for 10 years in Barwako village 20kms into the desert from Anaibo Town, central Somaliland. She sent most of her livestock west with her neighbor in November 2016 when the drought began to get worse and fears they have not survived, March 2017. Barwako was a village of 100 families but 245 more came in from the surrounding area because of the drought. As a member of the Villlage Savings and Loans Association (VSLA) Amina and her group shared all their savings with the displaced families, leaving them with nothing. At least 6.2 million people, more than half the population, were in need of assistance after four consecutive seasons of failed rains over three years leaving the region depleted of all its resources and experiencing a drought on a scale not seen since 1974 and on the verge of famine.

CIG HARVEY

The photographs and artist books of Cig Harvey have been widely exhibited and remain in the permanent collections of major museums and collections, including the Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, Texas; the Farnsworth Art Museum, Rockland, Maine; and the International Museum of Photography and Film at the George Eastman House, Rochester, New York. Cig began working in a darkroom at thirteen and has been dedicated to photography ever since. She grew up in the deep valleys of Devon in the UK, and came to the States for her MFA in 1999, after years spent living in Barcelona and Bermuda.

Cig Harvey’s first monograph, You Look At Me Like An Emergency (Schilt Publishing, 2012,) is a collection of ten years of pictures and written vignettes. It sold out in all printings and was named one of PDNʼs Best Books of the Year 2012. Cig had her first solo museum show at the Stenersen Museum in Oslo, Norway, in conjunction with the release. The book was well reviewed in a number of publications, including The Independent, Aesthetica, the Boston Globe, Blink, and PDN. Pro Photographer magazine ran an in depth feature, Chance: Cig Harvey’s deceptively simple photographs tap into the universal elements of the human experience: love, loss, longing and belonging. She’s in demand for editorial and commercial work-as well as her for her fine art prints and books.

Cig Harvey’s second monograph, Gardening at Night (Schlit Publishing, 2015,) was published in conjunction with solo shows at Robert Mann Gallery, New York, Robert Klein Gallery, Boston and Paul Kopeiken Gallery, Los Angeles. The book received critical acclaim with features and reviews in Vogue, The Telegraph, the International Wall Street Journal, the International New York Times, and Aesthetica among others. The International Wall Street Journal said of the series, Though the subjects and setting are familiar to us, we cannot help but feel that Cig Harvey has led us through the looking glass to a world of wonder. In the way that twilight is not quite day and not quite night, the photographs of Gardening at Night are stories not yet fully developed, while still capturing the unexpected yet oddly harmonious moments that surround us daily.

Cig Harvey’s work has been displayed at Paris Photo, Art Miami, and AIPAD every year since 2006. She has been a nominee for John Gutmann fellowship and the Santa Fe Prize, and a finalist for the BMW Prize at Paris Photo and for the Prix Virginia, an international photography prize for women.

Cig’s devotion to visual storytelling has lead to innovative international campaigns and features with New York Magazine, Harper’s Bazaar Japan, Kate Spade, and Bloomingdales. Cig teaches workshops and regularly speaks on her work and processes at institutions around the world. She is known for her high energy, sense of humor and creativity. She brings a profound sense of optimism to all that she does.

Cig lives in a farmhouse in the Midcoast of Maine with her husband Doug (who has the profile of an emperor on a Roman coin), their wayward daughter Scout, and Scarlet the dog (the original baby). The slow passing of time and the natural surroundings of her rural home has made her alert to the magic in the mundane.

FOLLOW ME @829martin

‘Content Writer’ is the most searched job in India, says study

The latest study for digital marketing job trends in world’s leading nations conducted by SEMrush, the online visibility management, and content marketing SaaS platform showcased that amongst the most searched digital marketing jobs in different countries, India clearly showed a great share of 73.87 per cent for content writer jobs with a monthly/daily search volume of 26309.

Content writer jobs in other countries contributed with a lower share of 32.24 per cent for Australia, 31.66 per cent for the UK, 30.68 per cent for Canada, and 30.27 per cent for the USA.

The study showed that the keywords – ‘how to do content marketing’, why content marketing is important’, ‘what is content marketing strategy’ and other queries regarding content marketing and content writing ranked high in terms of search volume in comparison with other digital marketing jobs.

India showcased vast changes in the priority of content writer jobs in recent years and surpassed other fast-evolving digital marketing jobs like social media managers, SEO analyst, Content marketing manager, etc.

The research conducted in the world’s leading nations highlighted the overall share of content writer jobs to be 47.57 per cent amongst all leading digital marketing jobs.

Call for Papers IJR

International Journal of Research (IJR) publishes regular papers and special issues on specific topics of interest to international audiences of educational researchers.
systemic-evaluation of education
The aim of the journal is to help them better understand each other’s role in the overall process of education and how they may support each other. The articles should be original, unpublished, and not in consideration for publication elsewhere at the time of submission to International Journal of Research (IJR) and one month thereafter.

How to Submit Papers

Send papers through mail to editor@eduindex.org

Scope of Publication in IJR

The topics related to this journal include but are not limited to:
•Educational systems architectures
•Computer-mediated communication
•Distance education/learning
•Distance learning systems
•Distributed learning environments
•Educational multimedia
•Human-computer interface issues
•Hypermedia systems/applications
•Interactive learning environments
•Learning by doing
•Multimedia systems/applications
•Network-based learning environment
•Online education
•Simulations for learning
•Web based instruction/training
•Intelligent learning environments
•Intelligent tutoring environments
•Collaborative learning & environment
•Didactic/pedagogical issues
•Teaching/learning strategies