Referencing Style for IJR

Common Notes for Referencing in IJR

Note: We follow APA style of Referencing.

Style of Reference based on No. of Authors

  • Single author: Use the author’s last name, year.

(Sharma, 2014) OR Sharma (1996) showed that…

  • Two authors: Use both authors’ last names, separated by an ampersand if in parentheses.

(Sharma & Harish, 2014) OR In their study, Sharma & Harish (2014)

  • Three to five authors: Use all authors’ names and year, the first time the reference occurs; in subsequent citations, include only the first author followed by “et al.” and the year.

First citation: (Sharma, Harish & Nirala, 2014) OR Sharma, Harish & Nirala, (2014)

Subsequent citations: (Sharma et al., 2002). Omit the year if the subsequent citation is in the same paragraph.

  • Six or more authors: Use only the first author followed by et al. and the year.

(Sharma et al., 2014) OR Sharma et al. (2014)
If two references with the same year shorten to the same form, cite the name of the first authors and as many of the subsequent authors as necessary to distinguish the two references, followed by a comma and et al.

  • Groups as authors: Corporation, association, and government names are given in full in the first citation, and may be abbreviated thereafter if the name is long.

(The IJR Research Team, 2014) OR The IJR Research Team (2014) reported that…

  • Internet sources may, in time, be deleted, changed, or moved, so it is a good idea to keep a hard copy for your records. Also, take care to critically evaluate the reliability and scholarly relevance of the information.
  • Direct quotes are to be used very sparingly. Incorporate short quotes of fewer than 40 words into the text and place quotation marks around the quote. Quote 40 or more words in a double-spaced block of text indented 5 spaces from the left margin, without quotation marks. Give specific page numbers.

Books (print and online)

General forms (when DOIs are assigned, use them):

Author, A. A. (year). Title of work. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

Author, A. A. (year). Title of work. Location: Publisher.

Author, A. A. (year). Title of work. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxxxxxxx

Author, A. A. (year). Title of work. Retrieved from xxxxxxxxxxxx database.

Journal and newspaper articles

General forms (when DOIs are assigned, use them):

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (year). Article title. Journal Title, 

       volume number(issue number), page numbers. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxxxxxx

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (year). Article title. Journal Title, 

       volume number(issue number), page numbers. Retrieved from

       https://internationaljournalofresearch.com/list-of-volumes-issues-published/

Web documents and sites

As with any published reference, the goals of a citation to online material are to credit the author and to enable the reader to find the material.

When citing Internet sources, observe the following guidelines:

  • Follow previous sections for format of author, date, and title elements.
  • The date element should indicate the year of publication or, if the source undergoes regular revision, the most recent update.
  • Direct readers as closely as possible to the information being cited; whenever possible, reference specific documents rather than home or menu pages.
  • Include retrieval dates where the source material is likely to change over time.
  • Provide addresses that work where possible.

Other electronic media

  • Follow previous sections for format of author, date, and title elements.
  • The date element should indicate the year of publication or, if the source undergoes regular revision, the most recent update.
  • After the title of the work, insert in brackets as part of the title element (i.e., before the period) the type of medium for the material.
  • A retrieval or availability statement replaces the location and name of the publisher typically provided for text references. Use “Available from” when the URL leads to information on how to obtain the cited material (rather than to the material itself).
  • Include retrieval dates where the source material is likely to change over time (e.g. Wikis).

Legislation and legal authorities

For more comprehensive information and other jurisdictions, see the Bluebook

The bluebook: A uniform system of citation (19th ed.). (2010).

       Cambridge, MA: Harvard Law Review Association.

Citations should be made to the print source unless an electronic source is designated the official version (then for Internet and online sources use Citation, URL. or if it is from a commercial electronic database, use Citation (Name of the Database).).

Proceedings and technical reports

General forms (when DOIs are assigned, use them):

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (year). Article title. Journal Title, 

       volume number(issue number), page numbers. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxxxxxx

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (year). Article title. Journal Title, 

       volume number(issue number), page numbers. Retrieved from

    www.gov.nic.in

How to cite references within the text of an assignment

Use the author-date method of citation for quotations (exact words of another author) and paraphrasing (summarising the words and ideas of one or more authors).

Every line in the work should be double-spaced including the headings, footnotes, quotations, references and figure captions. Triple- or quadruple- spacing may be applied in special circumstances such as before and after displayed items. Single- or one-and-a-half line spacing is never used except inside tables or figures. Paraphrasing is required when you summarise the ideas, concepts or words from the work or one or more authors.

Quotation Style

Quotations or quotes are when you use the exact words of another author or your own previously published work. Quotations must always be referenced with page numbers.

  • Quotations of less than 40 words (approximately) should form part of the text and be designated with double quotation marks.
  • With quotations of 40 or more words, DO NOT use quotation marks; set the quotation in an indented (about a half inch) free standing block of text. Use double-line-spacing to separate the quote from the text of your work.

For Learning more or seeing examples of referencing you can visit the http://www.apastyle.org/

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ISSN 2348-6848 (Online) & 2348-795X (Print)

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