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Mastery of Language of Instruction and Its Influence on Student Academic Performance: Evidence from Secondary Schools in Tanzania

Paschal Banga Nade

   Abstract

This study focused at determining the relationship between the language of instruction which is English in this case and the student overall subject performance in secondary schools in Tanzania. A cross-section design was employed and data were collected through the National Examination of Tanzania Website. Three secondary schools from three different regions in Tanzania were purposively selected in this study. The findings show that student performance in English language as the language of instruction has an influence on overall subject performance. The students who scored F and E grades in English language, their respective overall subjects GPA fall under Fail and Pass categories. While the student who scored C and above grades, their overall GPA fall under Credit, Merit and Distinction categories. No significant relationship has been found between language of instruction performance and sex of the students. Further recommendation and analysis has been made clear in this document.

Key words: mastery, language of instruction, academic performance

Introduction

 Learning process is facilitated by using a language that learners understand best as the medium of instruction. Language of instruction is a vehicle through which education is delivered and is an indispensable medium for carrying, or transmitting education from teachers to learners and among learners (Qoro, 2006). Essentially, language mastery / competence is ones’ underlying knowledge of the system of a language – its rules of grammar, its vocabulary, all the pieces of a language and how those pieces fit together ( Bodunde and Akeredolu-Ale, 2010).

 Øzerk (1999) argues that linguistic interaction constitutes a significant part of any learning activity and that the quality of the linguistic interaction in learning activities consequently represents an important factor in the learning effect of school subjects. He points to two important processes involved in teaching and learning, which are referred to as input and intake. He explains that input in this respect refers to the intensity, or frequency of the language of instruction the teacher confronts the student with during a learning period. The process of intake decides how much of the total amount of this the student understands and is able to attain. A precondition in transforming input into intake is understanding. Mlay, (2010) noted that children who had a language background of studying English from kindergarten or class one and a home environment that was supportive which allowed them to practice English with family or with friends, had a positive contribution in helping them learn English language while those who started English later (from class three) and usually spoke Kiswahili or their mother tongue at home or with friends indicated that their poor competence in English was due to the weak foundation from primary school.

Still a number of developing countries, especially in Africa maintained a foreign language as the medium of instruction, particularly in post- primary education (Galabawa and Lwaitama, 2005)  For example, English is the language of instruction in secondary schools in Tanzania as stipulated in the national education policy of 1995 and of course in the proposed new policy of education of 2014 which state that the medium of instruction for secondary education shall continue to be English, except for teaching of approved languages, and Kiswahili shall be a compulsory subject up to ordinary level. The rationale given in the document as to why English is to be used as the medium of instruction at post-primary education is that most instructional media and pedagogical materials are written in the English language and it is assumed that the situation is likely to remain so for a long time in the foreseeable future (Tibategeza, 2010).

Neke, (2003) noted  that the continued use of English language as medium of instruction in post-primary education in Tanzania makes it difficult for students at these levels to understand and internalize scientific and technological principles due to their poor proficiency. Some secondary school teachers teach in Kiswahili to make the subject matter easier instead of English which is officially assigned despite the fact that the examination are set in English (Senkoro, 2005)   Criper and William (1984) studied on the level of English across the education system in Tanzania confirmed that the levels of competence in English were insufficient in most schools for effective learning to take place. This study therefore, needs to establish relationship between Language of instruction and overall subjects’ exam performance.

 Statement of the problem

Recently, Language of instruction competency has been blamed as one among the factors that cause poor student exam performance in Tanzania. For example 2010-2014 National Form Four Examination results evaluation has evidenced that English language as subject was ranked second to Mathematics in terms of failure. The evaluation went further by suggesting language of instruction to be changed to Kiswahili language (Kamugisha and Mateng’e, 2014). Godfrey (2014) noted that the learning process in recent years becomes challenging for most students in secondary school as the majority of them largely lack a basic command of English language. Nevertheless, Qorro (2006) observed that only a handful of students take part in active learning and majority of students simply sit and copy notes that their teachers have written on the blackboard. UDSM Academic Audit report suggested that because of serious communication problems, they have to switch to Kiswahili as language of instruction or officially allow bilingual policy adopted at university of Dar es Salaam. Similarly, Senkoro (2005) evidenced that most students have a problem with the language of instruction; also proficiency in language is low and leaves much to be desired.

English language as medium of instruction is noted as an obstacle in learning for secondary school and higher institutions in Tanzania. Students lack proficiency in expressing themselves and therefore limit their participation in the general learning process especially learner centrered approach of learning. Qorro (2006) further assert that, as a matter of efficiency and efficacy, only the language which teachers and students understand can effectively function as the language of instruction. Only when teachers and students understand the language of instruction are able to discuss, debate, ask and answer questions, ask for clarification and therefore construct and generate knowledge.

Studies have concentrated on identifying those competency based limitations such as grammar, fluency in speaking and the presentations in writings, however, the overall mastery/competency relationship on other subjects measured in terms of exam performance at individual level has not being clearly addressed hence creating a gap for this study.  Thus, the study therefore needs to establish, indeed, if language of instruction mastery have an influence on overall subjects’ exam performance (evaluated in grades and Great Average Point (GPA)).

Bilingual Late-Exit Education Model

Although teacher quality plays a crucial role in facilitating the acquisition of English by students, it is arguable, based on child development research, that the manner in which the language is introduced to students in the earlier years of their development may be the reason of their inability to develop sufficient competencies in the language in later years (Tikolo, 2012). The presumption here is that cognitive development for language is the foundation of language learning, while other factors such as teacher competency facilitate the development of this already developed foundation.

A late-exit transition model involves the delay of transition from mother tongue as a medium of instruction to a different target language to year five to six (Ouane and Glanz, 2011). An efficient late-exit model which maintains the mother tongue beyond year five to six as a subject can lead to additive bilingualism, where effective first and second language pedagogy is used in the classroom along with adequate content area literacy instruction. It is for that reason, Tanzania employs a late-exit transitional bilingual model where mother tongue (Kiswahili) is the instructional language for 8 years and then a switch is made to English. The official language of instruction in Tanzania as articulated in its Education and Training Policy (United Republic of Tanzania, 1995/2014) in pre-primary and throughout primary education is Kiswahili, the local language spoken across the country, while English is to be taught as a compulsory subject. Thereafter, English is to become the medium of instruction from secondary school onward with Kiswahili taught as a compulsory subject.

Student Medium of Instruction Language mastery and overall subjects performance

Aina  et al, (2013) made a correlation between proficiency in English language and academic performance of students in science and technical education, they found that students in technical education performed better than their counterpart in science education; students who passed English language performed better than those who failed both in science and technical education. Similarly, a prediction research done by Kong et al, (2012)   indicated that English language proficiency scores are significantly predictive of academic reading test scores for K–12 EL (America) students. However, the magnitude of the relationship depends on the content alignment between the assessments and characteristics of the populations included in the study

Likewise the study that aimed to measure the relationship between English Language subject performance on the Accessing Communication and Comprehension in English State to State (ACCESS) for English Language Learners (ELLs) and Criterion Referenced Competency Test (CRCT) have shown that when student characteristics are held constant, a significant positive, though moderate, relationship exists between Els’ performances on the ACCESS for ELLs and CRCT. Also the findings show that the time spent in English language development programs along with disability status and grade levels explain more variance in CRCT scores than students’ ELP scores and gender (Margaret, 2011).

Regarding the students’ proficiency in secondary school in Tanzania (Gran, 2007) noted that the number which is  getting within reach of being able to read unsimplified text is less than 10%. It is extremely worrying to find that nearly one third of all students are at the picture book level after four years of official English medium education. These results are a clear indication that throughout their secondary school career little or subject information is getting across to about 50% of the pupils in his sample. Only about 10% of Form IVs are at a level where one might expect English medium education to begin. Commenting on the English situation in Tanzania, Rubanza (2002) asserts that students do lose their English skills after completing their studies because the society they work and live in does not demand the use of the English language. This suggests a major effect of poor implementation of the bilingual education in Tanzania.

 Brock-Utne (2005) did a comparative study on the language of instruction in two secondary school classrooms in Tanzania; the two languages were English (Second language) and Kiswahili (first language). As an experiment, the same teacher was teaching the same topic in biology to two different classes of Form I students in a large secondary school. The teacher taught the topics in English to one class and in Kiswahili to another class. In the English class; students were silent, grave and looked afraid, they were trying to guess the answers the teacher wanted. Also miss-pronunciation, miss-spelling, silence/poor cooperation was observed; for instance, Teacher (T): Speak loudly. (It sounded like “lovely”) One of the boys, who had been standing for a long time, tried to read in his book and when the teacher pointed at him. He said: Student (Ss): Bird. (He pronounced it “beerd”) T: Spell it. S: B – I – R – D. The teacher then wrote “bird” on the blackboard and pronounced it “bird”. While in Kiswahili class, students in Kiswahili classroom have demonstrated smiles and much laughter during this lesson and it went quickly (for the teacher, the students and the observers) and students were competing to answer.

Similarly, in a   study which instituted treatment as a variety of language of instruction (Kiswahili or English) among secondary form II pupils in four selected schools. Teaching content was selected from the national secondary school syllabus in Biology and Geography. It was found that, the average test scores administered at the end of the teaching period were generally higher in the Kiswahili treatment than those obtained in the English treatment (Galabawa Waitama, 2005).Likewise Kinyanduka and Kiwara (2013) found that 69.5% of students could not understand when taught in English language through classes. Also 78.9% of teachers said that English language was a setback to a student academic achievement. Surprisingly, 64.5% of teachers, 53% of parents and 78.1% of student respondents preferred teachers to use English as a language of teaching and evaluation. In the meantime, 71.4% of students felt that it was better for teachers to use both Swahili and English during classes. This study recommends the use of both, English and Swahili in teaching and evaluation.

 Also Peterson (2006) noted positive perception to Kiswahili by students as they expressed that they understand the courses which are given in Kiswahili a lot better than the courses offered in English as it equip them with the availability of terminology/vocabularies, and it is the language they use outside the classroom, and encounter everywhere as part of their daily lives, like at the market, at home, in churches and mosques and school. He further asserts that when English is used as the medium of instruction, on the other hand, students expressed that they learn very little. The main reasons for these difficulties as perceived by the students included problems with understanding the English language structure, for example the difference between writing and pronunciation, and that some of the books provided in English employ complicated language.

Mlay, (2010) assert that one of the reasons why students in secondary schools face so much difficulty using English is their reluctance in the language. She further noted that students are unwilling to actively participate in class discussions because teachers would criticize them or other students laugh at them because of their lack of ability to express themselves in English. However, students who have had early exposure to English from the beginning of primary school are able to cope using English as a medium of instruction in secondary school and their performance tends to be better off in comprehension tests conducted unlike those who started learning English from class three and thus have less exposure in the language.

Vuzo, (2002) pointed out that students can fail to answer well questions simply because they fail to understand the question, not because they do not know the answer. Language can affect a learner’s ability to interpret instructions and questions. It can also lead to failure to express their ideas appropriately. His overall findings from this study indicated that there were differences in teaching and learning when the different MOI were used. Student –teacher interaction in Kiswahili MOI was high on average as the majority of students actively gave answers and quite a number asked questions. In English MOI lessons it was minimal as most students were silent, not asking questions or giving any responses.

 Sex relation to Medium of Instruction Language Competency

Razmjoo and Movahed (2009) descriptive statistics analysis show that females outperformed males in language proficiency, but their independent sample t-test revealed that the difference is not significant. On the same vein, Hassani (2005)   made clear that there was no significant interaction among motivation, gender, and level of English proficiency. Also Sabatin (2013) found no statistically significant differences in performance in reading comprehension between male and female subjects who have cultural background knowledge and those who do not have any knowledge. Mohammadi (2007) investigated if the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety (FLCA) and Foreign Language Reading Anxiety (FLRA) among Iranian EFL learners correlate and can predict each other and the findings showed that both age and gender affect the FLCA and FLRA. In another study girls showed no advantage in general intelligence, but performed significantly better on all subjects except Physics (Deary et al, 2006).

In contrary, Dayıolu and Türüt-Aık (2004) noted that smaller number of female students manages to enter the university and when they do so, they enter with lower scores. However, once they are admitted to the university, they excel in their studies and outperform their male counterparts. Wilberg and Lynn (1999 ) found that female student tend to have better language abilities including essay writing skills, vocabulary and word fluency which contribute to better course work. Younger, Warrington and Williams (1999) focus on the gender gap in English secondary schools and their analysis was based on the performance of boys and girls in GCSE examinations in the UK and girls were found to get better grades than boys. Their findings was explained by boys’ disregard for authority, academic work and formal achievement, differences in students’ attitudes to work and their goals and aspirations and girls’ increased maturity and more effective learning strategies.

Education, Audio-visual and Culture Executive Agency (EACEA) report (2010) showed that recent international assessment studies agree that girls tend to have a higher reading achievement than boys. For instance, among students in the fourth year of schooling girls had significantly higher reading achievement than boys in all countries in Europe except two countries, Spain and Luxembourg, where average achievement was equivalent between the sexes. Also further interesting gender differences regarding reading domains or reading purposes show that Girls have a significantly higher average achievement in literary reading in all European countries (EACEA, 2010). Superior average performance in language by girls at all three ages in reading, writing and talking, with a few specific tasks where boys are superior has been noted. However, overall reading comprehension was differentially easier for the female group than the matched group of males, and males tended to perform better on antonyms and analogies than their female counterparts with equal ability (Song, 2014).

 Wilder and Powell, (1989) observed few or no sex differences during the early years, but evidence for a divergence between the sexes starting around age 11. Females scored higher on tasks involving receptive and productive language, fluency, analogies, comprehension of written material, and creative writing. This superiority of females was thought to increase through high school and possibly beyond, and, although the extent of the female advantage tended to vary with the study and the ability under scrutiny, the most commonly cited magnitude was about one fourth of a standard deviation. Although these reviews agree that there are gender differences in verbal ability, they disagree about the kinds of verbal tasks that show such differences and also about the nature of developmental trends in gender differences.

 Study Design

 This study employed a cross-section design. The design was chosen since it allows data to be collected at once from different cases. It therefore fit for this study because the data has been collected from three secondary schools which are located in three different regions at one point in time. The target population was all form four graduates who sat for the National Examination in the year 2014 and one of their compulsory subject being English and that subject is a language of instruction for all other subjects they sat for. Three secondary schools were purposively selected because they share the attributes; one being geographical location as they are all located in urban areas and second, their medium of instruction is English and English is one of the subjects they set for that National Exam.  The selected secondary schools were Rau (Kilimanjaro), City (Dodoma) and Mwembetogwa (Iringa).

The total of 306 students of the three secondary schools who sat for Form Four National Examination in the year 2014 was selected as a sample size.  Primary data was collected through reviewing the Form four National   results.  Both published and unpublished materials including, books, journals, papers, chapters, reports and thesis were reviewed as secondary data to see the scope, nature of the problem and its relationships with other variables and for consistency and validation of the data. The review of the form four results was done by the researcher. The data were obtained from the National examination council of Tanzania websites (www.necta.go.tz). Both objective one and two were analysed descriptively by using Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS) program. The association/ relationship between sex and English grades scores likewise GPA score versus English grades scores were computed by using Chi-square model and percentages. Its interpretation and relation with other findings are presented in the findings section.

 Findings and Discussion

The review of results show that 10.1% of 306 sample size have exam problems; therefore their results were not disclosed and regarded as missing cases in this findings and the valid cases were 89.9% of the sample size as shown in the table number 1.

The relationship between English subject performance and overall subjects’ performance

 

The results show that students who scored F grade in English language, their respective GPA largely fall under “fail category”, which is equivalent to 88.3 per cent while it is only 11.7 percent who fall under “pass category” of GPA who scored F grade in English Subject. No any student with F grade in English language fall under credit, merit and distinction category of GPAs.

As grade performance increases the number of student falling under GPA category of fail decreases. For instance the student who scored E their GPA under fail category dropped to 58.2%, and for grade D, it dropped to 4.8%. Unlike decreasing percent for Fail category GPA as grade goes up, the Pass category GPA rises as the grade go higher level; for instance for F grade, percent in pass category was 11.7, for E grades is 41.8% and for D grade is 79.0%. However, starting from C to B+ performance grade in English language, their per cents in Pass category of GPA begin to decline.

It is unfortunate that no student scored A grade in English language for the entire sample size, however, there are two students who scored Distinction category of GPA in overall subjects with their grades in English Language being B and B+ respectively. The following table 4 provides more clarification of these relationships.

Majority of student under study have poorly performed in English language as shown in results. Besides, the correlation performed in assessing the relationship between sex of the student and English language subject performance show no significant relation. In terms of grade category of GPA ranging from pass to distinction; there is mixed variation of results as female performed better in some grades and fail in other grades and similar results was found for male counterpart. This result show improvement for gender balance in Tanzania with the assumption that the factors that affect female students have been worked upon by the government and associated stakeholders

However, significant relationship between English Language performance of the students and the overall student subjects’ performance has been revealed by this study. When student perform better in English language subject, their respective GPA tend to be in the higher category and when student perform poorly in English language and their respective GPA tend to be in lower category especially fail and pass.

The implication of this result is that much of improvement is needed in language of instruction in classrooms so as to achieve better academic results. This means better understanding of overall subject content largely depend on the language that is used for instruction. Alternatively, the government of Tanzania needs to recast its policy for secondary school and higher institution language of instruction by switching to Kiswahili which is the first language to majority of Tanzanians.

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A Study of Time Management In Relation To Stress and Self Efficacy among Married Working and Non- Working Women

Dr. Gargi Sharma     Dr. Monika Sanger

The main aim of the present study was to examine if there was significant difference between working and non-working married women on time management, stress and self- efficacy. The sample was consisted of 150 married women (75 working married women and 75 non-working married women).Self- Efficacy scale (Sood), Stress Scale (Kaur, Kumar and Mehta) and Time Management scale (developed by investigator) were used to measure self-efficacy, stress and time management respectively. For analysis of the data t- test was used. Result showed that there was a difference between working and non-working married women regarding their time management, but there was no significant difference between working and non-working married women regarding self efficacy and stress.

 

Keywords: Time Management, Stress, Self Efficacy, Working Married Women, Non-Working Married Women.

 

INTRODUCTION

 

One of the most challenging aspects in life is time management. In the current fast changing environment, time management is very important in both personal and professional life. Keeping pace with today’s fast changing society and fast growing economy, not only the professionals are trying to be maximally efficient in their multifaceted roles, but also the organizations are highly emphasizing on being productive as well as effective. Being effective also means being constructive and using time positively. “Time” being the most finite and scarce resource, needs to be planned and managed. Managing ones time does not mean the quantity of time utilized but how well it is utilized.

Durbin(1997) refers to time management as process of structuring and organizing time to result in better productivity and also to ensure a high quality of living for individuals. Thus the key to time management is to gain control of one’s time a working smarter and not harder as ‘time management is more concerned with thinking than doing.

Time management is the art of arranging, organizing, scheduling, and budgeting one’s time for the purpose of generating more effective work and productivity. Good time management involves keeping a schedule of the tasks and activities that have been deemed important. Keeping a calendar or daily planner is helpful to stay on task, but self-discipline is also required. The most efficient to-do list in the world will not help someone who does not look at or follow his own daily planner.

A survey of the population of married Indian women indicates wide individual differences in the mental and physical capacities of married Indian women. These married women achieve different levels of education, social and economic status in their society as a result of their varying inherited potentialities and the varying opportunities that they receive since their birth.

Although nature has gifted varying levels of abilities and opportunities to different women, the time gifted to each individual women for a single day is the same i.e. 24 hours each woman tries to spend these limited 24 hours in such a way so as to have maximum satisfaction from life. It depends upon their needs and values how they spent their valuable yet limited time each day. Apart from the routine activities there are certain activities for which a particular set of women would definitely spare some time for example women with hedonistic values would spend time for entertainment activities and those with high spiritual values would spare some time for meditation, religious practice and charitable activities. The total time of 24 hours a day would therefore be classified into four categories in the time management scale

1)         Time spent on Routine Personal Activities

2)         Time spent on Family oriented activities

3)         Time spent on entertainment activities

4)         Time spent on spiritual activities.

 

Life is full of struggles against the obstacles, challenges and threats in our environment. Success is most often measured not in the defense of set points, but in our ability to adapt to such conditions, and the ease with which such adaptation occurs. Throughout history, people have lived in close relationship to nature in developing the special skills and traits necessary for their survival. Thus adaptation not stability is the essence of life, biological fitness and health.(Seley,1978)

Stress is unavoidable consequences of life; it afflicts people regardless of their life situation. Stress everywhere within the family, business, organization/enterprise and any other social or economic activity. Right from the time of birth to the last breathe drawn, an individual is invariably exposed to various stressful situation. The 21st century is experiencing on era of rapid changes, complexities, challenges and pressures to survive than any other time. Stress is physiological, emotional and psychological reaction to certain threatening environmental events. It refers to the amount of a person’s psychological energy released, in response to a stimulus situation exceeding from what he can constructively use.

In modern life stress is a common problem. The negative effects of stress affect individual’s health and performance. As a result, individuals have their own stress perceptions and they develop different kinds of strategies in order to manage stressful situations. Culture is a relevant aspect that influences this process. Considering that stress is presented in different dimension of daily life, educational experiences can also be perceived as stressful. In addition, stress could be strongly experienced at work, and to be teacher is considered one of the most stressful jobs.

The concept of stress is first introduced in life science by Hens Selye in 1936.The word stress is derived from Latin word “stringerd”. Stress was popularly used in 17th century to mean hardship, strain, adversity or offication.

According to Selye (1956), “Any external or any internal drive which threatens to upset the organism equilibrium is stress”.

Stress is a concept that, although it is familiar for all, is understood in different ways. The use of this term in a vague and general form creates this context of different interpretations that sometimes are contradictory (Rutter, 1983). In this context, authors attempt to categorize the different definitions of stress instead of creating a general definition. Seley (1976) recognized the common set of reactions occurring in response to wide variety of conditions resulting in producing a sequence of physiological changes in the body. This reaction from the General Adaptation Syndrome.

 It has three stages

  • Alarm Reaction
  • Stage of Resistance
  • Stage of Exhaustion

The two topics of time management and stress management are often addressed together because they are so closely interrelated.

Stress could be strongly experienced at work (Fletcher, 1988; Fletcher, 1991; Warr, 2005), and there are jobs which are considered more stressful than others, for instance to be teachers(Carlyle and Woods, 2002; Kyriacou, 1998).

Self -efficacy is a self evaluation of whether a person feels they can accomplish a certain task or not (Karen Lewis, 2007). According to Bandura (1997), self-efficacy is people’s beliefs about their capabilities to produce designated levels of performance for assigned tasks. The outcome of this exercises influence over events that affect individual’s lives.

Self efficacy makes a difference in how people feel, think, and act. In terms of feeling, a low sense of self efficacy is associated with depression, anxiety, and helplessness. Such individuals also have low self-esteem and harbor pessimistic thoughts about their accomplishment and personal development. In terms of thinking, a strong sense of competence facilitates cognitive process and performance in a variety of settings, including quality of decision making and academic achievement. When it comes to preparing action, self- related cognitions are a major ingredient of the motivation process. Self- efficacy levels can enhance or impede motivation. People with high self- efficacy choose to perform more challenging tasks Bandura (1995). They set higher goals and stick to them. Such person invests more effort and persists longer than those who have low self- efficacy level. When setbacks occur, they recover more quickly and remain committed to their goals. They also have the ability to explore and to create new environment for them. Therefore, it refers to a global confidence in one’s coping ability in the wide range of demanding or novel situations. While general self efficacy refers to the stable sense of personal competence to deal effectively under the stressful and challenging circumstances (Schwarzer, et.al.2008).

Self -efficacy has been found to be intimately associated with capacity to change one’s situation and has been used as a predictor of behavior, usually job seeking behavior, (Wenzel, 1993). According to Flammer (2001), People with higher perceived self- efficacy to fulfill job functions consider a wide range of career options. The construct of self-efficacy, which was introduced by Bandura, represents one core aspect of his social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1977, 1997). Valiante (2004) believes that efficacy contributes more heavily to occupational preferences. Perceived efficacy is a robust contributor to career development. Self-efficacy characterized by spiritual improvement creates a set-back and variations in the rate of progress. Perceived self-efficacy affects how well individuals manage requirements and challenges of occupational pursuits (Bandura, 2005). Bandura (1997) and Flammer (1990) found that individuals with high self-efficacy beliefs also report strong feelings of well-being and high self-esteem in general.

 

Problem

  1. Is there any difference in the level of time management (family oriented activities, routine personal activities, entertainment activities and spiritual activities) between working and non-working married women?
  2. Is there any difference in the level of stress among working and non-working married women?
  3. Is there any difference in the level of self- efficacy among working and non-working married women?

Hypotheses

  1. There is no significant difference in the level of time management (family oriented activities, routine personal activities, entertainment activities and spiritual activities) between working and non-working married women.
  2. There is no significant difference in the level of stress among working and non- working married women.
  3. There is no significant difference in the level of self- efficacy among working and non-working married women.

SAMPLE

The sample was consisted of 150 married women (75 working and 75 non-working married women) in Jaipur &Alwar were chosen, with the following criteria of inclusion and omission:

  1. Equal numbers of women (75 working and 75 non- working) were chosen.
  2. Only married women were taken.
  3. All of them must be graduates.
  4. They have middle socio- economic status.
  5. They must have 21 to 45 years.

 

Tools

Time management was measured by time management scale. This scale was prepared by investigator herself.  The scale consists of 25 items. Stress was measured by stress scale. It was developed by Kaur, Kumar and Mehta It consists of 26 items. Self-efficacy was measured by Self- efficacy scale. It was developed by Sood. It consists of 10 items.

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS

 ‘t’ test was used to examine the significant difference in time management, stress and self-efficacy of working and non-working women .

 

 

Table-1clearly reveals that the mean score obtained from working women on time management was1288.3 and mean score obtained from non-working on time management was 1199.3. The difference between the two means was significant at .01 level. The higher mean score for time management was obtained by working women in comparison to non-working women

It is clear from the results that the working married women have more efficient in managing the time in comparison to non-working married women. There are many causes; working married women appear to have a personal value structure different from that of non-working married women; economic and political value are more prominent among working married women.

On the other side the result found by Myra, Strober and Charles, Weinberg, (2009) is that there appear to be limited differences between employed and nonemployee wives in their use of strategies to relieve time pressures.

 

Table-2clearly reveals that the mean score obtained from working women on stress was 53.05 and mean score obtained from non-working on stress was 51.25 The difference between the two means was not significant. The higher mean score for stress was obtained by working women in comparison to non-working women. Aujla and Harshpinder, (2006) found that the various financial and temporal factors causing stress among working and non-working women in India. Results indicated that expenses on sudden emergencies, more work and less time to do them were considered to be the stressors by women in both categories. Working women were stressed due to shortage of time for doing work, planning, sharing with family, leisure or social activities and personal health care. Non-working women were stressed due to unavoidable expenses, and irregular income. On average, non-working women were stressed due to financial factors and working women due to temporal factors. It is also consistent with Hsatami (2007) also found in their study that there was significant difference between stress among working and non working married women.

 

Table-3clearly reveals that the mean score obtained from working women on self-efficacy was 28.8 and mean score obtained from non-working on self-efficacy was 29.8. The difference between the two means was not significant. The higher mean score for self-efficacy was obtained by non-working women in comparison to working women. Kumthekar (2000) examined the working women, being an earner in the family, is easily accepted and respected. Hence; it was thought that working women would have a more positive self- efficacy as compared to non working women. The result was found, it is amazing to note that no significant difference between working and non working women. All women had a devaluated self- efficacy.

 

CONCLUSION

In the end it may conclude that working women are more efficient in managing the time in comparison to non married working married women. Result also shows that there is no significant difference in stress among working and non-working women. Surprisingly result also shows that working and non working married women have similar level in self- efficacy.

and S. Breznitz, eds. Handbook of Stress: Theoretical and Clinical Aspects. New York: The Free Press.

Selye, H. (1985).History and present status of the stress concept. In A. Monat& R.S. Lazarus, eds. Stress and Coping, 2nd ed. New York: Columbia University.

Sood Sonali (2006). A Journal of Research Papers, Department of Psychology, St. Bede’s College, Shimla: 2(1).

Valinate G.(2004).Self-efficacy: The exercise of cost role (Albert Bandura). Emory University.

Warr, P. (2005).Work, Well-Being and Mental Health.In J. L. Barling, E.K. Kelloway, and M.R. Frone (Eds), Handbook of Work Stress.California: Sage Publications.

Wenzel SL. (1993).The relationship of psychological resources and social support to job procurement self-efficacy in the disadvantaged. J Applied Psychology; 23(18): 1471–1497.

TRADITIONAL CULTURE AND SOCIAL CHANGE OF SCHEDULED CASTES IN NAGALURE VILLAGE, ERODE DISTRICT (TAMIL NADU) – A STUDY

 Mr. K. Thangavel                                         Mr. S. Yesu Suresh Raj 

 Abstracts

This article explores traditional culture and social changes of scheduled caste people in Erode District. In Indian history, scheduled caste have been denied from basic rights and considered even out of caste system. Scheduled Caste people are discriminate in every day and every minutes of their life. They often lack adequate food, health care and houses, are shunned in public places such as hospitals and temples, roads and buses, and discriminate with regards education, employment and ownership of land. In this study main objective are to understand traditional culture of scheduled Castes, to find out reasons behind traditional culture to modern culture, to critically investigate social changes of Scheduled Caste for their development, and to suggest a suitable action plan for their development. Tools for Data Collation In the present study data were both ‘primary’ as well as ‘secondary’ sources. The dates were collected primary sources, Researcher collected 50 samples from the study area. The investigator used simple random techniques for selecting the sample size. Design of the Study – descriptive design will be used to describe the data. The collected data were analysed with the help of descriptive and simple percentage.  The collected data were analyzed to get a better understanding of the Traditional Culture and Social Change of SCs a case of Nagalur village in Erode District.

INDRODUCTION

Throughout history, scheduled caste have been denied from basic rights and considered even outside of caste system. Ganthi coined the word ‘Harijian’ which means “children of god” even the word of Harijian has been considered derogatory and scheduled caste means an exploited person. Scheduled cast is the more socially acceptable term, adopted to express the systemic impression which people without caste have endured over thousands of years of Indian culture. Numerous organizations have lobbied to change the way that scheduled caste are treated in Indian society and a number of laws have been passed in attempts to outlaw discrimination

The Indian caste system is quite complex, and based in the Hindu religion although people of all religions are divided into castes in India, along with several other nations. For thousands of years, caste was a crucial determining factor in where someone fit into society, and the rigid system did not have room for social climbing or efforts against discrimination. There are four main castes in India, also known as Varna’s; people who do not fall into any caste are considered scheduled caste or out of caste.

Because a Scheduled Caste essentially, lacks divinity, he/she be assigned to menial labour which higher believe is polluting. Scheduled castes have traditionally participated in animal slaughter, garbage collection, sewage handling and dealing with cadavers. These polluting vocations only enforce the status of scheduled cast, with upper casts forcing them to use different facilities, and to avoid handling or touching people of caste. In some parts of India, scheduled caste was not even allowed to cast a shadow onto upper class members of Indian society.

Origin of scheduled caste

Scheduled caste is outcastes, which means that they do not belong to any of the four main castes of Hindu society, created several millennia ago when the Aryans Indo-Europeans invaded India about 1500 year BC from the Northwest, they found there an original dark-skinned people. The newcomers organized their society according to a hierarchical system of four caste or varnas colours that of the Brahmins or priests, the Kshatryas or warriors/rulers, the Vaisyas or farmers/artisans, and shudras who were to serve the other castes. This caste system was an intricate part of the Aryan religion, Hinduism, in that higher caste possessed a religious cleanliness which the lower caste lacked. In fact, contact with lower caste people would make a higher caste person unclean. Since the aboriginal people of India fell outside of this system, they became outcastes or untouchables and unwelcome carrier of pollution. They had to live outside the villages, could not use the common well, and were ordered to perform the duties no one else would do, such as removing excrement or washing clothes. And even in modern democratic. India scheduled Caste are discriminated in every area of life. They often lack adequate food, health care and housing, are shunned in public place such as hospitals and temples, roads and buses, and discriminated with regards to education, employment and ownership of land.

Culture of Scheduled Caste

It is one of hard-work and rest, honest and simplicity, achievements and celebrations. Scheduled Caste are always creative and productive, celebrations and enjoyments. Come with that freedom, frankness, open heartedness, songs, steps, beats, drums dance and drama; food, feasting, festivals, thanks giving, worship, prayer and sacrifices. It is agriculture based agrarian farm culture. Culture is of the workers and working classes. The something continues in the new-world of urbanized industrial area. Work workers celebrations and Rest. Adulterated with ulterior motives cunningly by the Brahmins, stealthily by the baniyas and extracted crudely by the Kshatriyas are liquor drugs and evil practices, particularly in the mode of celebrations, thanks giving and rest. Done only to cheat, swindle and rob the SC of their creation and produce still these DCHs claim themselves superior both culturally and intellectually frauds

Review of literature

Srinivas (1966) in social change in modern India has defined the process of Sanskritization: Sanskritization is the process by which a low Hindu caste, or tribal or other group, changes its customs, rituals, ideology and way of life in the direction of a high, and frequently twice born caste. The low caste takes to the conduct, customs and rituals of higher caste. By Sanskitization a caste or a tribal community ventures to gain higher status in society. In the process of Sanskritization a claim is made for higher status in the social structure and it is therefore a vertical movement. But in Sanskritization there is improvement of status only, there no structural change.

Mohar (1959); patwardhan (1968); Lynch (1969),No doubt certain amount of social mobility has occurred among the Scheduled Caste over a span of time. Such change and mobility in religious, educational, economic and political spheres has been regarded as channels utilized by the educated castes to raise caste status.

 

 

Methodology

In this chapter, methodological framework has designed. Research methodology refers to how entire process of research has been designed and in what manner we are going to conduct it, following are the methodologies adopted for the study.

Statement of the problem

The study entitled “Traditional Culture and Social Change of SCs a case of Nagalur village in Erode District” is an attempt to understand the whether the change happened in the SC people’s traditional culture and their social status.

Objectives

The main Objective of the study is to find out the changes in traditional culture and social changes of SC people. The specific objectives are given below:

  1. To understand traditional culture of scheduled Castes
  2. To find out reasons behind traditional culture to modern culture.
  3. To critically investigate social changes of Scheduled Caste for their development.

 

Sampling

Researcher taken 50 respondents is the sample from the study area. The researcher used simple random techniques for selecting the sample size.

Following major findings have been observed.

  • 74%of the respondents in the participation in the Traditional Cultural in the village.
  • 72%of the respondents are in the health care system satisfy in the village.

 

Conclusion:

The study reveals that, from the historical point of view Dalits are vulnerable and suppressed by the other community. Nowadays they are dominated by the dominant community. Every community people are having their own culture and tradition and they believe their own culture similarly Dalits are following this. But, in this modern word many of the community people are merged with other community by the inter cast or inter religious marriage. Same thing these people should move and mingle with others community people. Some numbers of scheduled caste are converting into other religion. It will bring traditional culture change among the scheduled caste. By the findings the research got some knowledge about the traditional culture of Dalit. They have a wide variety of culture, they are strictly believed in their culture. But only few of the people are came out with this traditions in the modern world. The parents should teach their children about their traditional culture. Local schools are joining with the local community to teach the student. The social changes among the Dalits should come only with the help of the more number of educations and employed. Most of the Dalits people are depending the government schemes to run their family. They must have to come forward to hope their self to work for their family. It is observed that old age person celebrate their traditional culture. But youth can like to celebrate modern functions. Traditional cultures cannot be affected by globalization. This study recommends by saying that government must care traditional culture and give training for youth.

Reference:

  • Anandi, S. (1995)., “Contending identities: SCs and secular Politics in Madras Slums”, Indian Social Institute, New Delhi.
  • , M., & Zelliot., E., (1992)., “An anthology of SC literature: Poems”, Gyan publishing House, New Delhi.
  • Human Rights Documentation., (2008) ., “Dalits/Scheduled Castes” , Unpublished paper Indian Social Institute, New Delhi.
  • Jasmine Rao., (2010)., “The Caste System: Effects on Poverty in India, Nepal and Sri Lanka” Global Majority E-Journal, Vol. 1, No. 2 ,pp. 97-106
  • Rakeshk Sinha., (2010)., “Social Culture Development of India”, Mohit Publications, New Delhi.
  • Siddaramu B., (2013)., “The Consciousness of Caste in The Contemporary Indian Society” International Journal of Research in Humanities, Arts and Literature, Vol. 1, Issue 1, pp.1-4.
  • Sukhadeo Thora. T., Katherine S. Newman., (2007)., “Caste and Economic Discrimination: Causes, Consequences and Remedies”, Economic and Political Weekly, pp.4121 – 4124

 

SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONDITION OF RUBBER PLANTATION WORKERS- A SYNOPTIC STUDY

Joyjit Sanyal

Dr. Sujit Sikidar,

Ajit Timung,

 

Abstract:

This present study entitled ‘A study on the Socio-Economic condition of Rubber Plantation workers of Diphu, Karbi Anglong district of Assam’ is undertaken with the objective to throw light on the lives of the plantation workers. Rubber Plantation is a highly lucrative and profitable business and is mostly privately owned. This research work intends to study the condition i.e. the socio-economic condition of the plantation workers in Diphu where the rubber plantation business is flourishing over the last two decades due to its nature. It is a matter of great concern to study the fact whether the workers are able to gain a part of the fruits of the business or not. This knowledge can only be gained by studying the socio-economic of the workers.

The present study is undertaken with the following objectives:

  • To Collect Socio-economic data of workers in the rubber plantation with a view to study the problem faced by them in their working, living and social condition and the extent of the welfare amenities available to them.

Key words: Plantation, unskilled labour, labour welfare, etc.

 

  1. INTRODUCTION
    • MEANING OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONDITION

Socio-generally means society, social and it refers to any number of demographic and social conditions such as the age structure, racial composition, sex ratio, marriages and so on.

Economic refers to the economic conditions such as income, unemployment, rates and so on.

Socio-economic condition refers to an individual level of income, wealth, education and prestige. It consists of the cultivated behaviors of their daily life activities like how they live and earns education, hospitality, wages and salaries, role of family, ethical issue, social responsibility of business.

The  basic objectives of this research on the socio-economic condition of rubber plantation worker is to gather idea and their problem faced by them and to improve their standard of living, education, provide adequate amount of salary and wages, rent and accommodation.

  • DEFINITION OF PLANTATION

The term ‘Plantation’ has been defined under the Plantation Labour Act 1951 to include any plantation to which the Act, whether wholly or in parts applies and includes offices, hospital dispensaries, school or other premises used for any other purpose connected with such plantation. Section 1(14) of the Act applies to any land  or intends to be used for growing tea, coffee, rubber, cinchona and cardamom which measure 5hectare or more and in which fifteen or more persons are employed or were employed on any  draft of the   proceeding 12 month.

  • WORKERS:

Workers mean a person (including any member of the medical staff) employed in a plantation for hired or reward, whether directly or through any agency, to do any work skilled, unskilled, manual or clerical but does not include:

  • A Medical officer employed in the plantation
  • Any person employed in the plantation primarily in a managerial capacity or
  • Any person temporarily employed in the plantation in any work relating to the construction, development or maintenance of building, road, bridge or canals.
    • EMPLOYER:

When use in relationship to plantation, it means the person who has the ultimate control over the  affairs of the plantation and where the affairs of any plantation are entrusted to any person (whether called a managing agent, manager, superintendent or by any other name) such person shall be deemed to be the employer in relation to that plantation.

  • ABOUT PLANTATION RUBBER

Rubber plays an important role in the industrial and economic development of a country. Rubber plantation provide the principal raw material required for manufacturing of around 35,000 rubber product ranging from toy balloons to tyres of giant moving equipment.

India ranks third in production fourth in the consumption of natural rubber in the world. Rubber Plantations are spread over 5.9 lakh hectares in 16 states. Rubber is primarily grown in Kerela and adjoining Kanyakumari district of Tamil Nadu, the traditional growing areas of the country. Besides these, rubber is also grown in the North-Eastern state like Tripura, Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Manipur.

  1. REVIEW OF LITERATURE

In any research project it is essential to understand what has already been done in the specific topic that the researcher chooses and what has been done in the wider subject area of that topic. A Literature review is a text written by someone to consider the critical point of current knowledge including substantive finding as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic. Literature reviews are secondary sources, and as such, do not report any new or original experimental work. Also, a review of literature can be interpreted as a review of an abstract accomplishment.

  1. Mahalakhsmi, Assistant professor, Bharthiar University Art and Science College, Dec 2012 (IJSETR) volume 1, in her study on the Socio-economic status of women employees in tea plantation industries found out that no. of women workers are facing many problem in the tea plantation. Since women workers are engaged more than the male workers. The study is basically focus on their living condition, wages earning and socio-security benefit. The important factor for their development and the problem faced by the employees are also identified.
  2. V USHADEVI and V.N JAYACHANDRAN (2001) A Project of Kerela Research Programme on Local Level Development (KRPLLD) Centre for Research Studies Thiruvanthapuram. SOCIO-ECONOMIC PROFILE OF RUBBER TAPPERS IN THE SMALL HOLDING SECTOR. The study basically focused on the tapper’s workers. The study found that tapper work is not an easy work as it requires skill and is labour intensive for the good health of the rubber tree and maintaining the longetivity of its production period.
  3. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE INFORMAL CONDITIONS OF THE PLANTATION LABOURERS OF INDIA LABOUREROF INDIA AND SRI LANKA. By Neelam Choudhary and Deeksha Tayal. The study focuses on the section of plantation labourers,who are directly employed by the employer are and contract workers. The study also suggest the effectiveness of any formalization strategy would require collective involvement and social dialogue among all the key players in the plantation sector.
  4. Government of India (1980) Labour Bureau Ministry of Labour   Socio-economic condition of women workers in plantation action. In this study the Government of India focused on the plantation sectors of the labour economical life.
  5. RESEARCH GAP:

 From the above literatures it is known that many researchers have been done regarding socio-economic condition of plantation workers in different geographical areas. The research gap in this study is that no such study has been done in the geographical area where this study has been undertaken. So the survey has conducted among the rubber plantation firm of Diphu, Karbi Anglong of Assam.

  1. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The present research enquiry is undertaken with the following objectives with the hope that a new stock of knowledge may be created with the study undertaken:

  • To Collect Socio-economic data of workers in the rubber plantation with a view to study the problem faced by them in their working, living and social condition and the extent of the welfare amenities available to them.
  1. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
    • PROFILE OF THE RUBBER PLANTATION FIRM OF DIPHU, KARBI ANGLONG DISTRICT ASSAM

Plantation crops like rubbers are high value crops of great economic importance and provide huge employment opportunity. Suitable land and also agro climatic condition provide favorable environment for rubber plantation.

Expansion of cultivation, which is one of the reasons for stepping up rubber production on a sustainable basis taking place mainly in non-traditional areas. Diphu is one of such non-traditional areas identified by Rubber Board of India. There is a growing popularity of rubber cultivation in the area. Rubber plantation offer ways for generating additional revenue for the growers.

The beneficiaries under the various scheme of rubber board may also avail of long term financial bank loans in order to supplement the financial and other assistance granted by the Board as well as to acquire financial liquidity for undertaking the plantation operation. The Board will in such instance provide the required technical support to the bank concerned extending finance.

It is gathered from the concerned people that rubber cultivation is highly income generating if managed properly. The small scale cultivators or a grower of rubber is emerging in the district. The implication of this development on firm will be significant. There are of course, several inherent problems of small scale cultivation of rubber like capital lock up due to long gestation period, capital intensive, nature of production systems, processing and marketing problems.

In Diphu, Rubber plantations are very popular and the growers are very much interested in cultivating such crops. The land is climatic in nature which is suitable for rubber plantation. The study reveals three unit level of plantation firm. Out of 15 plantations firm, three unit level of plantation firm has been selected for the study. The firms are privately owned in Diphu.

Out of that unit level is M/S Rongmili Rubber which is located near Matipung 5km distance away from Diphu town. It was established in the year 1990 by Harold Engti a resident of Rongmili, Diphu. At present there are 311 numbers of workers.

Another firm is taken from M/S Tungjang Rubber Estate established in the year 1987 by Mr. Gajendra Timung. The firm is located at Diphu-Lumding road 5km distance from the Diphu town. There are 52 nos of workers.

And the third firm is M/S Babu Teron Rubber firm established in the year 1996 located at Diphu Lumding road 5km from the main town. No. of worker are only 12.

The information collected on the no. of unit allowing all the data are collected in the table all the three unit of firm together.

  • RESEACH DESIGN

The research design for this study is descriptive in nature. Descriptive researches are those studies which are concerned with describing the characteristic of a particular individual, or of a group. A descriptive research design can be either quantitative or qualitative. Descriptive research involves gathering data that describes events and then organizing, tabulation, depiction and describing the data collection (Glass and Hopkin, 1984). It includes survey and fact finding.

 Here the detailed study of the Socio- Economic Condition of Rubber Plantation workers of Diphu, Karbi Anglong district is done. The information is collected with the help of an unbiased non disguised and structured questionnaire consisting of close-ended question and field survey.

 

  • SAMPLE DESIGN

Simple random sampling is the process of drawing a sample from a population in such a way that each and every unit or item of the population has the equal chance of being included in the sample.

 Two stages of sampling design were adopted for the survey. In the first stage of sampling, the sample size of the unit level or employer level schedule has been determined.

In the second stages, sample worker level schedule have been canvassed.

  • UNIVERSE OF THE STUDY

The Universe of the study contains of the 15 registered rubber plantation firms in Diphu where an approximately 1500 numbers of worker are engaged in the plantation work.

  • SAMPLE UNITS

Out of the 15 numbers of plantation firms, three of the units had permitted the researcher to interact with their employees and as such these three numbers of firms forms the sample units for the study.

  • SAMPLE SIZE

The sample size includes all the workers belonging from the three unit level of the plantation

5.4. QUESTIONNAIRE CANVASSED

 (i) Two specially designed schedules were canvassed for the purpose of this survey. The unit level questionnaire was canvassed to capture the working condition of workers. A unit level questionnaire was designed to collect data for the unit as a whole on important parameters ,like  year of establishment, types of ownership, mode of payment wages and earning of the manual workers, leave and holidays, daily hour of work, sex-wise employment of workers in the plantation, trade union, welfare amenities available to workers, social security and benefit.

 (ii) The worker level schedule is designed to collect the data on living condition of women workers employed in the plantation. The schedule was designed to capture the important aspects like migration, status caste, demographic particular (age profile, marital status, education qualification etc.), Wages and earning total income and saving indebtness, medical expenditure etc.

  • DATA COLLECTION

Data has collected both by Primary and Secondary sources.

Primary data: Primary data has been collected through a structured, unbiased and non disguised questionnaire which consisted of field survey all the workers from different firm gave their relevant information during the survey.

Secondary data: Secondary data has been collected through books, websites and journals based on the relevant topics of the research work.

  • LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

In course of conducting the survey the researcher faced difficulty in establishing communication linkage with the workers because most of the tribal workers in interior areas are not fluent in any language other than their mother tongue. As a result, the researcher has taken the help of university students belonging to Karbi Community and they were engaged by the researcher for facilitating collection of information.

 

  1. DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION:

TABLE PART A.  EMPLOYER UNIT LEVEL

  1. FINDINGS OF THE STUDY

 The results of the field survey lend us to the following finding:

  • In course of field survey, it is noticed that the worker chosen in 3 sample plantations have absorbed 100% tribal workers from the same locality, who all belong to ST population in the study area.
  • Around 63.3% of the workers belonged to the age group of 25-35 years whereas 20% of the workers belonged to the age group of 15-25 years.
  • Around 36.67% of the workers have never had the opportunity for any formal education whereas about 58.33% of the workers had attended school but couldn’t pass out.
  • It has also been found out that mostly the males are engaged in the plantation works here in Diphu which constitutes about 68.33% of the total population. Whereas the rest constitutes the female workers.
  • 72% of the workers were found to be married and the rest 28% were unmarried. Further, it was also found out that around 30% of the workers interrogated had 4-6 dependent family members, 33% had 2-4 dependents and 30% of them had 1-2 dependents.
  • Around 63.33% of the workers were found to be permanent employees of the rubber plantations whereas 36.7% of the workers were employed casually.
  • With regards to the annual earning of the workers, it was discovered that 40% of them have an annual earnings in between Rs.20,000-Rs.40,000 per annum and 33.33% of the workers earned Rs.40,000-Rs.60,000 per annum, which constituted mostly the permanent workers. On the other hand 21.7% of the workers were found to earn below Rs. 20,0000 per annum. This group mostly belonged to the casual workers. Furthermore, this group may be getting engaged as hired wage workers for contract jobs or seasonal jobs, etc.
  • The Researcher also made his best attempt to get hold of the information with regards to the total household income of the plantation workers. However, in this regards, most of the workers were found to be suspicious over declaring the total household income. The Researcher in this regards could roughly gather the fact that around 66.7% of the worker’s household had an annual income below Rs.50,000 whereas 33.33% disclosed that they had an annual income in between Rs.50,000- Rs.1,00,000.
  • Only 16.75% of the workers were found to have a savings bank account in Diphu, the rest 83.35% were indifferent towards the idea of having any bank account at all.
  • Most of the workers revealed that they had an annual savings ranging from Rs.10,000 to Rs.20,000 at their respective bank accounts.
  • Our study also reveals that banking habits, banking services flourished & multiplied in the tribal society with the growth of plantation activities. It appears that there is a positive correlation between banking services & plantation activities. It does ensures that major plantation activities on the other hand promote financial inclusion in Karbi Anglong district comparatively much better than the other districts of the state.
  • 33% of the workers reported that they were paid their wages on a monthly basis, this section of workers constituted the permanent workers of the plantation. Whereas another 13.33% and 18.34% reported that they were paid their remunerations on daily and weekly basis respectively.
  • However, almost 51.75% of the workers were dissatisfied with the amount of wages structure being paid to them. 41.7% were found to be satisfied with their wages from the plantation. But another 6.6% were unable to undecided on the satisfaction level.
  • It was quite evident from the field study that the workers were highly satisfied with the working hours since 87% of the workers responded in positive when enquired about their satisfaction with regards to the time they have to spend on the plantation.
  • Again 71.7% of the workers were also in favour of the recess that they are provided in the working hours by the plantation management but another 25% shared that they were not happy with rest intervals that they are provided with.
  • Only 65% of the workers responded that they were provided with sick pay leaves whereas the rest 35% shared that they were not provided any kind of sick leaves with pay.
  • Around 66.7% of the workers responded that they were provided medical benefits by the employer but within certain ceilings on monetary benefits. Usually there family members were not considered in the scheme. Further, the amount provided is usually very meager. Another 33.33% were not provided any such facility at all. It may be because of the fact that they were casual in nature. The casual workers constituting 33.33% of the workforce are excluded under the scheme.
  • Usually the workers are required to perform their duties in the open and as such the requirement of Rest Shelter facilities is necessitated. However, the Researcher found out that around 8.3% of the sample respondents said they were not provided with any such facilities. The plantation workers are generally exposed to heat, sun rays, rain and gifts of Mother Nature because of the nature of works involved in open fields. As a result, work facilities under a shed or a thatch is not possible accounting to such worker’s grievances.
  • Only 26.7% of the workers responded that they were provided with the canteen facilities of which only a few were found to be satisfied with the food items served in the canteens. However, the majority of the workers responded that they were not provided with any such facilities.
  • Around 65% of the workers shared that they were provided with housing facilities. The workers are usually provided shelters within the plantation in temporary dwellings. The conditions of the kutccha houses are dilapidated with no electricity facility.
  • From the study it was found out that around 61.7% of the workers responded that their employers provided educational facilities to their children. On enquiring further, it was found out that the employers usually provides a lump sum amount on yearly basis to the workers for getting their children admitted to the schools and for the purchase of books and other materials.
  • None of the employers are found to be providing their workers with insurance benefits.
  • Though the chances of accidents are quite rare in the rubber plantations but all the sample populations responded that their employers bestowed them with accident benefits.
  • Around 60% of the women workers responded that their employers were providing them with the maternity benefits which included 6 months period with half the pay rates. Most of the other responded in negative mainly because of the fact that they fall in the category of casual workers.
  • Finally the workers were asked to provide their overall viewpoints with regards to the welfare facilities they were receiving from their employers. It was found out that 40% of the workers were very highly satisfied with all the facilities provided by their employers. On the other hand, 48.3% of the employees were found to be moderately satisfied. However no workers were found to be highly dissatisfied. Only a mere 3.3% of the workers were found to be dissatisfied.
  1. CONCLUSION

An in depth analysis and study is conducted to find the Socio-Economic Condition of Rubber Plantation worker in Diphu. Among the three selected units, the questions were framed to understand about living condition, employment status earning wages and benefits from the workers view, the researcher gathered in depth status of both the men and women employees in the rubber plantation. The nature of work is very hard. They are engaged in 8-10 hours of work. Most of the employees have no other tasks leaving apart the plantation work. The region surrounding still remains underdeveloped so the employees have no other sources of employment to improve their lifestyle. The present wage structure is not adequate to run their family. They are leading life in poor condition and also not able to provide proper education facilities to their children.   Only things they appreciates is that they have free water facilities, accidental benefit, maternity benefit, rest shelter facilities, education facilities with which overall they are moderately satisfied as a whole.

 Women tappers represent only a small percent of total sample tapper. Generally, they are forced to enter the field of tapping because of financial crisis of concerned families. They do not have any job satisfaction, because it is difficult to manage in tapping, collecting latex as well as left with household chores. Therefore they hardly have life.

                                        REFERENCES

  1. Kothari,CR (2004), Research Methodology, Methods and Techniques, 2nd Edition, New Age International(P)Ltd, New Delhi.
  2. A. Mahalakshmi, Asst.Prof., Bharitiar University of Arts and Science College,Nalparai-642127: International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology Research (IJSETR) Volume 1 issue 6,Dec 2012 :A Study on the socio-economic status of women employees in Tea Plantation Industries( ISSN:2278-7798).
  3. T.V USHADEVI and V.N JAYACHANDRAN (2001): A Project of Kerela Research Programe on Local Level Development (KRPLLD) Centre for Research Studies Thiruvananthapuram SOCIO-ECONOMIC PROFILE OF RUBBER TAPPERS IN THE SMALL HOLDING SECTOR. Final Report .
  4. Government of India Ministry of Labour and Employment .Labour Bureau Chandigarh (2008-2009) Socio-Economic Condition of Women Women workers in plantation Industry.
  5. D. Rajasen (Sept 2010) NRPPD Discussion paper Livelihood and Employment of Workers in Rubber and Spices Plantation.
  6. ACHYUT KRISHNA BORAH, Department of Commerce Dibrugarh University, Dbrugarh Assam. India ISSN: 2319-7493 Vol.2 Issue2. Nov2013. SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONDITION AND INCOME AN EXPENDITURE PATTERN OF PLANTATION WORKERS WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO LEPETKOTA TEA ESTATE.
  7. Glass ,GV and Hopkins, K.D(1984) Statistical methods in education and psycholology, 2nd Editio Boston Allyn and Bacon .

 

The Relationship between Risk Management Committee Characteristics and Modified Audit Opinion in Malaysia

Suhaimi Ishak

Abstract

The purpose of the study is to examine the relationship between risk management committee (RMC) characteristics and modified audit opinion in Malaysia among the non-banking and financial companies listed in Bursa Malaysia. Data is collected from the annual reports of a sample of 300 companies for a period of 2004 until 2009. Both descriptive and multivariate analyses are employed to address the research objectives. The results indicate that separate RMC is negatively related with acceptance of modified audit opinion. Besides, the larger the size of RMC and the higher number of overlapping status for RMC’s members, it probably will higher the acceptance of modified audit opinion. Further, modified audit opinion that has been received at prior financial year is likely to receive the same opinion at current financial year. However, the status of auditor whether big or small firm is not related to modified audit opinion. The findings provide empirical evidence on the development and importance of RMC and its characteristics for the quality of companies’ financial reporting.

Keywords: risk management committee; risk; modified audit opinion; Malaysia

 

ntroduction

The global economic downturn has exposed the poor risk management practices of many companies and organization (Baker, 2011). At the Corporate Governance Week 2010 and 2011 which jointly hosted by Security Commission (SC) of Malaysia and Bursa Malaysia (BM), the both chairmen of these regulatory bodies stressed about the risk management process and board’s awareness on that process as a key element in the corporate governance practices in a company. The remark was pointed to the board as a key person in establishing and implementing well of risk management process in the company. The remark also is a signal to the board of director (BOD) to give more attention to the company’s risk management profile and the formation of committee at the board level that concentrate on the risk management profile is one of the good initiatives. Again, the deputy executive of SC at the ASEAN Audit Regulators Group Forum 2013 in Kuala Lumpur has stressed about the auditors to consider seriously when assessing the risks surrounding clients’ financial statements. Meanwhile, the objective of the study is to examine the relationship between the risk management committee’s characteristics (separate RMC, RMC size and RMC overlapping) and modified audit opinion issued by the auditors in Malaysia. We seek to ascertain whether RMC enhance the quality of financial reporting particularly on risk profile of the organization. We apply the modified auditor opinion as measure to the quality of financial reporting. In Malaysia, under the best practices in corporate governance of Malaysian Code on Corporate Governance (MCCG) (2007) and (2012) (Revised) clearly stated the board has principle responsibility for “identifying principal risks and ensuring the implementation of appropriate systems to manage these risks”. BOD has the responsibility in setting the strategies and creating the environment for effective risk management system in a company and the existence of RMC is a good step for the effective of the system (Yatim, 2010). The formation of RMC with focusing on the broad areas of risks including internal and external risks will help company in managing those risks without depending only on the audit committee. Some expertise on the company business’s external environmental are needed in RMC rather than depending on audit committee members which have expertise in internal control and accounting transactions. For example, RMC members with expertise on business opportunity and investment will evaluate the company’s viability in future and reducing the risks of going-concern. This situation will reduce the acceptance of modified audit report by the company. The job profile of RMC with focusing on broad areas of risks can reduce the exposure of risks by the company including the external risks such as going-concern risks and competition risks. Consequently, the probability of receiving the modified audit report particularly on risks issue is less due to the effective managing the risks exposure to the company. Theoretically, this situation creates a linkage between RMC and modified audit report and further on the quality of financial reporting.

To be an effective committee, RMC as a board committee should has the strong attributes whether in term of its composition (board size and director’s type), board process (frequency of meetings) and board characteristics (knowledge, skill, experiences, academic qualification, relevant training and multiple directorships). The strong composition of RMC, its process and characteristics is parallel with the argument in resource dependency theory. The theory as proposed by Preffer and Salancik (1978) argued that board (RMC) as a crucial resource to the organization and also acted as a bridge between organization and external link.

The formation of separate RMC is still voluntary in most countries in the world including Malaysia and the function of risk management sometimes is combined with Audit Committee (AC) or directly under the Board of Director (BOD) of the company (Subramaniam, McManus & Zhang, 2009). This study tries to relate whether the existence of separate RMC probably will reduce the issuance of modified audit opinion by auditor. Board size is prominently used in corporate governance studies (Dalton, Daily, Johnson & Ellstrand, 1999) and viewed as an important element of company’s governance quality (Musteen, Datta & Kemmerer, 2010). For the risk issues, the smaller board is expected to gain better oversight function due to the less difference of ideas and approaches. Ong and Wan (2008) argued that larger board may have conflicting in executing and maintaining the board effort norms as the oversight function. They may have conflicting among them for the monitoring and decision made. However, for the company’s business and industry risk oversight function, the vast knowledge and experiences of board’ members are needed (Dalton et al., 1999) and the knowledgeable and experienced directors would be gained through outside as the independent non-executive directors who are not involved with the company’s management function and duty. Some companies have limited members of BOD. The same directors might hold several positions as members of some sub-committee of BOD. The member of RMC might be a member of remuneration or audit committee and the overlapping of directorship by directors is view as the insight to the corporate governance mechanism (Zajac & Westphal, 1996).

The structure of this paper is as follows. The next section provides a brief review of past research and hypotheses development. Followed by research methodology section, analysis of result and discussion. The conclusion and recommendation is presented in last section.

Previous Research and Hypotheses Development

The study on the association between risk management committee’s characteristics and modified audit opinion remains scant and limited. However, some previous study have examined the relationship between board’s characteristics or audit committee composition and audit opinion (see Carcello & Neal, 2000; Farinha & Viana, 2009; Masyitoh & Adhariani, 2010; Wenyao & Qin, 2007; Pucheta-Martinez & Fuentes, 2007). The role of RMC in risk management is relatively unexplored and the literature on that field is limited and scant. Tufano (1996) added the lack of research in risk management committee was due to the lack of meaningful data on risk management practices. Again, Subramniam and Carey (2011) reported that the establishment of formalized system of risk management in organization is more recent development. The establishment of RMC is seen to be a complement to the oversight function of board of director and might be able to reduce the burden of task by audit committee. Zaman (2001) suggested it is impossible to expect the audit committee to implement more than high level review given their lack of expertise and time. It was also supported by Fields and Keys (2003) that RMCs have gained popularity as an important oversight committee. The argument is parallel with agency theory that RMC as a board committee should acted on behalf of the shareholders at all. Furthermore, Subramaniam et al. (2009) added that the existence of separate RMC with focusing on the risk profile was also able to increase the quality of internal monitoring in relation to risk management. Thus, the probability of the company to receive modified audit opinion is less and the first hypothesis is generated as follow:

H1:      The existence of separate or distinct RMC is negatively associated with the probability that the company will receive modified audit report.

A smaller board size is seem to be better for oversight responsibility to monitor financial reporting and related internal control (Farinha & Viana, 2009). However, in their study, the result showed the insignificant relationship between board size and the company to receive modified audit report. It means a board size seems to have no influence on modified opinion. The result is consistent with the earlier study by Wenyao and Qin (2007) which found insignificant relationship between board size and audit opinion and the characteristic of board size was irrelevant to the determinant of audit opinion issued. However, Xie, Davidson and Dadalt (2003) reported the negative relationship between board size and earning management activities. In term of accounting fraud, Beasley (1996) found a positive relationship between the number of board members and the occurrence of accounting fraud. In resource dependency perspective, Boyd (1990) argued that sometimes the small board size is due to the scarcity of resource or competitive uncertainty. The earlier study by Pucheta-Martinez and Fuentes (2007) found a positive relationship between the audit committee size and the company to receive qualified audit opinion. Therefore, the study suggests that RMC size can influence on the probability that modified audit report will be issued by the auditor. A smaller RMC size is better for directors’ monitoring functions and less probability that the auditor will issue modified audit report. This situation leads to the second hypothesis:

H2:      RMC size is positively associated with the probability that the company will receive modified audit report.

One director might be a member of twice or more boards’ committees. A member in the audit committee might be a member of RMC. The overlapping of directorship by directors is view as the insight to the corporate governance mechanism (Zajac & Westphal, 1996). Bettenhausen and Murnighan (1985) argued that the experience and knowledge from the other board membership can be brought to the other board committees and the focal and change can be performed. While Alderfer (1986) mentioned that the multiple board membership experience leads to the affecting board decision it is consistent with resource dependency perspective that board as resource in organization should has a pool of experiences. Most importantly and in agency view, several board membership experiences increased the board oversight control on behalf of shareholders (Mizruchi, 1992). The overlapping of members among boards’ committees gives advantages to the BOD entirely because all the committees are the board committee and not related to management function (Carcello & Neal, 2000). The result of each of committees is needed each other. The poor performance of a company is caused by the less directorship member of directors (Gilson, 1990) and the argument was supported by Kaplan and Reishus (1990) that the less directorship member by directors contribute to the emergence of financial distress company. Thus, the next hypothesis is as follow:

H3:      RMC overlap is negatively associated with the probability that the company will receive modified audit report.

 

 

Research Methodology

We use the logistic regression analysis to examine the relationship between modified audit opinion and the variables proposed for the characteristics of RMC. The model used to test the hypotheses is as follows:

MA= β0 + β1 SEPRMC + β2 RMCSIZE + β3 RMCOVER + β4 PRAUREP + β5 BIG4 + ε

where :-

 

 

Variable Definition and Measurement

According to Aren et al. (2009) there are five types of audit reports, namely standard unqualified or clean audit report, unqualified with explanatory paragraph or modified wording, qualified, adverse and disclaimer audit report. For the purpose of this study, the unqualified with explanatory paragraph (modified wording), qualified (except for), adverse and disclaimer audit report are classified as modified audit opinion. If a company received modified audit report, the data is valued as ‘1’ in the worksheet and if a company received the audit report other than modified audit report, the value of ‘0’ is coded accordingly.

Researcher considers the existence of separate RMC if the committee has a single committee with title of ‘risk management committee’ without any combination with any other committees including audit committee. Any combination of task and responsibility of risk management with other committees’ task are considered no existence of separate RMC (Combined RMC). For the purpose of this study, if the company has a separate RMC, it is coded as ‘1’ and if a company has not a separate RMC, the value of ‘0’ is coded. This criterion has been used by previous studies such as Subramaniam et al. (2009) and Yatim (2009).

RMC size is the total number of RMC’s members sitting on the committee until the end of financial year. A member will be considered as a RMC’s member if the appointment as member is at least six months and above. If the appointment as RMC’s member is below six months or the resignation is above six months from the financial year end, he or she can not be considered as RMC’s member. (see Farinha & Viana, 2009; Pucheta-Martinez & Fuentes 2007).

RMC overlaps refer to the dual or more functions of RMC’s members on the different board committees. A Member of RMC might be a member of audit committee or other board committees at the same time. For a company, a member of RMC or any other board committees has become a member of other board committees such as remuneration committee and audit committee at the same time but not all the members having such situation. For the measurement purpose, researcher compares the composition of RMC with all the other board committees’ composition to identify the members of RMC with dual or more functions at the same time. Then, the total numbers of RMC’s members with dual or more function are divided by the total number of RMC’s members. The figure is used for this study. This measurement has been applied by Carcello and Neal (2000).

Prior audit report refers to the audit report that a company has received for prior financial year. The researcher has read the independent auditor report that is located at the end of the annual report booklet. The researcher has carefully read the report starting from the first sentence until the last sentence of the report in order to identify the type of the audit report. For the measurement purpose, the researcher coded a dummy of ‘1’ if the company received modified audit opinion for prior financial year audit and a dummy of ‘0’ if the company received clean audit report for prior financial year audit. This measurement has been used by previous study (Pucheta-Martinez & Fuentes, 2007; Carcello & Neal, 2000).

Big 4 refer to the four largest international audit firms in the world. They are PricewaterhouseCooper, Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu, Ernst & Young and KPMG. The researcher looks at the bottom of auditor report sheet to identify the audit firm audited the company. The name of auditor and audit firm stated at that side. If the audit firm is one of the Big 4, the data is coded as ‘1’ and if the other audit firms or not a Big 4 audited the company, the data is as ‘0’. More studies have used this criterion for their researches (Yatim, 2010, Kabir, Sharma, Islam, & Salat, 2011; Farinha & Viana, 2009; Pucheta-Martinez & Fuentes, 2007).

Data Collection and Sampling Procedure

The population frame for this study is all the public-listed companies excluding banking and financial institutions listed in Bursa Malaysia’s website from the period of financial year ended 2004 until 2009. Based on the data gathering through the Bursa Malaysia’s website, there are approximately more than 130 companies with modified audit report for the same period (2004-2009) and there are more than 200 companies which have a separate or a stand-alone RMCs disclosure for the said period (Bursa Malaysia’s website, 2012; Yatim, 2009; 2010). Banking and financial institutions are omitted from the sample as the nature and regulations of these firms are significantly different from non-financial companies. The public-listed companies are chosen for this study. Public-listed companies have published the annual report that publicly available and can be accessed through the Bursa Malaysia’s website.

A match sampling approach is adopted as a control procedure (see Ballesta & Garcia-Meca, 2005; Wenyao & Qin, 2007; Sekaran, 2003). Firstly, the researcher selects the companies with modified audit report for the period of study (2004-2009). Then, they matched to the control samples which have the clean audit report based on the conditions that paired companies are in the same industry, most similar in companies’ size (total assets) and in the same period of financial year (Ballesta & Garcia-Meca, 2005; Wenyao & Qin, 2007). To keep reliable and independence, once a control company has been matched to the corresponding company in the test sample in particular year, it is not allow to be matched again with another company (test sample) in another year (Ballesta & Garcia-Meca, 2005). Besides, any company with never stated of whether separate or combined RMC or risk management matters, it is dismissed as the subject in the sample’s list. Lastly, in this study, there are 150 samples with modified audit opinion are gathered and are matched with 150 samples with clean audit opinion. Therefore, the total number of samples in this study is 300 samples.

 

 

 

 

Analysis of Result and Discussion

Descriptive Statistics for Samples

Table 1 presents the descriptive statistics result for all the companies, modified audit opinion companies and clean audit opinion companies together with the result of t-test. For variable of Separate RMC (SEPRMC), the result shows an average of 13 per cent from the samples have the separate RMC for all companies but in modified audit opinion companies, the result shows only 6 per cent of the samples have separate RMC while for clean audit opinion companies the result shows an average of 20 per cent of the samples have the separate RMC. As expected earlier, the percentage of companies with separate RMC is larger in clean audit opinion companies due to the characteristic of this separate RMC and its function. For the result of Independent t-test, it shows statistically significant for variable of Separate RMC with level of p < 0.01. It is means that there is a significant difference in average for this variable between two different sets of samples (modified and clean audit opinion companies).

Variable Definition:

For RMC Size (RMCSIZE), the result for three categories of companies (all, modified and clean companies) reveals quite similar with average three members. However, in the modified audit opinion companies, two members are recorded in minimum and maximum with seven members of RMC. It is different in clean audit opinion companies, the result states between three and six RMC members. The difference result indicates that in modified audit opinion companies sometimes have very small members of RMC and maximum can be with quite high. Yet, in t-test, the result reveals statistically insignificant for variable of RMC Size.

The result of descriptive analysis also reports for the variable of RMC Overlapping (RMCOVER). All the groups of samples including all companies have minimum with zero per cent of RMC members have overlapping status or do not hold some other board committee members in the same company. While 100 per cent in maximum for the RMC members with overlapping status for all the categories of samples. In average, the modified audit opinion companies recorded with 77 per cent of RMC members with overlapping status and only 72 per cent recorded in group sample of clean audit opinion companies. This difference is statistically significant at weak level (p < 0.1) as showed in the result of t-test.

For the control variable of Prior Audit Report (PRAUREP), the group of all companies recorded 34 per cent in average for the companies received modified audit report for prior year. The descriptive analysis also shows a larger value for the modified audit opinion companies with average of 67 per cent of the samples have received modified audit report for prior year whereas only 0.7 per cent of samples have experienced the said situation for the group of clean audit opinion companies. The huge difference is already expected by the researcher and the result of t-test also reveals the statistically significant at strong level (p < 0.01) for this difference of mean.

Lastly, for Big4 (BIG4), the result of mean for the sample of modified audit opinion companies is at 47 percent whereas for the sample of clean audit opinion companies is at 41 per cent which mean that 41 per cent of the companies in clean audit opinion companies audited by Big 4 audit firms. However, the mean difference for this variable is not statistically

(Pearson Correlation Matrix) for Variables

Table 2 reports the result of correlation among the variables. The correlations are quite low, generally below 0.3 except for a pair of Modified Audit Opinion (MA) and Prior Audit Report (PRAUREP) which are correlated at 70 per cent with significant at level of 0.01. It is means that MA and PRAUREP have strong relationship with assumption of that PRAUREP has major effect on MA. Besides, Separate RMC also has an effect on MA with correlation by 21 per cent and it is significant at 0.01 levels. The other variables that correlated are between Separate RMC and RMC Size, Separate RMC and PRAUREP, RMC Size and RMC Overlap, RMC Size and Big4. The result also reveals that there is no higher correlation with more than 0.85 which means no multicolinearity problem exist in the samples.

 

 

 

Logistic Regression Analysis

Table 3 reports the logistic regression result. The model consists of independent variables (characteristics of RMC) and control variables with Modified Audit Opinion as dependent variable. The result reports the level of correct classification (the percentage of correct predictions) at 83 per cent while Cox & Snell R Square and Nagelkerke R Square report at 49 per cent and 66 per cent respectively. The Chi-square’s test reports at 203.123 and the model is significant at level of 0.00 (p < 0.01). All the independent variables (characteristics of RMC) are statistically significant while for the control variables, only the variable of PRAUREP is significant.  All the variables are significant at expected direction except for variable of RMCOVER which is significant at positive direction.

 

SEPRMC          = 1, if the existence of separate RMC, otherwise 0

For hypothesis of Separate RMC (SEPRMC), it is statistically significant at level of 5 per cent and following the proposed direction with negative sign. For coefficient, SEPRMC reports at more than 200 per cent and it means that if a company has separate RMC, the probability of the company wills not to receive modified audit opinion is at 200 per cent. The examples of companies that have separate RMC are Opcom Holdings Berhad, Bolton Berhad and Genetec Technology Berhad. The result supported the argument by Subramaniam et al. (2009) that the existence of separate RMC with focusing on the risk profile is also able to increase the quality of internal monitoring and quality of financial reporting in relation to risk management. Consequently, the likelihood of the company to receive modified audit report particularly for risk issues is less. Meanwhile, Harrison (1987) reported that RMC is seen to specifically enhance the accountability of the board as it provides an independent oversight of various board activities especially on the risk issues. Due to the contribution of the RMC, Fields and Keys (2003) argued that RMC has gained popularity as an important oversight committee even though most of the countries in the world are still not to reserve as mandatory requirement to form the separate RMC in a company. The result is supported the proposition of first hypothesis (SEPRMC) that the existence of separate RMC will influence the company not to receive modified audit report. This result is also consistent with the requirement under MCCG 2007 and 2012 which clearly stated that the board has principal responsibility on the risk process including the identification of principal risk until the implementation of appropriateness system to manage those risks. Consequently, the formation of separate RMC as a board committee is able to enhance the effectiveness of risk oversight function by BOD as reported in the result of this study which the existence of separate RMC give impact on the company not to receive modified audit opinion.

For second hypothesis (RMCSIZE), the result also shows a statistically significant at level of 10 per cent with positive direction as expected earlier. For coefficient, the result present at 69 per cent with indication that if a company with higher number of RMC size, the probability it will receive modified audit opinion is at 69 per cent. The result is consistent with the earlier study by Beasley (1996) which found a positive relationship between the number of board members and the occurrence of accounting fraud. However, the result is inconsistent with the finding study done by Xie et al. (2003) that there is a negative relationship between board sizes and earning management activities. While Wenyao and Qin (2007) found insignificant relationship between board size and audit opinion. A big size of committee cause some members ignore their responsibility and assume the other members will look for the duty and responsibility. As a conclusion for this hypothesis, the size of RMC has influence on modified audit opinion.

Besides, there is also a significant (p < 0.05) positive association between RMC Overlapping (proxy by RMCOVER) and modified audit opinion received by the company. The statistical result shows more than 170 per cent for beta coefficient for this variable meaning that if there are RMC members with overlapping status, more than 170 per cent of the company will receive modified audit opinion. However, the expected sign is negative association between RMC overlapping and modified audit opinion. Some reasons would explain the situation and even though the experience and knowledge from the other board membership can be brought to the other board committees and the improvement can be performed as reported by Bettenhausen and Murnighan (1985) but the burden of tasks should be borne by the RMC members. They might not be able to perform well at a board committee (RMC) even they have successful at the other board committees. They also have to spend a lot of time to the several board committees and the concentration on a RMC that focus on risk profiles is at a minimum of time. The other reason might be due to the knowledge gained through multiple board membership that lead to the board oversight control (Mizruchi, 1992) and they have more aware on the risk issues. The highest awareness on risk issues probably gives highest attention by auditor before the modified audit opinion will be issued. As a conclusion, the result provides support to this hypothesis

For control variable, Prior Audit Report (proxy by PRAUREP) is statistically significant (p < 0.01) and with a positive sign as proposed earlier. For coefficient, it is recorded more than 600 per cent and it indicates if a company got modified audit report at prior year, it is 600 per cent likelihood of the company will receive modified audit report in current year. The result is consistent with some previous researches as performed by Pucheta-Martinez and Feuntes (2007) and Mutchler, Hopwood and McKeown (1997). They found that modified audit opinion that has been received at prior year has higher potential to be received at the same in current year. For companies those received modified audit opinion at prior year, they might not be able to solve the issues at current year. Hence, they have probability to receive the same modified audit opinion at current year. This situation leads to the issuance of same modified audit opinion by the auditor which the old issues are concerned by them. As conclusion from this result, Prior Audit Report has a strong association with modified audit opinion that issued by the auditor.

For Big 4 (BIG4), the result states statistically insignificant and there is no relationship between Big 4 audit firms and modified audit opinion. The finding indicates that Big 4 audit firms have no influence on the issuance of modified audit opinion by the auditor. This situation is consistent with study done by Farinha and Viana (2009) that Big 4 audit firms have no significant relationship with modified opinion issued by the auditor.

Conclusion and Limitations

The result from the statistical analysis has shown some significant findings. Firstly, the result documented that the existence of separate risk management committee (RMC) affects the issuance of modified audit opinion by the auditors. The finding contributes to the knowledge and literature that the existence of separate RMC has implication on modified audit opinion specifically for Malaysian environment. The existence of separate RMC probably will reduce the issuance of modified audit opinion. Consequently, the formation of separate RMC as a board committee is able to enhance the effectiveness of risk oversight function by BOD as reported in the result of this study which the existence of separate RMC give impact on the company not to receive modified audit opinion. The regulators and policy makers have to consider for this situation. The formation of separate RMC should be mandatory in future as to perform the risk oversight function at board level.

Secondly, the size of RMC probably affects the issuance of modified audit opinion. The big size of RMC probably the issuance of modified audit opinion is high. The company and regulators have the choice whether to form the big or small RMC since this board committee has influence on modified audit opinion.

The regulators and policy-makers should also be aware on the overlapping status of board members. They have to look at the number of board committees sited by the board members. Some board members sited for more than two or three board committees in the same company at the same time. They also have to spend a lot of time to the several board committees and the concentration on RMC that focus on risk profiles is at a minimum of time. The result of this study shows the higher status of board overlapping will probably higher in acceptance of modified opinion.

Lastly, the acceptance of modified audit opinion by a company at prior accounting year has effect on the acceptance of same modified opinion at current year.  For companies those received modified audit opinion at prior year, they might not be able to solve the issues at current year. Hence, they have probability to receive the same modified audit opinion at current year.

This study is like as the other studies which has the limitations. This study used the secondary data as the samples which the company’s annual reports are used as the main source. May be in the future, the researcher can use the different method in data collection such as interview with auditors and risk officers. Questionnaires also can be used by the researcher in order to collect the primary data. These type of data collection methods are important to the researcher to know some others implicit information that rose up by the auditors or other respondents. The formation of RMC is till voluntary and not mandatory in most countries in the world. The study for the efficiency of this board committee is limited and scant. Future study should be done on its efficiency in term of other indication like the company market share, profit and investment opportunity. The study should also examine the roles played by this board committee for said indication besides the characteristics of RMC. In term of research framework, this study used modified audit opinion as the dependent variable. May be the other researchers will use qualified audit opinion or going-concern opinion as the dependent variable in the framework. The scope is different for qualified or going-concern audit opinion compared to modified audit opinion. The treatment for each type of auditor report is different and some different results would be produced if different type of auditor report is used as dependent variable in the study.

References:

Alderfer, C. P. (1986). The invisible director on corporate boards. Harvard Business Review, 64(6), 38-52.

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Delineation of watershed in Amravati tehsil using geomorphological investigations through Remote Sensing and GIS techniques

Khadri S.F.R*, Sachin Thakare and Pooja Surkar

  Abstract:

In this study an attempt has been made to understand various geomorphological factors controlling the various landforms which in turn helpful in the delineation of watershed in Amravati tehsil through remote sensing and GIS techniques. The study area exposes part of Pedhi River and Kholad River which is a part of Wardha Watershed. The present investigations have helped to understand the groundwater potential as well as nature of the watershed with the help of detailed geomorphological investigations. Satellite remote sensing data as well as topographic data has been widely utilised in this study to identify the watershed and groundwater potential zones with the help of latest available techniques.

The results of the present study demonstrate the presence of various hydro geomorphological zones showing their groundwater potentialities which vary from excellent to poor. The study area covering Pedhi watershed shows excellent to good ground water quality whereas the Kholad and Kapasi watersheds show moderate to poor ground water quality. Overall, the present study demonstrates the useful ness of remote sensing and GIS techniques in the delineation of potential aquifers in the region which plays a major role in the sustainable   management of water resources in the Amravati region.

Key Words: Remote Sensing, GIS, Geomorphology, Watershed, Satellite, Topography.

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Introduction:

A watershed can be defined as the area of land that drains to a particular point along a stream. Each stream has its own watershed. Topography is the key element affecting this area of land. The boundary of a watershed is defined by the highest elevations surrounding the stream. A drop of water falling outside of the boundary will drain to another watershed (Sewickley Creek Watershed Conservation Plan, 2003). From a planning standpoint, watershed is considered the most ideal unit for analysis and management of natural resources. For optimal use of environmental resources in a region, integrated watershed development approach is still viewed by many to be the most ideal as it helps in maintaining the ecological basis of resources utilization (Sahai 1988). Geomorphology is defined as the science of landforms with an emphasis on their origin, evolution, form, and distribution across the physical landscape. The science that deals with surface features of the earth, their forms, nature, their origin and development is termed as geomorphology. DAVIS (1912) first projected the concept of geomorphic cycle. According to bauling (1950), the role of factors that are important the geomorphology are lithology, stratigraphy, climatic variation and the regional basis for the development of landforms. The use of remote sensing technology for Geomorphological studies has definitely increased its Importance due to the establishment of its direct relationship with allied disciplines, such as geology, soils, vegetation/Land use & hydrology.

Geomorphological mapping involves the identification and characterization of various landforms and structural features. The various landforms can influence a conservation area in many ways like slope gradient, elevation and aspect, affect the quantity of solar energy, water, nutrients and other materials, while the slope affect the flow of materials. Slope is also the deciding factors of intensity of disturbance, such as fire and wind, which are strongly influenced by the pressure of vegetation (Swanson et al 1988).

Study Area:

Amravati Tehsil basically part of Amravati city and the villages around it lying between 220 45” N to 210 20” N and 770 32” E to 780 02” E. Amravati is District place and major city in Vidharbha region. Amravati names comes from Hindu goddess “Ambadevi”, in Mahabharata epic Amravati is a capital of Vidarbha Naresh, and it is a part of Varhad (Berar).

Geography:

Amravati Tehsil is bordered with Achalpur tehsil as well as Murtizapur Tehsil in North direction and Chandur Bazar Tehsil touches the boundary in east and west direction. Wardha River is naturally separate Amravati District from Wardha District. Wardha River is a major River of Vidarbha region which is join Painganga River in the boundary of Marathwada. Pohra Malkhed is protected forest area in Amravati. The average elevation is 543m from MSL.

Climate:

Climate of Amravati Tehsil is hot and dry, April to June Month having extremely heat and temperature goes to 450 C as well as winter season temp goes down 110 C which shows temperature variation, Rainy season start from end of June Month to September in an average.

Soil:

There are three main types of soil present in Amravati Tehsil which is-

  • Deep Black Soil b) Medium Black Soil           c) Shallow black Soil

Crop pattern:

Amravati Tehsil is having different types of Crop Pattern such as Cotton, Sorghum (Jawar), Green Gram (Moong), Soybean etc. but Amravati tehsil as well as whole District is famous for Orange (Citrus Spp.)

 Rail/Road:

In Amravati tehsil Badnera is Major Railway Station of Central Railway. National Highway 6 is passed through the Amravati Tehsil.Fig.1 shows the location of Amravati Tehsil.

Fig. 1 Location Map of Study Area

Materials and Method:

Data Used

  1. Toposheet Approved by Survey of India Having 1:50000 scale
  2. Satellite Imagery LISS data having 23.5m resolution
  • ERDAS Imagine Remote sensing Software
  1. ARC GIS Software

 

 

Methodology

 

 

Fig.2: Flowchart showing the methodology used for Watershed

Software used:

  • Arc GIS 10: This software has been developed by ESRI Inc. it is one of the leading software for desktop GIS and mapping. Arc GIS gives the power to visualize, explore, query, and analyze data geographically. In this project Arc GIS has been used to display raster map, digitizing different features and querying the data for finding the attributes for any feature on map. Arc GIS Spatial Analyst is a tool which helps in analysis and understanding of spatial relationships in our data. Reclassify tool has been used to reclassify different data and raster calculator has been used for overlay analysis and calculation of final results.
  • Generation of contour map: Contours are polyline that connect points of equal value of elevation. The elevation points were prepared from toposheets on a scale of 1:50000 collected from Survey of India (SOI). The collected toposheets were scanned and registered with tic points and rectified. Further, the rectified maps were projected. All individual projected maps were finally merged as a single layer. The contours were digitized with an interval of 10m. The contour attribute table contains an elevation attribute for each contour polylines. The contour map was prepared using Arc Map of Arc GIS 10. Contour map is a useful surface representation because they enable to simultaneously visualize flat and steep areas, ridges, valleys in the study area.

Fig. 3: Contour Map of Amravati Tehsil

  1. Generation of digital elevation model (DEM): A DEM is a raster representation of a continuous surface, usually referring to the surface of the earth. The DEM is used to refer specifically to a regular grid of spot heights. It is the simplest and most common form of digital representation of topography. The Digital Elevation model for the study area was generated from the Tin.

Fig. 4: Digital Elevation Model of Amravati Tehsil

  1. Generation of slope map: The Slope function in Arc GIS 10 calculates the maximum rate of change between each cell and its neighbors. Every cell in the output raster has a slope value. The lower the slope value indicates the terrain is flatter and the higher the slope value, the steeper the terrain. The output slope raster was calculated in both percent of slope and degree of slope. Slope map was prepared from the DEM.

Fig. 5: Slope Map of Amravati Tehsil

 

  1. Generation of watershed: Watershed of the study area was demarcated using the software Arc GIS. Drainage pattern was taken as the input data.

Fig. 6: Drainage Map of Amravati Tehsil

 

Fig. 7: Water body of Amravati Tehsil

Fig. 8: Watershed of Amravati Tehsil

  1. Ground Potential zones map: Ground Water Potential Zones map of Amravati Tehsil Shown in fig. 9 having four different types of zone, they are Excellent, Good, Moderate and Poor. The Ground Water Potential Zone of Study area generated with the help of drainages, geomorphology and land use land cover with integration of Remote Sensing and GIS technique as well as Geology of that area plays an important role. Geomorphology of the study area having alluvial plain, Denudation Hills and Platues. During weighed overlay analysis, the ranking has been given for each individual parameter of each thematic map and weights of 25%, 35%, 30% and 10% were assigned according to their influence for Soil, Hydro-geomorphology, Land use/Land cover, and Slope themes respectively and obtained the ground water potential zones in terms of Excellent, Good, Moderate and Poor zones in the form of a GIS map.

Fig. 9: Ground Water Potential Zone of Amravati Tehsil

 

  1. Geomorphology Map: Geomorphology as a science developed much later than geology although several aspects of geomorphology are embedded in geological processes. Geomorphology deals with the genesis of relief forms of the surface of the earth’s crust. Geomorphological mapping and necessary supporting data are crucial to developing countries that are usually under severe environmental and demographic strains. Approaches and methods to map the variability of natural resources are important tools to properly guide spatial planning. In this paper a comprehensive and flexible new geomorphological combination legend that expands the possibilities of current geomorphological mapping concepts. The piece-by-piece legend forms a “geomorphological alphabet” that offers a high diversity of geomorphological information and a possibility for numerous combinations of information. This results in a scientific map that is rich in data and which is more informative than most previous maps but is based on a simple legend. The system is developed to also be used as a basis for applications in GIS.
  2. 10: Geomorphological Map of Amravati Tehsil

Results and Discussion

Five major watersheds were identified in the area. The area occupied by the largest watershed is 167 Sq.km and it falls under the Sub-watershed category which covers around 66.01 % of the area under study, the second watershed has an area of 37 sq km and this also falls in the sub-watershed category and covers around 14.62 % of the study area, the third watershed has an area of 35 Sq.km and falls in the category of Micro-watershed occupying about 13.83 % of the study area. There are two small watersheds having an area of 5 Sq. Km. and 9 Sq. Km respectively falling in the category of Mini-watershed and covers around 4% of the study area

  • DEM is the 3-D presentation of the surface derived by the interpolation of contour map. It represents x, y and z-axes in pixel size of the order 23.5 meters. The altitude or z axis ranges from 291 meters to 466 meters above sea level
  • Digital slope was derived from DEM on pixel size of order 23.5 meters
  • Ground water potential zones were identified on the basis of slope of the area. Five classes i.e. very good, good, moderate, poor, very poor, were identified. Most of the area comes under very good and good ground water potential zones. The area which has 1-3% slope has very good ground water potential due to nearly flat terrain, area having 3-5% slope has good ground water potential due to slightly undulating topography and some run-off, area with 5-10% slope has moderate ground water potential because these areas have relatively steep slope leading to high run-off, areas with 10-15% and 15-35% slope has poor ground water potential due to steep slope and higher run-off

Geomorphology:

Geomorphology as a science developed much later than geology although several aspects of geomorphology are embedded in geological processes. Geomorphology deals with the genesis of relief forms of the surface of the earth’s crust. Certain Natural Processes are responsible for the forms of the surface of the earth. The earth’s surface forms are primarily due to hypo gene or endogenous processes, which include diastrophism, leading to geologic structure, tectonic activity and volcanism leading to volcanic landforms.

Alluvial Plain:

An alluvial plain is a relatively flat landform and created by the deposition of highlands eroded due to weathering and water flow in study area. The sediment from the hills is transported to the lower plain over a long period of time. It identified on the imageries dark reddish moderate to fine texture due to agriculture activities. Alluvial deposits of the area constitute gravel, sand, silt or clay sized unconsolidated material. The area under alluvial plain cover in geomorphological map is 246 sq km.

Denudational Hills

Denudetional hills are the massive hills with resistant rock bodies that are formed due to differential erosional and weathering processes. These hills are composed of Vindhyan sediments which are fractured, jointed having no soil cover moderate to steep slope. On the satellite image, these landforms were identified by light or dark brownish with mix green color due to thick forest cover. The area under Denudetional hills cover in geomorphological map is 32 sq km.

Structural Hills

Structural hills are representing the geologic structures such as- bedding, joint, lineaments etc. in the study area. They are located in the eastern parts of the study area having greenish and reddish tone with rough texture on the satellite image. The area under structural hills cover in geomorphological map is 3 sq km.

Flood Plain

A flood plain is an area of land that is prone to flooding. People realize it is prone to flooding because it has flooded in the past due to a river or stream overflowing its banks. A flood plain usually is a flat area with areas of higher elevation on both sides. The area under flood plain cover in geomorphological map is 1 sq km.

Habitation Mask:

A habitation Mask is an area of land that is occupied by human being. It is human settlement area. It is defined as an area of human habitation developed due to non-agricultural use and that which has a cover of buildings, transport, communication utilities in association with water, vegetation and vacant lands. The area under Habitation Mask cover in geomorphological map is 118 sq km.

Plateau:

A plateau is an elevated land. It is a flat topped table standing above the surrounding area. A plateau may have one or more sides with steep slopes. The area under plateau cover in geomorphological map is 458 sq km.

Water Body:

It is an area of impounded water, areal in extent and often with a regulated flow of water. It includes man-made reservoirs/lakes/tank/canals, besides natural lakes, rivers/streams and creeks. The area under water body cover in geomorphological map is 32 sq km.

References:

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  4. Heal G. (2000) “Nature and the marketplace Washington, DC”, Island Press.
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  11. Richard John Huggett (2007) “Fundamentals of Geomorphology”
  12. Sahai (1988), “Coastal Environment”,
  13. Sewickely Creek Watershed Conservation Plan (2003) “The Pennsylvania Rivers Consevation program”
  14. Welch R. 3-D Terrain Modeling for GIS Applications. GIS World. 3 (5) 26-30. 1990
  15. Yaw A. Twumasi & Edmund C. Merem (2007) “Management of Watersheds with Remote Sensing and GIS: A case study of River Niger delta Region in Nigeria”, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Vol.4, No. 2, ISSN: 1661-7827.
  16. Yongheng MA (2004), “GIS application in Watershed Management”, Nature and Science, Vol.2

The Study on Influence of Psychological and Socio Cultural Factor on the Share Market Operations. Reference to Batticaloa District, Eastern Province, Sri Lanka.

Revathy 

Stock market is an important part of the economy of a country. The stock market plays a pivotal role in the growth of the industry and commerce of the country that eventually affects the economy of the country to a great extent. That is the reason why, the government, industry and even the central banks of the country keep a close watch on the happenings of the stock market. The stock market is important from both the industry’s point of view as well as the investor’s point of view.

This study focuses the influence of psychological and socio cultural factors to implement on stock market in Batticaloa District in the Eastern part of Sri Lanka. This study was conducted with two research objectives: to find out the degree of psychological characteristics of potential investors regarding the stock exchange and to evaluate the level of support of socio culture environment to implement in share market.Self motivation, perception and attitude is the dimension of identifying the psychological characteristics. Social culture factors are including language skill, brokers support and culture support to mature the socio culture supportive.The study was conducted among the potential investors reside in the various part of the Batticaloa District. The data were collected from the 100 sample of people. The proportionate stratified random sampling method was used to select the sampling units and the structured questionnaire was used to collect the data. The data were analyzed using Univariate Analysis and Bivariate analysis techniques. The unit of analysis was individual person.

Finding of the study revealed that respondents (potential investors) were moderate level supportive to implement the stock exchange as indicated by the degree (measured as mean value) of their psychological characteristics (Self motivation 3.5), perception (3.4), and attitude (3.4). Socio cultural environment (3.17) was moderate level influence. In overall this study was find out moderate level supportive to implement the stock exchange in Batticaloa.

Keywords: Investment, Psychology, Stock Exchange, Investor, and Socio Culture Environment

 

 

  1. INTRODUCTION

An island nation situated at the Southern tip of India, Sri Lanka is often referred to as the Pearl of the Indian Ocean. With the end of a bitter three decade long civil conflict, the country is taking advantage of new found peace and stability and growing economic prosperity to make its mark as a global logistics center.

Increased political stability is laying the way for strong growth on investment as the Government formulates long term robust development plans to drive economy wide sustainable growth.

Our nation is developing nation and agricultural one for hundred years due to our capability of resources, gain knowledge and technology requirements even we greater than some nations. If we want to become leading one we should change our habits of investment.

Eastern province is a one of the nine provinces in Sri Lanka. The Batticaloa is a one of the district in Eastern Province. Our society based on knowledge income and saving has an essential role and making the most valuable effects by using financial system at an economic entity level.

The fundamental factors such as economy, industry and company analysis play a key role in investment decision process. In earlier there are few ways to invest their money for more money such as purchasing land and gold, invest in education and business ,life insurance, bank deposit share market etc.. But now there are twenty sectors for investment in stock exchange. Each and every sector is important to develop the nation.

The word Investment refers to the deployment of surplus funds either in the financial assets or in the physical assets with the expectation of getting an optimum return in future. R.Jayaraman, Dr.G.Vasanthi, M.S.Ramaratnam, (JBM&SSR Volume 3 ,2014).

These are under the stock exchange there are twenty sector to invest the money which is functioning under the capital market. First we understand the capital market. The Financial Market, which is the market for credit and capital, can be divided into the Money Market and the Capital Market. The Money Market is the market for short-term interest- bearing assets with maturities of less than one year, such as Treasury bills, commercial paper, and certificates of deposits. The major task of the Money Market is to facilitate the liquidity management in the economy. The main issuers in the Money Market are the Government, banks and private companies, while the main investors are banks, insurance companies and pension and provident funds. The Capital Market is the market for trading in assets for maturities of greater than one year, such as Treasury bonds, private debt securities (bonds and debentures) and equities (shares). The main purpose of the Capital Market is to facilitate the raising of long-term funds. The main issuers in the Capital Market are the Government, banks and private companies, while the main investors are pension and provident funds and insurance companies.

 The Financial Market can be also be classified according to instruments, such as the debt market and the equity market. The debt market is also known as the Fixed Income Securities Market and its segments are the Government Securities Market (Treasury bills and bonds) and the Private Debt Securities Market (commercial paper, private bonds and debentures). Another distinction can also be drawn between primary and secondary markets. The Primary Market is the market for new issues of shares and debt securities, while the Secondary Market is the market in which existing securities are traded. (http://www.cse.lk/static/introduction

Investment, first of all we will learn here that what Investment is? Is Investment just a money or capital? Is Investment just a part of your salary or Income? We will answer all these questions in a single line that Investment is that part of your money whose nominal value increases along with the inflation or time to increase its real value. We will learn some benefits of investing which you must know before investing in stock market.

The part of money which you park in some avenues like Bank Deposits, Real Estate, Jewellery or Stock Market to get some return on that capital in future is also known as Investing or Investment.

There are many Instruments of Stock Market called Securities like Shares, Bonds, Debentures etc. and this stock market have its own benefits in his own way for every person who invest in stock market. We will discuss here the advantages and the benefits of investing in Stock Market which you must know before Investing in stock market.

Easy Liquidity: It is the very first benefits of investing, In stock market shares and securities are traded in very high volume which make it a volatile market so there is very easy liquidity in stock market, like if you want to turn your investment in stock market into cash then you can do that very easily. Flexibility: Investing in stock market is very flexible like the market has ups and downs in prices at every trade session, price of stock market moves with the rapidity and flexibility of this market.

Regulatory Framework: Stock Market works under some regulatory framework to protect and safeguard all its investors. For example: In Sri Lanka the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) works as a Regulatory Framework Body to safeguard all investors. Maximum Returns: According to the long term perspective it is found that Investing in Stock Market gives maximum returns. For example:

Business Taste: Well, According to me it is the best benefits of investing in stock market you can ever have, here from Business Taste I mean that when a person trades or invest in stock market everything is here works like a business a modern style business. Sole Proprietorship: If you invest in stock market then you are starting your own business where your investment is your capital, like the more your trade is in profit the more your business grows and you are the only person to run this business that is why investing in stock market is your sole proprietorship business.

While in the midst of important transformation to an industrialized economy, its traditional stronghold in the service industry is growing with simultaneous speed. The change in the mindset of the investor’s leads to change in the trend of investment ways. The investor’s sentiment may either be optimistic or pessimistic. The people sentiment and socio culture sentiment are complimentary to each other. Any change in social change lead to a substantial change in the investor’s behavior similarly any change in the investors’ sentiment leads to a substantial change for social culture environment.

At presently telecommunication, bank and industry and food & beverage sectors are very popular one in the capital market and several advantages on investing shares even in the Batticaloa district still there is so many traditional ways are following by the people on investment. Here share investment way is infancy investment way. It should be encourage due to globalization and survive in future change.

Therefore, I have intended to study the influence of social and psychological factors on implement in share Market in Batticaloa District.

  1. PROBLEM STATEMENT

The Sri Lankan share market continues to shine as one of the best performing ones. According to Bloomberg news service in 2009.CSE is one of the most modern stock exchange in South Asia a fully automated trading platform and market capitalization of over US$ 23 billion, it has been one of the best performing stock market in the world, with average daily turnover US$ 18 million. http://kenangasl.com/why-sri-lanka/colombo-stock-exchange-cse/

Batticaloa is one of the districts in Sri Lanka, Still now Stock Exchange did not located in Eastern Province. There are huge amount of lands, higher education institutes, big amount of population who are knowledgeable and so many financial institutions.

If the stock exchange will be establish in Batticaloa district, that gives great investment opportunity to public and it will lead to economic development.

Therefore this present study aims to find out the influence of psychological and socio culture environment to establish the stock market in Batticaloa district.

  1. RESEARCH QUESTIONS
  2. What is the degree of psychological characteristic of potential investors in stock exchange?
  3. To what extent the socio culture environment is favorable to implement in the stock exchange?

4.OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

  1. To find out the degree of psychological characteristic to implement in Stock Exchange.
  2. To evaluate the level of favorable of Socio Culture environment to implement in stock exchange.
  3. SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This research is possible to study level influence of psychological and Socio culture factors to implement the share market, based on gender, education, ethnic group, designation, monthly income level, and investors’ behavior of particular people who are living in Batticalo district.

Therefore the researchers have scope of this study to the Batticaloa district and also selected 100 people which use in proportionate stratified random sample size in Divisional Secretariat Divisions in Batticaloa district to carry out this research study.

 

 

  1. LITERATURE REVIEW

Psychological Characteristic

Investors are normally assumed to make their financial decisions rationally according to classical economic theories but some novice investors make unsuitable investment decisions based on irrational exuberance (Ricciardi, 2008).

The investor sentiment is primarily based on investor’s psychology. Individual expectation, Individual optimism, individual ability and individual confidence are the four major psychological components of investor sentiments. On other words the investors sentiments are run by individual expectation, individual optimism, individual ability and individual confidence (R.Jayaraman,Dr.G.Vasanthi.M.S.Ramaratnam, JBM&SSR 2014)

Psychological factors operating within individual partly determine people’s general behavior and thus influence their behavior as consumer. Primary psychological influence their behavior as consumer are perception, motives, learning, attitudes and personality and self concept. Even though these psychological factors operate internally, they are also very much affected by social factors outside the individual. (Pride M Ferrell .O. C, 2006)

Emotional development of children and is part of developmental psychology, the study of changes in behavior that occur through the life span. Cognitive psychology deals with how the human mind receives and interprets impressions and ideas. Social psychological looks at how the actions of others influence the behavior of an individual.

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The persons buying choices are also influenced by four major psychological factors motivation, perception, learning, and beliefs and attitudes. (Philip Kottel, 2005)

Consumer attitudes are composite of a consumer’s beliefs about feelings ,about behavioral intentions towards some “object “ – within the context of marketing , usually a brand, product category, or retail store. These components are viewed together since they are highly interdependent and together represent forces that influence how the consumers will react to the object.

 Consumer attitude are considered by many marketers to be accurate predictors of consumer behavior, making the study of attitude formation and change an important topic. Attitudes are learned tendencies to perceive and act in a consistent way toward a given objective or idea, such as a product, services, brand, company, store or spoke person. This definition emphasizes the impact on attitude of several of other concepts.

The attitude is a person’s enduring favorable or unfavorable evaluation, emotional feeling, and action tendencies toward some object or idea. People have attitudes towards almost everything: religion, politics, clothing, music and foods. Attitudes put people into a frame of mind: liking and disliking an objects, moving towards or away from it (Phillip Kottler

Socio Culture Environment

According to Kottler views culture factors exert the broadest and deepest influences on consumer behavior. Culture, subculture and social class, reference group, family and social roles and particularly important in buying behavior.

  1. METHODOLOGIES

Sample of the Study

 

The total population for the study was in Batticaloa district people. There are 100 people were  selected who are resident of Divisional Secretariat division in Batticaloa District (100%) as sample by using stratified random sampling method.

Data Collection Method

In considering objectives it was a cross – sectional one in the time horizon because data were collected in a one single time from the respondents but the unit of analysis was the people of the selected area in the Batticaloa district.

The questionnaire is a structure technique for data collection. The primary data were collected through questionnaires and interviews from the respondents. The questionnaire developed based on three parts, namely research information, personal information and investor’s behavior. In this research questionnaire is closed ended. In general closed questions are considered as more efficient and reliable than open ended questions. In the research one of the ordinal measures called “Likert’s five points rating scale” is used to require respondents to order their answers.

  1. Methods of Data Analysis

Data Presentation and Analysis

The data were analyzed by using univariate analysis and bivariate analysis techniques. In this case, the unit of analysis was individual person of selected area in Batticaloa district.

Method of Data Evaluation

Each variable is given a scale from 1-5 to show the extent of agreement, based on responses, univariate measures were calculated for each of variables. The mean value is lying in the range of 1-5. The range is explore the particular result of this study the range between 1 and 0.25 is express the low level influence for this study. The range between 2.5 and 3.5 is assumed moderate level influence on this study. The range above 3.5 to 5 is considered high level influence on this study. This decision rule is used to measure the level of influence. It shown in the table.

  1. Implication and conclusion

Psychological characteristic of people on Share Market operations in Batticaloa district.

Psychological Characteristic variable with three dimension including self motivation, perception and attitude are evaluated the influence of Psychological Characteristic of people on the share market operations in Batticaloa. We test through univariate analysis and bivariate analysis techniques. This outcome express the mean value is 3.4733 and standard deviation is 0.4524. It is shown in the table 3

If we want to invest in share market we should wish on the activities. That desire depends on our mind likewise involvement on share market operations also leads by our mind. The society should be support to run the business.

The first objective is obtained through the psychological characteristic variable. It is moderate level supportive on this study.

Extent of Social Cultural Environment Supportive to Invest on Share Market Operations.

Socio Culture variable with three dimensions are knowledge on share market, stock brokers support and cultural support. Those dimensions help to identify the influence of socio culture environment. We test through univariate analysis and bivariate analysis techniques. This outcome express the mean value is 3.1733 and standard deviation is 0.23915.

The second objective is obtained through the socio culture factors. It is moderate level supportive on this study.

Overall Result

 

Eventually when we observe the influence factors for an establishment of the stock exchange in Batticaloa district. Table 4   clearly discloses that influence factors are moderate level to establish the stock exchange in Batticaloa district.

  1. CONCLUTION AND RECOMMENTATION

To examine two variable of research we have used six dimensions. All research variables have been measured due to the nature of measurement and research objectives have been investigated with using of mean and standard deviation that summarized in Tables.

It is commonly believed that the investment decision of the investors is driven by the sentiment of investors. Investor’s psychological characteristic and socio culture trends were carefully indentified with the help of existing review of literature. The study has revealed that image factor has appeared as the most influence factor in determining investors decision making. Similarly individual optimism has become the key factor in influencing the sentiment of the investors.

In Batticaloa district there are many educational institutes those are higher education as university, college of education, teacher’s training college, international school and vocational training center even it is distant from share investment, there are low level of awareness and lack of stock brokers firm and information center on this type of investment. In any type of education should change the people and their society. These institutions can be change through subject of finance and investment. We can revolve the people’s investment pattern through provide psychological training as skill, attitude and knowledge development. This step change social culture environment due to most of them are more believe on educated people so if we change the educational society’s investment pattern other type of society also change into share market. Those are possible; the stock exchange will be established in Batticaloa district because visible services are more invited by the people. Based on this type of investment way some are known well some are unknown therefore, we assume this is a childhood investment way  in Batticaoloa, We state without building we cannot run the business perfectly based on our research.

Finally this study convey people are mostly involved all type of investment even experientially traditional investment is well known by the people than share investment because inadequate resources and deepest knowledge on this field. Psychological and socio cultural motivational factors are motivated the people to invest in share market so implementation is necessary one in Batticaloa district.

Reference 

  1. Alexander William, Gordon. J, Sharpe. F, Feffery v,bailey, Fundamental of investment ,3rd ed
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  3. Bhole L.M, (2004) Financial institution and market, 4th ed, publish by Tata Mcgrow –hill, New   Delhi,    5, 17.2-19.12
  4. Central Bank of Sri Lanka, (2008), Recent Economic Development -Highlight of 2008 and Prospect for 2009, Central Bank Publication
  5. Cornett and Saundress, (1998), Fundamentals of Financial Institutions Management, Irwin McGraw-Hill, New Delhi, pp26-29
  6. Daily news , Thursday November 5 2009
  7. Gary .Armstrong, Plip Kotler , Principal of marketing 5th ed
  8. E,(Oct 2000) Sri Lankas Securities market ,1st ed
  9. Kiran D. and Rao U.S. (2004), “Identifying Investor Group Segments Based on Demographic and Psychographic Characteristics”, MBA Project Report, Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Learning
  10. Naresh,k.malhotra,satyabhusan Dash Marketing Research an Applied Orientation, ,5th edition,
  11. M, Ferrell, marketing 10th ed 2000, all Indian publisher & distributors Regd
  12. Peter S.Rose, (1986), Money and Capital Market, Printice Hall, London, pp 330-423
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  14. Jayaraman, Dr.G.Vasanthi, M.S.Ramaratnam, A Study on influence of psychological factors on Investment Behaviour in Equity Investment,Journal of Business Mangement &Social Science Research(JBM&SSR Volume 3 ,2014)
  15. S, saravavel.P, (2005/2006) marketing research and consumer behavior

 

Defensive Walls under Threat: Examining the Status of the Great Medieval Defensive Walls of Dawuro People in Southern Ethiopia

Admasu Abebe*

Zelalem Tesfaye**

Abstract

Historically, in different countries walls are built for different purposes. Among others, defense purpose is the most common one. For instance, to mention a few, we do have the Great Wall of China was built from 3rdcentury B.C to 17thcentury A.D, the Great Zimbabwe Wall was built from 1100–1450 A.D; the Koso Defense mud Wall in Nigeria was built from1000 to 1500 A.D, in Kenya the Gunda-buche Wall and in Ethiopia, the Jegol Wall of Harer city was built in the 16th century for defensive purposes. Likewise, the Dawuro kings who ruled Dawuro between 16th to 18th centuries pursued a common goal of establishing a dependable defense mechanism by building walls and digging ditches. These defensive walls are known as the great walls of Dawuro or locally named as kati halala keela. The average height of a wall is about 2.6m, and its average width is about 3.5m. The sum total of the rows estimated to be about more than 1000 kms. The walls were made of stones without any joining materials like masonry and cement. The walls had seven main gateways called lappunnmitsa. Accordingly, this paper attempts to elucidate whether the construction technology of the Walls evolved from traditional terracing practices. It also presents why the walls were purposefully built and how they used dry stones as building materials. The article discerns that resource mobilization for the construction was based on the owed quota system in family and village levels. Besides, it found that the walls are being destructed by both human activities and natural factors. The indigenous construction technology and spirit of cooperation that manifested through the living wall of Halala Keela is now prone to extinction. Thus, this article is based on fieldwork between 2010-11 and thus it used primary data collected through observation, semi-structured interviews, and focus group discussion. Besides, secondary data were used to supplement the primary data. Finally, it calls for intervention to put in place the proper management of the heritage and to combat the further extinction of the wall.

Key words: Dawuro, Development, Dry stone defensive walls, Halala keela, traditional terracing practice, Omo Valley

  1. Introduction: People, the Land and the Defense Walls

The history of building ‘great’ walls was associated with defensive roles from arch-enemy.  The historical and scientific values of these walls could be compared to different walls across the world.  For example, the Great Wall of China was built from 3rdcentury B.C to 17thcentury A.D to keep themselves safe from semi-nomadic people; the Great Zimbabwe Wall was built from 1100–1450 A.D as enclosure to the commercial and political center (www.dreams-travel.com/);  Koso Defense mud Wall in Nigeria was built from1000 to 1500 A.D to control trade centers (Aremu 2007:7). The intermittent warfare, the raiding of slave from the state, the trans-Atlantic or trans- Saharan trade might have forced the society in West Africa to build Segou Walls in between 18th to 19th centuries (MacDonald 2012, 343). In western Kenya, the defensive earthworks enclosures known as Gunda-buche were built to protect human enemies as well as domestic animals from wild animals (Odede 2009:47). In Ethiopia, the Jegol Wall of Harer city was built in the 16th century for defensive purposes. In the same line, the Dawuro people had constructed defensive walls from 16th to 18th Century.

The term “Dawuro” is used to refer to both the people and their land. Currently, the Dawuro is constituted as one of the fourteen Zones in South Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ Regional State (SNNPR) in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, according to the post-1991 political and administrative reordering. Dawuro zone lies in between the Gojeb and Omo Rivers. Dawuro shares boundaries with Konta Special Wereda in the west, Jimma zone (Oromia Region) in the northwest, Hadiya and KambataTambaro zones in the northeast, Wolayita zone in the east, and GamoGofa zone in the southeast directions. Dawuro has an area of 5,000 km2 (Damene, cited in The Ethiopian Herald, 19/02/2003 E.C). Their language is Dawurotsuwa which belongs to the Omotic language family. Based on the 2007 Ethiopian Population and Housing Census projection, the population of Dawuro nationality is about 846,199. The political centre of Dawuro zone is Tarcha, located at 486 km from Addis Ababa.

Historically, Dawuro had been a highly centralized powerful independent kingdom, until Emperor Menelik II incorporated it into the Ethiopian Empire in 1891. Dawuro’s southern, eastern, and northern strategic border positions were enclosed by vigorous defensive walls. The walls stretched from the borders of Gofa in its southwestern direction and extended to the borders of Wolaitta, Kambata, Hadiya and Jimma zones in its northwestern direction. Conversely, in the western borders from Gofa-Konta to Gojeb River, the kingdom was blocked by a series of defensive ditches with 3 meters depth. These defensive ditches should be equally treated with the Walls, but not dealt well in this paper.

Besides, some sources affirm that in southwestern direction it stretched up to the border of Kaffa as far as south Omo to the areas of the “Ari, Bume and Omo Galab” pastoralist areas (Sied 2007: 27).  The construction of these walls might have begun in the first half of 16th century and completed during the reign of king ;Halala, probably in the second half of 18th century (Elias 1999: 120).  Although the Walls were started by his predecessors, it might have been named after king Halala who finalized the construction. However, for the purpose of this article the authors refer to the walls as “Dawuro Walls” because we believe the walls had not been built by a single king and for consistency purposes.

To commemorate their ancestors’ suffering during the construction process, the Dawuro people consider the walls as sacred places and hence they never walk on them as this might despise their ancestors. In this regard, Blake Janet (cited in Kamenka 2000: 77) stated that the relationship between cultural heritage, cultural identity and human rights as “… the importance to the human beings of the sense of identity given not so much by material improvement, but by customs and tradition, by historical identification, by the religion… the sense of identity for most people is essential to their dignity, self-confidence, value that underlie in the concept of human right itself.” More importantly, Rosabela, (2005:283) stated “without culture there is no future.”

  • Setting the Context of the Problem

Ethiopia is one of the countries, which has long history of civilization and outstanding human achievements. In its jurisdiction, there are copious past attainments that profusely guarantee its civilization (Institute of Archaeology 1966:4). Nonetheless, those achievements are not treated fairly and equally among the diverse cultural materials. For instance, the cultural heritages in southern Ethiopia were not treated as much as those in northern Ethiopia. Kassaye (1998: 12) reported that “the type and number of the heritages that we knew are less than those we didn’t in southern Ethiopia.” He also stressed that “the protection, preservation, documentation and scientific investigation done on the heritages were predisposed to single dimension on those well-known historical heritages” (Kasssaye 1998:13).

The case of Dawuro walls is the untold and unexplored tangible heritage of the medieval period of Dawuro people. This was not without reason. The historical accounts of medieval periods in Ethiopia are distorted, sometimes fabricated and at other times forbid recognition. Hence, little is known about Dawuro walls. For historians, it could seem unread massage in a box of Ethiopian history. According to Oliver (1963: 50) unlike the western history, African history should focus on the living culture and material remains of the past which could serve as primary sources. Moreover, conducting continuous scientific studies on these walls could bring about paradigm shift to the understanding of the history of the so called “uncivilized, barbarian and backward” southern societies. Perhaps, lack of recognition and scientific investigation of the Dawuro walls might have “shadowed” the medieval history of Dawuro and its cultural attributes to the human community.

Leave alone in the 19th and 20th century historical accounts, the case of Dawuro walls is not given any serious attention in 21st century. To the contrary, the massive development projects led by the government of Ethiopia have destroyed some parts of the wall.  Recently, a few archaeological surveys have been undertaken on the kati Halala Defense Walls. First, in February 2007, on the request of the local government for the destruction caused by Gibe III hydroelectric project, Rapid Archaeological Impact Assessment was made by Authority for Research and Conservation of Cultural Heritages (ARCCH) (Hailu 2007: 1). Second, in November 2008, the ARCCH made an archaeological survey and investigated the stone walls of Ijajo keela in Wollaita (67 kilometers long, 1.5 to 2.5m height, 1 to 2.5m width) and Kati Halala Walls in Dawuro (Ethiopian Electric Power Corporation 2009: 147).

  • The Objectives of the Study

The main objective of this article is to discuss the genesis of the construction process of the walls and the defensive strategies of the medieval Dawuro people. In particular, it aims to explain the pouring forces for the construction of the walls, to elucidate the physical structure and the purposes of the walls, and to identify the causes of endangerments of the walls.

1.3. Methodology

This article employed qualitative research methodology in order to dig out qualitative information (Johnson and Christensen 2004: 180). Nominal data were collected during fieldwork in selected sites. During the fieldwork, notes, pictures and video images of the walls were taken. In the meantime, selected key informants were interviewed. Besides, 47 interviewees who had good knowledge of the oral tradition were purposefully selected. Interviewees were selected from five districts but the majorities were chosen from the nearby settlements surrounding the Dawuro walls. Two focus group discussions were carried out. With regard to document analysis, the researcher used reports, letters, magazines, diaries, electronically accessed materials, theses, dissertations and books.

The kati Halala walls and ditches lie in more than 45 kebeles (villages) of the border areas of the zone. From these, nine kebeles were selected as specific study area for fieldwork (see fig. 1 below).

Fig.1. Map of Dawuro Zone and the Study sites

In order to estimate the average height and width of the walls, through non-random sampling technique, 20 sites were selected and measured. Accordingly, the subjects of the study were selected based on “who knows what”. Elders, traditional religious fathers, concerned local politicians and professionals (teachers, lawyers and heritage management experts) were included in the study. Lastly, the data from both primary and secondary sources were transcribed after repeated listening, watching and reading of the records. Finally, it was analyzed and interpreted.

  1. The Genesis of Dawuro Walls: From Terracing to Defense Walls

The long and tall Dawuro walls might have evolved from the people’s indigenous practice of terracing. In southern Ethiopia, some ethnic groups are well known for their knowledge of building dry stone walls as mechanism of soil conservation. For example, the Konso people are known for having dry stone walls terraces to get cultivable surfaces on steep slopes, counteract erosion, assist drainage and encourage the formation of cultivable deep soil (Demeulenaere 2002: 81; Amborn 1989:73). Likewise, the Dawuro people, who live near the Omo River valley, had been practicing construction of terraces[1] from stone and dug trenches to keep the soil fertility since long ago. Besides, according to my informants, terraces helped to protect crops from wild animals like pigs, maintaining soil fertility and protecting it from erosion. In Dawuro tradition, there is also an experience of re-terracing farm plots. A terraced plot may be cultivated for about 4-5 years until it loses its fertility. Then, it will be removed and shifted to immediate spot. The mark where the terrace lay for years will become very fertile, and the shift produces fertile soils for the farmers. Elders in the localities asserted that such a terracing system is a long established knowledge of the society. The elders of Dawuro confirm that these terraces have existed on their farms and grazing lands since time immemorial.

Consequently, one may conclude that the long-standing tradition of terracing and re-terracing of farm plots has laid the foundation and skill for building strong and defensive great Dawuro walls. The designing and planning strategy of the walls also shows us how well-skilled and traditionally trained man power took part in the whole construction process (Hailu 2007:409 and ARCCH 2008:13). As a result, they might have learned the dry stone wall building technology from agricultural practices of terracing. Accordingly, all the engineering skills and architectural know-how employed to the construction were the products of the local skill. However, nowadays, the degree of terracing in Dawuro has significantly declined because of labor intensiveness of terrace construction (Watson 2009: 1) and time consumption. Therefore, these indigenous practices are overlooked by contemporary farmers and state development agencies.

  • The Unsettling Reasons of Dawuro Walls Construction

The construction of Dawuro walls had several presumptions. The first one reveals that it might have begun during the reigns of Kati Mao, from Susungiya clan, Kawo Ubana from Zutuma, Kawo Dina Moha from Zalinisya clan and Kawo Nao Beyedu from Kawuka clan in the first half of the 16th century (Minister of Tourism and Culture 2010:1 and Wogaa 2000:44-45). The second presumption focused on the assumption that the whole process of construction that took more than 20 years was begun and completed during the reign of Kati Halala in the second half of the 18th century.  Most of the sources indicate that the construction of the walls might have begun in the first half of the 16th century, during the turbulent period in Ethiopian history – the periods of Ahmed Gragn`s war[2] and the Oromo expansion. Haberland (1977:3) mentioned that three factors: political, cultural, and ethnic movements that had played a prominent role in the history of the loss of the people of south western Ethiopia. They were the influence of Islam and Arab culture, the spread of Christian Empire, and the Oromo population movements.

Second, pastoralists from around Lake Turkana and lower Omo valley might have put pressure on Dawuro peasants during resource scarce seasons. Hence, these pastoralist groups had been pushing towards the Upper Omo basin up to Gojeb River searching for free grazing land and water, which again forced them to cross the Dawuro territory. Their mobility, accompanied by raids, might have instigated conflict with the highland settlers. Thus, such pastoralist movements might have been causes for everlasting conflicts between the herders and/or with cultivators (Informant J, K & L). For example, according to local Dawuro elders consider the Golda (but Fujimoto (2009: 313 defined golda as Surmic-speaking, chiefly the Bod’i) pastoral groups as entirely merciless, brutal murderers, and greedy ran sackers and raid their cattle during dry season. Furthermore, the current contentions between pastoralists and cultivators around Gojeb River in Wara, Goriqa, Aba and Baza Shota are the signs of the continuity of the conflicts. Therefore, the construction of the defensive ditches and walls along Dawuro territory on a right side immediate to Omo and Gojeb Rivers might be intended to block the routes of these pastoralists along these rivers.

Third, the informants declared that the construction of the Walls were associated with the society’s unity and loyalty. The people “always considered themselves as independent, (Abbo daadada gumiya Dawuro! meaning, “a hero people like a thunder, free, loving their state, jealous of their identity, and having strong unity and solidarity.” Weil Simone (2002:79) theorized: “true liberty is not defined by a relationship between desire and satisfaction but by the relationship between thought and action.” Likewise, the oral traditions of the Dawuro stated that the society had thought and planted vanguard wall to maintain their identity and ultimately their freedom. The strong sense of defensive identity could also be referred from some of the Dawuro proverbs, “qommu bayanappe qodhiy qanxeto” (which means it is better to be slaughtered than lose one’s identity). Accordingly, their intrinsic spirit of patriotism had perhaps helped them to construct such huge walls using their indigenous knowledge.

Finally, the oral traditions collected from the informants confirmed that after the detection of the main security problems of the kingdom, the Dawuro kings usually held public discussions. Afterwards, the congregation promised to build walls and dig ditches on the whole borders to shield from the alien threat. This public promise (oath) is known as “nuu awaa lafunuwa mayizaa” (the oath of our seven forefathers). Accordingly, it had become the hallmark decision for generations to accomplish the construction.

 

 

  • Role of Social Structure in Dawuro Wall Construction

The well‑structured social structure of the Dawuro people has played pivotal role in the construction of the walls. Acording to key informants confirmed that the well-organized political administrative structure of the kingdom empowered regional states and they played key roles in the whole construction phases. In such a social and political structure, even their leaders knew the names of each individual (Seid 2007: 41; Wandimu, 2009:17). Tha Dawuro had the following social structure:

King® Woraba® Erasha® Guuda® Daana ® Huuduga® D’uga.

The king rules and oversees all the functions of the subordinate social structures. Worabas (‘regional’ leader) were authorized in each administrative region under the king. It seems that each region under woraba was ordered to fortify its own territory. Then, the construction sites of the regions were also sub-divided for different Erashas (village leader) under the supervision of Woraba. Thus, the quota was given to each woraba to mobilize the people in his/her territory. Labor mobilization takes place through conscription of labor force based on quota system. An individual who could engage in the construction was recruited from each family based on a quota scheme. The quota system was given for each of the seven administrative regions.[3] For instance, if there were four youngsters in a family, two of them would be sent to build the walls and the remaining two would serve the family. If there were no youngsters in the family, the male parent would either go to build the walls or pay additional tribute (in kind: such as offering fatten goat, ox, and/or sheep). Sometimes apart from the quota, some individuals would voluntarily participate in the building process to be regarded as gadaawo means a hero. Thus, we have three approaches of conscription: youngsters are mandatorily required to construct (quota system), a male parent can either take part in construction or pay in kind in lieu of his absence, and finally, in addition to these categories any volunteer can take part in. Later on, the independently built fortifications were interconnected with one another thereby forming complete and unified Defense Walls.

 It is important to note that the building of the walls took place on difficult landscapes of hills, plateau, mountains, plains, and steep cliffs, searching for appropriate sites that could pledge the military defensive strategies. Three to seven parallel rows of walls would be built in the directions where an intensive attack was assumed to arise. The inaccessible steep cliffs, hills, mountains in the border would reinforce the defense system. In these areas, the walls were not constructed instead those natural fences were believed to serve as defensive grounds.

  • Description of the Physical Structure of the Dawuro Walls

The Dawuro walls were constructed on strategic defense positions, skirted by the Omo and Gojeb Rivers. The length of a single row of the wall, estimated to be more than 200km and the sum total of each wall was about more than 1000 kilometers (Ministry of Culture and Tourism 2010: 1). In addition to my field observation, some of the informants stated that the heights, upper width, and thickness of the walls varied according to the landscape as well as the direction from which a threat was expected. The upper width and the heights of the walls, being proportional, give regular thickness of the walls. When the height increased in the plains, the upper width also increased vis-à-vis to the steep hill area. During the fieldwork, 20 selected sites of the walls were measured to estimate their height, width, and thickness. Accordingly, the height of the walls ranged from 1.8 meters in steep hills and ill-constructed areas to 3.8 meters in the plains and well-constructed areas. The average height was about 2.6 meters. The length of the upper width of the walls extended from 1.6 meters in the steep hills and poorly constructed parts to 5.70 meters in the plain and well-constructed areas. The average length of the upper width was about 3.5 meters.

Fig. 2. Partial view of Dawuro walls (photo by the authors).

The dry stone walls were two separate but interlocking walls, tied at irregular intervals. Neither mortar or nor cement was used for bonding. Carefully dressed, sharp and flat stones were placed towards the front sides on the upper part of the walls facing the enemy position. Indeed, it was designed so as to easily crash the enemy who happened to break/cross the wall. Hence, to make the walls strong enough, the proportion of thickness, height and width of the walls were well calculated on the basis of how much a cavalry horse able to jump the wall.

Constructing dry stone walls was very expensive and time consuming. Scholars suggest that building dry stone wall currently may not be cheap even if supported by modern technology. A 1.5m high dry stone wall might cost £270. Walling needs hard work: a good craftsman can build probably three meters of wall a day.

  • Dawuro Walls: Main Gateways and Its Function

As a defensive wall, the Dawuro walls had the ‘killing fields’ in between the Walls, ranging from 300 to 1000 meters, which help the soldiers attack an enemy by surprise. A killing field referred to an area between the first wall and second or third wall. When the first wall was breached, the guards ran to the second wall and ambushed the enemy. Soldiers usually waited on top of the second wall armed with spear, shield, knife and sharp stones. When the enemy came to the killing field; soldiers could step ahead and easily attack them. If the enemy forces breaking the walls were enormous, they would retreat back and hide themselves on the other walls (third to the seventh walls). At the bottom of the walls, very sharp wooden weapons were erected to crash the enemy when they tried to cross the walls.

Moreover, the Dawuro walls had main gateways appropriated to control the import and export trade activities. The movements of people to and from the neighboring kingdoms were highly controlled. These gates did not have doors to be opened and closed rather watched by soldiers day and night. The king directly assigned gatekeepers (Wogaa 1992: 42; Seid 2007: 27; Womdimu 2009:18). The Dawuro Walls had seven main gateways. They were: Gate of Dara, Gate of Aba-Garga, Kaffa Gate, Gate of Qala, Gate of Yelu or Doylu, Gate of Zima Waruma and Gate of Zaba Garada. Here below each of the main gateways are discussed.

  1. Daara Mitsa (Gate at Dara): It is located in Gena Bosa district in Baza-shota around Gibe and Gojeb Rivers confluence. It is found on the top of the first row of the defense walls. Above the gate, there were two rows of Defense Walls and two watching towers on the top of the mountain and there are ten fortresses built on the two sides of the gate.

As illustrated in the figure below, in between the exit and entrance door there were three steps of seats carved from rocks. The gate keepers seat on them to check the incoming and outgoing of the people both for security and to collect tributes. Besides, on the two sides of the gate there were ten forts: five on the right hand and five on the left hand side.

  1. Aba Garga Mista (Gate of Aba-Garga): It is located in the western part and used to control the attacks from Jimma and Konta; yet it was used as trade route to Jimma. As to informants, the forces of Menelik II controlled the territory through this gate in 1891.
  • Ella or Kaffa Mista (Ella/Kaffa Gate): It is located in the Manta-Tulama to protect the territory from aggressors and cattle burglars especially from Kaffa.
  1. Qala Mitsa (Gate of Qala): It is located in the southwestern part on the border of Konta and Gofa. Yet, the cattle raiders from Menit, Bume, and Goldia continuously attacked the Dawuro society during dry season in this direction. Currently, the gate is found in the dense forest of ChaberaChurchura national Park.
  2. Yelu or Doylo mitsa (Gate at yelu or Doylu): It is located in the southern part on the borders of Gamo-Gofa, and Malo.
  3. Zima-waruma or Dangarsa mista (Gate of Zima Waruma): It is located in the eastern part on the way to Wolaitta. In this direction, seven parallel rows of Walls were built to block the attacks from that side.
  • Zaba-garada or Barakenna mitsa (Gate of zaba Garada): It is found in the northeastern part of the region on the borders of Kambata, Tanbaro and

  1. Evaluating the Current Condition of Dawuro Walls

Based on the data gathered from fieldwork, the factors that exposed the heritage to endangerment can be broadly classified into three actors: natural hazards, local communities’ activities and state development projects. First and foremost, the Dawuro Walls remained for half a millennium without any maintenance and protection. Hence, the dynamic changes of climate exerted its own impacts on the heritage. As a result, this heritage is highly damaged by the continuous variation of temperature. Some of those natural factors affecting the heritage are weather, land slide, wind and bank erosion, trees growing on the walls, and wild animals. Second, local people’s undertakings such as settlements, land grazing, use as construction material and others had affected negatively the maintenance of the walls. Third, state led development project had also demolished some parts of the walls. For example, for the purpose of construction of main road part of the Dawuro wall was demolished. Here below, these three actors are noted and analyzed.

Natural Hazards: The walls are located in the hot gorges of Omo and Gojeb Rivers. The temporary variation of temperature and rainfall throughout its age caused the disturbance of structure, joints, curving position and its architecture. As a result, the Walls are cracked and dismantled in various areas. Besides most of the walls were constructed on the topography of steep hills, plateaus and mountains of high potential areas where land sliding occurs. During the rainy seasons, the land highly slides from the top of hills and mountains, causing the Walls crack and break down. Besides, the high erosion rate and some of the small water drainage (during summer season) dismantle it. When strong winds cause trees to tip over, the roots of the trees often displace the structure of dry stone. Furthermore, there are numerous natural growing big trees on the walls and their surroundings. Similarly, the structure of the walls is disturbed when wild fire burns down both the branches and roots of old trees.  These trees dismantle the Walls twice, first in their growing stage and second when they get burned. Finally, the damages also exerted from various wild animals such as monkeys, apes, lions, leopards, buffalo, hyena, antelope, etc often cross the walls while searching food from the other side of the walls.

Activities of Local Community: Here, according to the data obtained from field observation and focused group discussion with local community members, the damages on the heritage caused by settlement and resettlements. As discussed earlier, the high density of population and shortage of farming land might have forced the people to search for free land around the walls and to settle there. Such human settlements damage the structure of the walls and this has been clearly observed during the fieldwork. Second, the inhabitants near the walls graze their cattle in the Omo gorge by crossing the walls. The local people cross these parallel rows of the walls in various directions so that they could access free grazing lands, and mineral waters in Sogida as well as Omo Rivers. The inhabitants around the walls get wood for construction, fuel and agricultural implements from Omo and Gojeb gorges by crossing several rows of the walls.

State-led Development Induced Endangerments: Today, Ethiopia is achieving its economic prosperity through constructing infrastructures such as roads, hydroelectric dams, and others. While the rate of the introduction of development projects and investments increased, the destructions on the heritages are also increasing from time to time. Specifically, when roads and dam construction activities were launched in the area, the heritage was easily removed just like any kind of “garbage” and was disfigured without any due attention for its historical significance.

In this regard, it is very important to elucidate the controversies between development projects and heritage conservation specifically on the Dawuro walls.

 

Case I: The Construction of Sodo-Chida Road (1996)

In 1996 the Ethiopian Road Authority constructed a road that crossed the walls in seven different parts. To minimize the labor and financial costs of the construction, the contractor simply removed the well-dressed basalt stones from the nearby walls and used it for the construction of road as raw materials without any consulting the Dawuro people or compensating the people. This issue was clearly reflected during the discussion with local community members in the fieldwork. Currently, the road that connects Dawuro, Wolayitta and Oromiya Region (e.g.Jimma and Illu Abba Bora zones) is found in area to be submerged by the Gibe III Dam reservoir. Therefore, the road is realigned in the downstream direction to the Gibe III dam.

 

Fig.3.  Sodo-Tercha- Chida road construction which cut the walls  (photo by authors)

  Case II: Gibe III Hydroelectric Dam Project2 

Gibe III dam project is being constructed on the Omo River between Dawuro and Wolaitta zones in SNNPR. The reservoir of the dam extends for about 150 kilometers over the narrow Omo River gorge from elevation 670 to 896 meters above sea level. It has the capacity to produce 1870 MW and an annual energy production of 6,500 GWh, which provides great input for the development of the country (EEPCO 2009: 1). On the other hand, such a big project has its own side effects on the environment and historical heritages. For instance, The Great defensive stone Walls of Dawuro are one of the historical resources located in the west bank of Omo River (from 1 to 2.5 kilometers away) and exposed to a serious destruction due to this project. The impacts of Gibe III dam project on the heritage is examined at three levels: during initial stage (the building of road routes, camps, clearing of trees and geological excavation), construction stage (digging foots of dam, bulldozing trees and stones to remove waste materials from one site to the other) and operating stage (its partial occupation by the reservoir).

At the end of 2006 mid-day international consulting engineers of Gibe III hydroelectric project reported to ARCCH that they had encountered the elongated stone of kati Halala walls in Dawuro and Ijajo wall along the Omo River (Haile 2007:399). Besides, in November 2007 they also sent a letter to Dawuro zone administration stating that:

According to our research findings, we found that the historical wall, built by King Halala of Dawuro, has total length of 175km, highest 2-2.30 in the project area. During the operation stage of the Dam, about 5km of the wall was partially submerged by the reservoir. Therefore discussion with concerned body is needed about the aim of the project, and the expected impacts and rescue mechanisms.

Based on this request, from January 28 to February 4, 2007 preliminary archaeological survey and rapid impact assessment was conducted by team of 3 ARCCH experts and 1 from the mid-day international engineers consultancy particularly in the accessible area of Zima-waruma Kebele in Dawuro zone (Hailu 2007: 400). Later, on November 20, 2008, ARCCH conducted fieldwork survey in 2 phases: first from October 3-14, 2008 and second from October 15- November 2, 2008 in five zones (Wolayita, Dawuro, Jimma, Hadiya and Kambata-Tambaro) of reservoir outpouring areas and adjacent buffer zones. Its principal aim was to evaluate and locate archaeological resources in the proposed area (ARCCH 2008: 2-3). This interim study stated that a total of 45 sites of Archaeological importance were located in the course of the survey; most of these sites are located above 893masl (below 893masl expected to be submerged by the reservoir). Out of this, 4 sites were identified in Wolaitta side of the Omo River whereas 41 sites were found to be in Dawuro zone (Loma and Gena-Bossa woredas) on the western side of the same river. Eight sites were found in Subo-Tulam kebele (found in Dawuro) where the construction of the dam and its related activities are taking place and located between 700 to 920 masl and found between 2 to 2.5kms away from the Omo River (ibid: 8-9). This report also concluded that most of the discovered sites contain defensive walls which might be affected by the dam reservoir. The report also added that two sites from manara locality in kindo-koysha district of Wolyita zone and six sites from Dawuro zone will be affected by the water of the reservoir.  Besides, the walls that descend from shirgimi mountain of Dawuro to the same valley can be flooded by the reservoir through shirgimi Valley that joins the Omo Valley. Moreover, three sites that preserve the Halala defensive walls could be affected by the construction activities and may be covered by water if the reservoir is over flooded. Sied (2007: 27) also anticipated that “the newly constructed Gibe III hydro-electric power station may affect its (Halala walls) historic significance in the future.” Even though the interim archaeological survey partially identified the impact of Gibe III dam on the Halala walls, it was reserved from describing the magnitude and scale of the impact in measurable units (like kilometers, meters and so on).

Fig. 4. kati Halala wall located immediate to Omo River in flooding zone (photo by the authors)

At the beginning of January 2009, a discussion was held between the Mid-Day International Consultancy Engineers and Dawuro zone administrative bodies (with five members) on the importance of the project, impacts of the project and compensation issues. Among the other issues, it seems that the zone administrative officials stressed in their discussion about the historical significance of the walls for Dawuro society and attention should be paid to preservation activities.

On the contrary, some of the government owned magazines (zemen metset October 2006: 48), by referring to environmental and social impact assessment, stated that about 2% of the Halala walls (5kms) would be flooded by the reservoir. Disputes, surprisingly Abraham Dereje reported in the Ethiopian Herald (October 13 and 23/ 2013) that:

The construction of Gilgle Gibe III Hydroelectric Dam, which is expected to go fully operational in April 2016, will not have any effect on King Halala wall. A research undertaken on the dam`s environmental effect revealed…. that the artificial lake which will cover about 150 km of land will have no effect on King Halala wall, which was constructed by king of Dawuro in the 16th c to protect the people from external attack. The 175 kms long wall is completely free from any possibility of being under the water of artificial lake unless unexpected flooding happens in the area, Yacob noted. … However, the water of the artificial lake is expected to cover 2% (1.34 km of the 67km long wall) of King Ijajo wall, the other wall is located in Wolayta zone…  the dam`s reservoir will not totally have any effect on King Halala wall while only 2% of King Ijajo wall may be covered by it.

This quote may indicate the controversies of the interim archaeological survey findings and the government reports regarding the impacts of Gibe III on the kati Halala walls. Moreover, the existence of favoritism of studies towards the development projects could seems lead to wrong conclusions. Specifically, even though the interim archaeological survey suggested that six sites of Halala walls of Dawuro and two sites of Ijajo wall in Wolayita will be flooded by the reservoir, it has showed favoritism towards Ijajo wall. Likewise Tsadiqu (2014: 47) stated that even though the designed rescue mechanisms for Ijajo wall, which was built by the provincial ruler of Walyita seems fair, but it couldn’t put a clear rescue mechanism for kati Halala walls. Thus, the exact part of the heritage that would be submerged by the reservoir is unknown because of the absence of appropriate documentation and continuous in-phase archaeological and historical assessments.

On the other hand, it could be argued that, the commencement of Gibe III project in 2016 will have the following merits, if properly handled: promotion and conservation of the Walls; archaeological importance of the walls, the registration of the walls as national and international heritage, access to additional infrastructures (like boat and road transportations), and attract tourism and recreation development. These are the hopes aired despite the damages it causes to the heritage the Dawuro people cherished for centuries.

In nutshell, any reasonable person can see that the natural, local communities and the state led development projects are causing serious damages to the Dawuro wall. Leaving beside the controversy over the impact of the dam would have on the Dawuro Walls, serious attention to its conservation shall be given. According to UNESCO (2013: 25) there are two main approaches of conservation and management of heritage. The ‘conventional’ approach refers to the methodology adopted by the conservation professionals on the conservation of the materials of the past to be preserved for the sake of future generations. The other is ‘value-led’ conservation approach based on the values attached by all stakeholders (not only by the experts). In the latter case, conservation and management plans should be based on local values and, more importantly, on the cultural significance of heritages to the society. For instance, the Dawuro people regard the Wall as the symbolic and feels about their destruction stating that “walls are built up on our forefather’s bones and bloods and even walking on them is taboo” (EEPCO 2009). This has to be positively viewed and valued so that its protection shall be built on this value.

  1. Concluding Remarks

The great Dawuro walls are complex, unique and famous medieval dry stonewalls in the Omo Valley. The walls have been considered as signals for the existence of high degree of political and social cohesion of the society. The walls are sources of self-inspiration, pride and identity for the society that witnesses the patriotic deeds of the people by building strong unity. Historically, it is the living testimony for the Medieval Civilization in the Omo Valley during the 16th to 18th centuries. Scientifically, it can help to investigate the indigenous architectural technology in dry stone building and a potential area for research in archaeological, historical, and engineering fields of studies.

However, this article found that, first, state-led development projects are jeopardizing this historical heritage and worries of the Dawuro people are sidelined. Lack of emphasis from ARCCH for conservation of the walls at national level undermined its necessary cares and protections. This indicates that it needs cooperative conservation campaign to protect, safeguard, and preserve the heritage. Second, there should be an attempt to: first, launch awareness creation training for the local people and design a participatory and integrated conservation projects. Third, authors suggest that, it is quintessential empowering local experts and researchers on sustainable preservation. Third, do deep inventory assessment and research on the side of the effects of development projects on the heritage and clear naturally growing trees from the walls. Fourth, involve public universities and other research institutes in the conservation process, create open-air museums, build recreation centers and organize tour exhibitions.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Abraham Dereje. 2013. Gibe III Dam Poses no Effect on the king Halala Wall. The Herald of Ethiopia, October 13.

_______2013.KawoHalala. The Herald of Ethiopia, October 23

______. “Yegibe 3 Tirufatoch.” (in Amharic). Zemen Metset, (October 2006 E.c ) 53: 48-49.

Amborn, H. 1989. “Agricultural Intensification in the Burji-Konso Cluster of Southwestern Ethiopia.”Azania: Journal of the British Institute in Eastern Africa, 24 (1):71-83.

Authority for Research and Conservation of Cultural Heritage. 2008. “Interim Report of Gibe III Archaeological project.”  Addis Ababa.

Aremu, D. 2007. “The Historical and Archeological Significance of Koso wall, Old Oyo National Park, Nigeria.” Africa update Letter 14:51-70.

Blake Janet. 2000. “On Defining the Cultural Heritage.” International and Comparative Law  quarterly ,  49: 61-85.

Demeulenaere, E. 2002.“Woods (Mora) and Social Organization in Konso (Southwestern Ethiopia).”Journal of Ethiopian Studies 35 (2): 81-111.

David, L. E.  `et al. `  2008. Tourism Policy and Planning: Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow.

   London: Elsevier Inc.

Elias Awato, Shiferaw Banjawand Abebech Ansebo.1999. Yesemen Omo Hiziboch Poletik Tarik, Part1 (inAmharic). AddisAbaba: Negade Matemiya Bet.

Ethiopian Electric Power Corporation. 2009. “Gibe III- Environmental and Social Impact Assessment.” CESI SpA-Mid Day International consulting Engineers. Addis Ababa.

Fujimoto Takeshi (2009). Armed Herders, Unarmed Farmers, and the State: An Analysis of Violent Conflicts in the Middle Omo Valley with Reference to the Cases in Malo, Southwest Ethiopia.  Nilo-Ethiopian Studies 13:63-77

Habreland, E.1977. “Ethiogenesis and Expansion in South west Ethiopia with special reference to Omotic Speaking People.” unpublished: Conference at the School of Oriental and African studies. London.

Hailuzeleke. 2007. “A Rapid Archaeological Impact Assessment in Wolayta and Dawuro Zones, Along Omo River:” A report .Addis Ababa.

_______ (2008) “Some Notes on the Great walls of Wolayta and Dawuro.” In annals D Ethiopia, 2007-2008, vol. 23: 399_412.

________ (2009)  “Dawuro During the Construction of the Wall of Halala.”  In Kirs Annually Bilingual Magazine of ARCCH. Wolde Derso (Ed.).45- 47.

Institute of Archaeology.1966.Ytintaw Tarik Kirsi Atebabk Megilecha. Addis Ababa

Johnson, B. and Christensen, L. 2004. Educational Research: Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed Approach. New York: Pearson.

Kassaye Begashaw.1998. “yekirs tibeqana enikibkabe.”hig wot yekirisoch enkiskasen lemegitat mini medergi alebet bemil res letezegajew ager akefaw simipozem wusit yekerebe. Bekirs tinatna tibeka dirigit.Unpublished. Addis Ababa

MacDonald, K. C. 2012. “The Least of their inhabited Villages are fortified”: the Walled Settlements of Segou.” Azania: Archaeological Research in Africa 47(3): 343-364.

Ministry of Culture and Tourism. September 2010.The Halala Walls. In Kirs, Annual Bilingual Magazine of ARCCH 4 (1), 1-2.

Odede, F. 2008. “Gunda-buche: The Bank-and-ditch fortified settlement enclosures of Western Kenya, Lake Victoria Basin.”  Azania: Archaeological Research in Africa 43(1): 36-49.

Oliver Roland. 1968. The Dawn of African History. (ed). 2nd edition. London: Oxford University press.

Pillia, G, D. (September 2009). The Fish Eagle`s Comment:Travels in Southwest Ethiopia.Retrieved in 2013 from www.amazon.com.

Rosabelle Baswell (2005) “Heritage Tourism and Identity in Mauritain Village of Channarel and Le Morne.”Journal of South Africa Studies. Vol.31,  no.2. 283-295.

Samual Alemu. 2014. A Great Walls of Dawuro_ Kawo Halala. The Ethiopian Herald, February 2.

Seid Ahmad Mohhammed.2006.“A Historical Survey of Dawuro, Southern Ethiopia (up to 1974).”Unpublished M.A. thesis.Addis Ababa University.

Tsadiku.2014. Ye Dawuro Biher Tarikna Bahil (in Amharic). Addis Ababa: Alpha Printing Press.

Watson, E. E. 2009. Living Terraces in Ethiopia: Konso Landscape, Culture & Development. Oxford: James  Currey.

Wondimu Lema.2009. “Conservation and Preservation of Cultural Heritages. A case study on Halala Kela Dawuro Zone, SNNPR.”Unpublished B.A. thesis. Arba Minch University. Arbaminch

Wiels Simone. 2002. Oppression and Liberty. Translated by Arthur Willes and John Petrie. London. New York: Routledg.

Yesemen Omo zone Bahil Mastawokiyana Turism Memirya (1992, June) “Halala Kabe/Halala kela.” Wogaa.Vol. 3.pp. 44-45.

UNESCO.2013. Managing Cultural World Heritage.Paris. France

* Lecturer in History and Heritage Management at Mada Walabu University. He holds MA in Ethiopian Studie from Addis Ababa University. He can be reached at: admabe2007@yahoo.com.

**Researcher at the Institute of Indigenous Studies and Lecturer in Law at School of Law, Dilla University. He holds MPhil. in Indigenous Studies from University of Tromso, Norway. He can be reached at: zelalem.tesfaye430@gmail.com

[1] Even today, the low land area of Hala, Qayi, Sayki, and Zima Waruma Farmers Associations (FAs) in Loma Woreda and Dachiya Deneba, Zaba Garada, Dasha Aja, Garada Bachira, Garada Intela FAs in Gena-Bossa district had numerous early terraced plots. Those terraces found in the farm plots and in the forest were about 1 meter high and 0.5 meter wide. The distance between the corresponding terraces was about 5 meters. In those localities, small basalt stones could be found on most of the farming lands.

[2] In addition, there was a myth about “Gragn’s war” and his personality among the Dawuro oral traditions. There were a number of stone stelae called “Gragnsucha” (Gragn`s stone). According to the tradition, these stones were erected by the left- handed “Ahmed Gragn” as an anchor for his horses. Others maintain the view that it was the place where his soldiers were buried and these stelae were grave markers. Hence, these stones and the myths related to them strengthened the suspicion that the walls might have been constructed during the “Gragn’s war”.

[3] These seven administrative regions include: Gena, Bosa, Loma, Koyisha, Mareqa, Tocha and Isera.

2 This is not intended to publicize against the development project unlike to some of western media. But it is for the big deal to define the challenges for conservation of “undefined Ethiopian Heritage”

A Review on Impact of Teacher Training Programs on the Attitude of Teachers

Reuben Nguyo Wachiuri

 

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to look into the impact of teacher training programs on the attitude of teachers. The preservice and in service programs were considered. Various aspects were looked at such change of attitude towards inclusion, use of ICT, teaching profession, micro teaching and so forth. The results show that teacher training impacts positively on the attitude of the teachers. Notwithstanding individual teachers have particular temperaments and personality traits that influence how they approach new ideas and situations. Thus, learning outcomes in teacher education are a function of both what programs offer and what teacher trainees bring to the training course. It is also worth noting that at times experienced teachers did not have a change of attitude but they had an improvement in their efficiency. In some cases teachers change in attitude did not translate to a change in behavior due to lack of facilities in the schools.

Key Words: Attitude, pre service training, in service training, teacher trainee

Introduction

Education is undergoing transformations across different parts of the world including Africa. The reform impulse has seen the rise and construction of new learning standards and assessments which will only work if there is investment in the capacity of educators to work together effectively. It’s time to clear away non-essential demands and build capacity in our schools for smarter teaching and learning. Educators are ready for it, students deserve it, and our future prosperity and security require it (Valerie Strauss, 2013). Improving teachers by building their capacity in their professional and personal life is important in the process of reforming education.

Today, students need to learn how to transfer knowledge and skills to real-world problems by communicating and collaborating in groups locally, nationally, and globally to find creative solutions that are innovative, efficient, and sustainable (Valerie Strauss, 2013). Instead, we have 21st century learners being taught by 20th century teachers in a 19th century educational system (Asia Society, 2012). Because of the globalized world’s new demands for careers and life in the 21st century, international educational leaders are transforming outdated educational systems to reflect a variety of instructional strategies and assessments that will engage multicultural and diverse student populations.

According to Trorey and Cullingford (2002), teachers are central to the capacity of schools to perform and no amount of policy reform will make education more effective unless teachers are

part of the change. One of the fundamental facts that educators and teachers have to bear in mind

is to know how important it is to have the ability to stay current and utilize the most up to date

information. Continuous provision of teachers needs through different forms of support such as

training and other forms of career development are a crucial component in nearly every modern

proposal for educational improvement. Regardless of how schools are formed or reformed, structured or restructured, the renewal of staff members’ professional skills is considered

fundamental to improvement.

Global trends show that majority of our teachers have had opportunities to attend well developed and thoughtful workshops on how to transform teaching and learning. However, the enthusiasm engendered by the workshops wane when they return to the classroom and the reality of the thousands of other things that have to be done in order to achieve effective teaching and learning (Joyce and Showers, 2002).

 

Attitude on Inclusion

            There is some evidence that an important predictor of successful integration of students with disabilities in regular classrooms is the positive attitude of teachers (Sharma, Florin, Lowerman & Earle, 2006; Al-Khatteb 2004; Avramidis, 2001; Mowes, 2000; Elloker, 1999; Gadium, 2002; Dover, 2002; & Mckeskey & Waldrom, 2002). Research evidence also sugggests that positive teachers’ attitudes towards inclusion often begins during pre-service teacher preparation (Jung, 2007; Avramisids, Bayliss, & Burden, 2001; Campbell, Gilmore, & Cuskelly, 2003; Shippen et al.,2005). Subban and Sharma (2007) pointed out that if teachers leave from the university with negative attitudes then those attitudes are difficult to change. Consequently, positive attitudes can and need to be fostered through both training and positive experiences with students with disabilities.

            The effect of teacher preparation for inclusion is known to have significantly affected pre-service teachers’ attitudes in both Jordan and UAE. Teacher efficacy in implementing inclusion directly affects their practices and attitudes toward including students with disabilities in general education (Sharam, et al., 2006; Pace, 2003). Both males and females had negative attitudes towards people with disabilities in both Jordan and the UAE. One reason for the negative attitudes of males and females could be that pre-service teachers in this study had not been informed that students with special needs would be included in their classrooms and that, as general educators, they do not prefer to be responsible for teaching students with disabilities in the regular classroom. Other reason could be attributed to the fact that the number of male students in this study was small (Al Zyoudi M., Al Sartwai A. & Dodin H.2011).

            Jordanian pre-service teachers had more positive attitudes than their counterparts in UAE. This result could be attributed to the fact that UAE as a nation is relatively new, having been established in 1971; hence, much of its effort has been devoted to creating new programs and services in all aspects, particularly in education. These efforts are still in early stages and need more time to prove their effectiveness. In contrast, Jordan has a long history of providing education for all students. Education in Jordan has received much attention and improvement including preparation of teachers, programs and curriculum. These developments play a major role in improving the quality of services and programs which reflects on improving pre-service teachers attitudes towards inclusive education. This interpretation seems supported by Sharam et al., (2006) who concluded that pre-service teachers from Western countries (i.e. Australia, and Canada) had more positive attitudes toward students with disabilities than their Eastern counterparts (i.e. Hong Kong and Singapore).

            Pre-service teachers in the UAE considered the absence of appropriate materials and equipment as barriers to successful inclusion. Pre-service teachers in this study were critical of the services provided for students in general education classrooms. On the other hand, in Jordan, pre-service teachers showed positive attitudes towards inclusion, because they found appropriate resources that facilitated successful inclusion. This result is supported by Alzyoudi (2006) who found a strong relationship between sufficient resources and successful inclusion. Pre-service teacher education must, therefore, be concerned with the promotion of teacher attitudes as well as instructional competences (Andrews, 2002; Reinke and Moseley, 2002).

            Pearson (2009) says that teacher education is a context in which changes in attitudes, beliefs and values do occur. Atkinson (2004) and Forlin et al. (2009) note that if the negative attitudes of pre-service teachers are not addressed during initial teacher education, they may continue to hamper the progress of inclusive education efforts in schools. Training in special/inclusive education has consistently been found to have influenced educators’ attitudes (Campbell et al., 2003; Cook, 2002). Lancaster and Bain (2007) agree that in general, there is a positive change in attitudes after undertaking an inclusive/special education unit of study and this is the case across a number of contexts and countries (Ching et al., 2007; Kyriakou et al., 2007).

            However, Molina (2006) found research evidence to demonstrate that theoretical classes and reading are not sufficient to modify teachers’ and students’ negative attitudes towards pupils with special educational needs. Loreman et al. (2007b) conclude that if pre-service teachers are going to develop positive attitudes towards inclusive education, they need opportunities for direct interaction with people with disabilities, instruction on policy and legislation relating to inclusive education, and opportunities to gain confidence in practical teaching situations with students with disabilities.

            Johnson and Howell (2009) also show that attitudes are amenable to change through a course and an assignment that involve the analysis of case studies in inclusive education. Elhoweris and Alsheikh (2006) suggest that attitudes can be improved by increasing students’ knowledge about learners with disabilities and ways to meet their learning needs and suggest that teacher education programmes may need to include more alternative learning styles and instructional strategy.

            Lambe (2007) found that successful teaching practice in the non-selective sector had the most positive influence on perceived competency and on general attitudes towards inclusion.  A study by Yellin et al. (2003) however, concluded that mere exposure to students with additional needs may not be enough to change attitudes in a positive way –it is the quality of experiences which produces real change. Campbell et al. (op. cit.) provided a one semester course on human development and education and field work with learners with Down syndrome. Following this, students felt significantly less discomfort, uncertainty, fear and vulnerability when interacting with people with disabilities. They also reported feeling less sympathy, an outcome also noted by Tait and Purdie (2000) which may indicate a more relaxed approach to disability as opposed to an overly sympathetic view.

            Studies overseas have found that many teachers have less than positive attitudes towards students with disabilities and their inclusion in general education classrooms (D’ Alonzo, Annemaree Carroll and Giordano, & Cross, 1996; Vaughn, Schumm, Jallad, Anne Jobling, Slusher, & Saumell, 1996). In a study of teachers in rural British Columbia, it was established that both their in service and preservice education had inadequately prepared them for the realities of inclusion (Bandy & Boyer, 1994). Teachers reported a high percentage of children with special needs in their classrooms who had a wide range of disabilities. They revealed a grave concern pertaining to the lack of support services available to the students and themselves, and disclosed a perceived inability to provide optimal educational programs to children with special needs because of inadequate teacher preparation and lack of adequate resources. Of 231 teacher trainees in Northern Ireland and Scotland, 96 percent indicated that they did not believe their professional training had prepared them to meet the challenge of inclusive education (Wishart & Manning, 1996). Another study conducted in 45 states in the U.S.A. concerning inclusion reported that respondents did not feel prepared to meet the needs of their students with disabilities (Lombard et al., 1998).

            Hickson, (1995) asserts a positive attitude change towards people with disabilities was noted on completion of a mandatory disability course component. In addition, attitude formation and change were also linked to contact with people with disabilities. In an Australian study, Forlin, Jobling, and Carroll (2001) identified several factors that were related to interactions with people with disabilities for a group of preservice teachers. It was found that preservice teachers had a high level of sympathy toward people with disabilities, were fearful of being disabled, and felt vulnerable in interactions with people with disabilities.

            A survey of teachers undertaken by the Queensland Government (Disability Services Queensland, 1999) further reported that 86 percent of the respondents considered that others would not feel relaxed and comfortable when interacting with people with a disability. Annemaree C., Chris F. & Anne J, (2003) observed that the most noticeable improvement regarding interactions with a person with a disability was that preservice teachers felt less ignorant, more able to act normally and surer of how to behave, once they had completed the course. They also demonstrated less pity and a greater focus on the person rather than the disability.

 

Attitudes on Computer Information Technology (ICT) Usage

            Teo, T., Lee, C. B., & Chai, C. S. (2007) study shows that perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and subjective norm were significant determinants of pre-service computer attitudes. Facilitating conditions did not influence computer attitude directly but through perceived ease of use. These findings demonstrate that social norm and facilitating conditions are potential variables that may be used to extend the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) for research on computer attitudes.

            Wong et al (2005) examined the use of the Internet among 310 pre-service teachers using questionnaire survey method. They found that pre-service teachers’ use of the Internet was influenced by support from friends, confidence level, attitude towards the Internet and perceived usefulness (PU). Khine (2001) studied 184 pre-service teachers to examine their use of Information Communications Technology (ICT) through studying their attitudes towards computers and found a significant relationship between Computer Attitudes (CA) and its use in the institution. Yuen & Ma (2001) administered the Chinese Computer Attitude Scale for Teachers to 216 secondary teachers in Hong Kong to examine the factors that influence the instructional use of computers and their results revealed that affective attitudes, general usefulness, behavioral control and pedagogical use were significant in determining the use of ICT among teachers, accounting for 37% of the model specified.

            A key reason for studying teachers’ CA is the ability of attitudes to predict computer usage. Research has shown that a teacher’s attitude towards the computer is a major predictor for future computer use (Myers & Halpin, 2002) and their need for learning computing skills that in turn will lead to computer literacy (Zhang & Espinoza, 1997). For example, Yildirim (2000) found that teachers who used computers more would tend to develop positive attitudes that promote further use of the computer in their daily teaching tasks and conduct activities that require computers to play a major role in, for example, computer-mediated forums.

 Attitude on other Variables

            In a study in Iran, Shahmohammadi (2014) noted the short in service training course significantly affected the teachers’ attitude in the learning environment which includes: Relationship with Students, Presentation and Culture and Adjustment and not in Individuals and Activity. The reason being, they had already developed a positive attitude towards the same during their teaching practice and teaching experience. According to Senior (2006) it is nearly impossible for teacher to implement all the principles of teaching that they have been taught in training courses since these courses are overloading teachers with a plethora of methods, and teaching skills. This may account for the high number of mistakes in the two areas of presentation and execution/method.

            Shahmohammadi (2014) also asserts that in some cases there was a mismatch between the student teachers’ attitude and their teaching practice in class. That is to say they failed to put into practice what they valued .The researchers are of the opinion that the reason why the teachers did not follow some of the training guidelines might be due to their being overwhelmed with a surplus of principles on the one hand and being new to the atmosphere and inexperienced on the other. This might have made it difficult for them to make on the spot decisions in spite of their willingness to do so. This finding supports Ajzen’s (1988) claim that teachers’ attitudes may be something and their actual behaviors may be something else based on the opportunities and resources available to them. This point is consistent with the common observation that some teachers who agree with particular types of activities do not carry them out in their classrooms. For these teachers, attitude is not predictive of their behavior. The point to remember is that teachers’ inadequate performance should not be considered as an indication of their incompetence. If they are given enough time and practice they would probably gain the confidence to be more judicious in their decision making.

            Researchers have observed that some experienced teachers also did not follow the training course guidelines. The reason might be the incompatibility of what the teachers had gained through years of experience and what was introduced as sound practice in the training course. Their experience might have convinced them that what the training course introduced as effective practice was not feasible. This case is also in line with what Hollingsworth (1992) has theorized. He claims that prior knowledge and experience serve as a filter to pedagogical learning during the pre-service years, altering how pedagogical instruction is learned and enacted by teachers. This was actually observed in this study since some teachers who had a few years of experience in teaching did not follow exactly what was prescribed to them in the training course and preserved their previous beliefs and personal theories. As individuals, teachers have particular temperaments and personality traits that influence how they approach new ideas and situations. Thus, learning outcomes in teacher education are a function of both what programs offer and what teacher trainees bring to the training course.

            Srivastava (1989) attempted to study the impact of teacher education programme of Lucknow University on pupil- teachers’ attitude and teaching efficiency. The findings of study were: Most of the trainee groups changed their teacher attitude positively and significantly after training.  However the experienced male trainees did not show any change in their teacher attitude, there was no significant change in the teacher-aptitude of the male postgraduate student-teachers and the experienced female trainees as a result of the training. All the trainees showed significant and appreciable improvement in their classroom teaching performance, after the completion of the training, the females showed better teacher-attitude and aptitude than the male trainees. Male trainees showed better teaching efficiency than female trainees, and the trainees teaching social sciences showed better teaching efficiency than those teaching science and mathematics.

            Roy (1991) examined the impact of the elementary teacher education programme on attitudinal change of the elementary teacher-trainees of Orissa towards community involvement. The elementary teacher education programme with the elements of community involvement, both in theory and practice, positively affected the change in attitude of the student-teachers towards community involvement. Both the categories of student-teachers were almost equally prone to change in their attitude towards community involvement. Previous teaching experience had no role to play in the change in attitude of student-teachers towards community involvement.  The degree of interest in teaching was responsible for accelerating the development of attitude towards community involvement.

            Ramachandran (1991) attempted to conduct an enquiry into the attitude of student-teachers towards teaching. The findings of the study were: Regular college teacher-trainees had a more favorable attitude towards teaching than the correspondence course teacher-trainees, female teacher-trainees had a more favorable attitude towards teaching than male teacher-trainees, the sons and daughters of teachers had a highly favorable attitude towards teaching. Post Graduate (PG) teacher-trainees had a more favorable attitude towards teaching than undergraduate teacher-trainees; the nature of the course did not influence the attitude of teacher-trainees towards teaching.

            Yadav (1992) studied the impact of teacher training on certain personality characteristics of trainees. The findings of the study were:  All the dimensions of self-concept increased through teacher training except the feeling of inadequacy which decreased. Social maturity of the teacher-trainees increased in all the dimensions except for self-direction, personal adequacy and enlightened trust; the teachers’ training had a significant influence on their self-concept, social maturity and attitude towards the teaching profession.

            Fortune, et al. (1965) designed a questionnaire to assess attitudes of students towards micro teaching technique in Stanford summer micro technique clinic. The result was quite encouraging. It was found that 60 percent of the participating students reported their micro teaching experience either very or extremely valuable. Dhadwal (1981) in his study of attitude of B.Ed. trainees towards teaching profession found that trainees belonging to urban areas have more favourable attitude as compared to those belonging to rural areas. Men have less favourable attitude as compared to women towards teaching profession. Raina (1990) found that there was no significant difference in attitude towards teaching profession. Between the in-service education science, arts and commerce teachers differed significantly in their attitude to teaching.

Shukla (1997) conducted a study on the attitude of the college teachers towards their profession and found that majority of teachers show favourable attitude towards their profession. Female teachers show greater positive attitude than male teachers.

            Sali (2003) studied the attitude of teachers towards four aspects of in-service training programme i.e. content enrichment of school subject, teaching methods, new trends in education and innovation in education and interpreted favorable attitude towards different aspects. Depaul et al. (2003) studied the difference in the attitude of elementary school teachers towards in-service education in between non graduates, graduates and post-graduate, married, unmarried, urban and rural. The result showed that there is no significant differences between the mean attitude score towards the in-service education with regard to different variables.

Conclusion

 The review shows that the teacher training programmes have an impact on teachers’ attitudes towards various aspects in the teaching profession. Both preservice and in service programs were looked into. It is also notable that not only do the programs influence the attitude of the teachers but also their past experiences and personality traits. Moreover, the attitudes of the teachers do not always translate to behavior change due to lack of equipment and materials.

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The Impact of Economic Globalization on International Trade Trends in Developing Countries at the Beginning of Third Decade

 Said Mohammad Karim

  • Introduction

Currently, the world is experiencing a new scientific revolution in information, communication, transportation and technological knowledge-intensive. This revolution has deepened the globalization of all aspects of economic life of the movement of goods, capital, services and skilled labor. It became the technological revolution and in particular its part informational pivotal role. With The emergence of the phenomenon of globalization, which is the current stage of development of international economic relations, properties, and not put forward a new theory or a new perspective to understand the mechanisms of this development, and is a composite concept basically means examining the nature of the developments that have taken place for the international relations of economic, social, cultural and political dimensions, which makes impact on the trends of this development in the future.In other words, this might consider to be characteristics of the modern capitalist system.This is taking shape at the beginning of the Nineteenth and Twentieth centuries, which prompted researchers to give up the use of the concept of system, which necessarily involves the mechanisms and rules are clear and specific. Interested in studying changes in the relations between the inside limbs, in favor of the concept of globalization, which seems more neutral in the phenomenon of the more obscure and at the same time. However, this neutrality does not hide faith dimension inherent in it and which threatens the countries that rejected extinction and extinction, especially developing countries .premise from which this search extent to which developing countries of economic globalization and trade liberalization and the acceleration of goods and services flows, are developing their current state countries can to engage in the international economic system.

  • Concept of Economic Globalization

The current stage known a group of radical changes in the global economic system, predicted for the beginning of a new economic system characterized by milestones and trends are different from those prevailing before. Hence, the world is controlled by two trends which are linked and that they were separate, namely, globalization and economic liberalization.These two trends already taken place in switching conditions, the formation of economic behavior, and become more attached to influential tracks international national economy, and so became a success and progress to the strength of nations and blocs measured, this is even linked to the extent of participation or involvement paths of these two directions towards globalization, which has become prevalent even more dominant force in the world today, it was not coincidence. The return of the dream that accompanied the individuals since ancient times, to expand the range, mobility and investment, transfer of wealth and profit open broader horizons, as a result is made possible of the change in the international system, and the decline in the concept of a centralized economy or router to be replaced by the concept of a market economy, and its adoption as a tool essential for development. This concept, which stretch in all directions, is seen to the world as a single market, and thus is represents and embodies a vision based for a large segment of the countries that were leading and defending the principles of a free economy, giving the private sector a leading role. This means the predominance of the ideology of the free economy, triumph of the market economy, market mechanisms, and political liberalism. Consequently, globalization of the economy and on the scope of each of the international economy began to spread to all levels of production, financing, technological, marketing and administrative (Kella, 2011).

By taking a comprehensive look at the global situation, it can be said that the world has become more essential than ever before, and that the economical differences have become more acute and severe than they used to be and that the global distribution of income has become less balanced and less fair, though there is a large gap dominant to the world, it is likely to represent a serious threat to the growth achieved and the continuous development in the future.

The advanced industrial countries, which have committed themselves to the principles of free economy and previously defended him and worked on the publication, these countries are driving the global developments and designed a way that suits them.Because at this stage they have methods and the elements, it has a vested interest and potential of circulation, published and approved by the largest possible number of countries. These countries have prepared themselves in advance, who beneficiaries and are supported by an engine with motive to activate economic their income and activate its institutions list by exploiting existing possibilities and opportunities in the world.

However, developing countries that suffer from significant transitional structural and social problems, in most of these countries are still grappling with and affected by the global developments accelerating. All of these forces and trends formed with each other at the current stage the process of transition of the new global economic system. Which must be closer to the analysis of its components as well as determine the characteristics and features to identify the transformations and challenges and issues that began determined in the field of international trade, monetary system, manufacturing transport technology, preservation of the environment and other (Avhild, 2007). At this stage no wonder to show several terms reflect the features of the current stage, and even the future experienced by the transition process towards the establishment of a new global economic system, such as the term globalization or constellation or inclusiveness.

  • Technological Revolution and the New International Division of Work

The troubles of the existence of the technological revolution and information with the increasing freedom of movement of goods international capital may help clearly on the interrelationship and overlap between the parts of the world and confirm the global markets.Drop the barrier of distances between countries, and create a new type of international division of labor, which is the process whereby industrial productivity between more than one country so that the distribution of the components of any final product manufacture in more than one place. Thus it is no longer the main support of strength, as the economic capability is natural resources,  which it has become the main foundation in that to own advantage or competitiveness in the international arena, and which revolve around the cost and price and productivity and quality and is what the depth of the trend towards interdependence.

The emergence of new patterns of division of labor were not known, where the traditional image of the international division of labor is to allocate some of the country’s raw materials and mining and food commodity and specialty other countries in industrial products, and the assumption was that the country is developing a comparative advantage in the first type, while developed countries have a comparative advantage in industrial goods (Diab, 2010).

This division is no longer in line with reality, and the issue here is not just a shift in the comparative advantages of industrial goods to some developing countries, but what caused the technological revolution of the availability of new possibilities for specialization. This is due to the multiplicity of types of single products, for instance there is no one type of cars or radios or television or computer, but rather there are multiple types of needs and what type them in terms of production conditions may be different from what the other needs. Hence the division of labor between the different countries in the same products appears, and it has become fashionable, but mostly for a large number of consumer durables and machinery and equipment, that the same item appears in the list of exports and imports for the same country, this is known as the division of labor within a single industry.It has become fashionable to parcel one product among a number of the country’s production so that specializes every country in part or more, and this is known as the division of labor within a single product intra – firm.This kind has become of specialization of the most important aspects of the division of labor between the industrialized country and with each other, as well as in increasing cases between industrialized and developing the country.

Thus the decisions of production and investment become taken in accordance with considerations of economic rationalization in relation to cost and earning, even there has become an opportunity for many developing countries to penetrate the global market in a lot of products.Where new styles allow international division of labor to those countries gain competitive advantages in a wide circle of goods, and perhaps the experience of the Asian tigers in Southeast Asia, is the best example to that. The revolution in production was the occupation of knowledge of information relative importance of the first in the production process. Moreover, it is reflected in the emergence of new patterns of international division of labor, where the back of the division of labor within a single product intra – firm so that the distribution of the production of the various parts of a single item on the different countries of the world well be appear according to considerations of economic efficiency (Murray, 2013).

The new world economic system, which began to show its characteristics and features as well as is determined with the beginning of the nineties is still in the process of composition and formation conditions and compared to previous arrangements. It is noted that it uses new tools and methods to maximize the goals and objectives in line with the evolutionary stage – the stage of globalization – which reached and global changes that have taken place, and the new mechanisms that have arisen.Therefore, the dynamic characteristic of the new global economic system make sure day after day, as evidenced by the prospects for changing the balance of the existing economic powers on the basis of the future It is evidenced by the presence of more than one order of what will be the new world economic order in the atheist century the third millennium, some suggesting unipolar shape, some raised pyramidal shape, and othersuggesting parallel blocks shape.

  • Changes in the International Trading System at the End of Twentieth Century

The most important characteristic of a shift in the international trading system towards commercial freedom system after 1994 and the beginning of 1995 along with the establishment of the World Trade Organization – has included not only the liberalization of trade in industrial goods, but also included agricultural goods and other industrial goods such as textiles and clothing. This is in addition to the trade in services which is considered a turning point in international economic relations, and the liberalization of trade applied to services the principle of gradual liberalization and includes trade services, banking, insurance, capital market, transport of land maritime and air, contracting, tourism, telecommunications, and services such as professional technical consultancy and professional services offices. This encourages the phenomenon of labor migration or function instead of the labor force migration. In addition to the liberalization of services, it has included a shift in the international trading system, liberation organization, protection of literary, artistic property industrial, as well as liberalization of investment laws having impact on international trade restrictions.

The transformation of the internal orientation of any development strategy of import substitution to production for export is a result of the new trends of globalization and the great opportunities offered by the global market.This shift comes in particularly large number of developing countries. As a result, because the country has managed to developing high growth rates are achieved by the country has pursued a strategy of export-oriented development based on the exploitation of the potential of the global market to the greatest extent possible.

East Asia countries proved with a growing number of developing country success towards this direction. The international market can accommodate both availability which has the will to penetrate and it is important to complete the elements of export-oriented strategy, which works to promote the expansion of exports of products which features produced or can be produced present or future at relatively low cost compared to the rest of the other countries (Windsor, 2009). The export economy is a traditional long-term development process, is to put the pillars of transformation to be able to bring about changes restructuring in the economy, and that lead to the creation of diverse activities and sectors production structure uses the best technological methods, and earn exported products generally the ability to invade the world market. The strength become highly competitive, including corrects the position of developing countries in the patterns of specialization, and the international division of labor.

The profits from trade liberalization are not distributed evenly on the winners, both in industrialized nations or the developing countries. Hence, a according to the highest estimates is expected to be out collectively by more than 17 percent of the estimated increase in global income developing countries.The industrialized countries will get $ 100 million of the total expected in the world’s income as a result of partial liberalization of trade and of $ 119 billion which increases the share of the industrialized nations of the expected increase of up to 84 percent, and get developing countries to 10.3 percent. Despite those results, the importers of foodstuffs will be one of the most affected by trade liberalization, since the liberalization of trade in agricultural products, especially rice and oil, grain and wheat and uninstall support them by industrialized nations resulting in a rise in prices. On the other hand, it can be said that the distribution of gains attributable to developed countries obsessed by the global triad: the United States, Japan, and the European Union (Salih, 2006).

  • Nature of International Trade and Situation of Developing Countries at the Beginning of the Third Decade

Exchanges between developed and developing countries still in a large part subject to the international division of labor that prevailed after World War II. Accordingly, take it in the form of raw materials in exchange for industrial goods. Raw materials and for historical reasons  is an important part of the trade as well as developed countries providing the bulk of the trade of industrial goods in the world of the total exports of these countries towards the outside while the developing countries do not believe only a small percentage of the trade of raw materials in the world although it is part of the largest oil exports.Despite the fact that developing countries are the main source of raw but there are no raw materials in the industrialized countries and also exchange industrialized countries among them an initial goods. And some of these raw materials needed by countries of the South, and in general, a quarter of the value of exports of industrial countries to developing countries is equivalent to the value of all exports in the form of raw materials coming from these countries to the industrialized nations.International trade rolling is now a market of industrial goods. It can be conclude from this that the developed countries dominate the exports of all industrial goods and an important part of the raw materials we will review the exports of some of these products. However, this growth achieves significant differences between the various developing regions in addition to the contraction of world production growth.There are other factors behind the chill international trade such as the events that took place in the Middle East region, the changes in Eastern Europe, and declining terms of trade for developing countries rates (Salih, 2006).

On the other hand, the nineties identify the fast growth rate of international trade, and this is due in part to the rapid spread and flourishing trade in components of high-tech electronic goods. In spite of ongoing international trade, it grows faster than the speed of growth of total production. This is due mainly to the poor economic performance of developed countries. As regardless of an increase in global production, the rate of growth in developed countries has fallen as a result of the slowdown in production, which represents more than two-thirds of world production, and this is because of multiple factors, including the increase of public debt in most industrialized countries. Secondly, the growing pressure on European currencies as a result of deflationary monetary policies and their impact on exchange rates and interest rates. Finally, imbalances in the budgets of industrialized countries and that happened from the possibility of using fiscal policy as a catalyst for growth.

The beginning of the third decade has decrease in global production and international trade has reached lower global production rate levels since the eighties of the twentieth century, perhaps these reductions offered by global production and international trade through during this period returned mainly to the effects of the events of September 11, 2001, in the United States and that has touched most sectors in all regions with the exception of some Asian countries.

International trade continues to be a main driver behind the growth of the international economy, international trade and the growth rate is still in twice the growth rate of world output. The larger developing economies like China and India have seen continuous growth export activities. There are quite a number of developing countries made profits from the significant improvement in the terms of trade over the past few years, and due in large incision to the incident recovery in oil prices and some other commodity. On the other hand there are a number of oil-importing countries and exporting agricultural crops have been damaged from the terms of trade prevailing and suffered a loss, and in the light of high oil prices exceeded the proportion of the rise in prices exports of those countries as a result of the deterioration of commodity exports to those countries or for the two reasons together. Generally, the price of primary commodities has reached the top level and it is expected that many non-oil commodity prices are falling from the (United Nations report, 2005).

There is no doubt that the global economic changes that have evolved in the new world economic order will affect the developing countries, and that the global trinity economic and what raised from new issues in all areas reflect a new strategy aimed at pre-emptying the strategies most development self-reliant, such as those pursued by Japan and which star by the emergence of economic power to defy the developed countries such as Europe and America. This new strategy of developing countries pays adoptive development in the context of dependency of developed countries based on trade and foreign direct investment. That is why the developing countries adapt to what results this new trading system of the new patterns of international division of labor and toward greater economic interdependence.

 On the other hand, the investment and new issues on social paragraphs as measures of operating procedures, child labor … etc., are likely to act as an obstacle to humanitarian restructuring process. Under the trade agreement on the protection of intellectual property rights system is protecting the rights of the franchise strict and very accurate. Which may generate technological monopolies impede the transfer of technology on a global scale and that this will slow down the resettlement of industries operations. Moreover, the expectation of trade sanctions against countries that disturb the standards of work and child labor will give a significant adverse consequences for the transformation of the economies of low-wage and access to comparative advantages in the global market, and thus the new rules in the game of international trade and investment are likely to affect the recycling comparative advantage through cross-national companies and foreign direct investment process.

It is clear from all of the above, that the developing countries stand at a crossroads, choices are limited, either rejection. Therefore, isolation from the most important part and the most capable of the countries of the world, any part of the product of the progress of scientific and technological development, acceptance and as a result adapt to the international economic system that believes countries of the South that is uneven and unfair. For both options have to pay the price and the cost of each will be incurred (Zakey, 2000).

There are many who are interested in development affairs in the countries of the South incite rejection and call for an alternative think it is more useful to developing countries and their peoples, and is to increase the level of coordination and cooperation between these countries and clustering, if possible, to cope with the new realities in the global economy in order to modify or influence at least for the benefit of the South, and in spite of the theory of gravity for this option. However, the potential application of the facts to face many difficulties and obstacles, including economic limited capacity of the countries of the South in their current state, although it is under the South title meant a large group of countries a population of over 80% of the world’s population but they do not contribute to global income by more than about 20% and more than one billion people live below the poverty line as their share in making scientific development and technological progress modest negligible on a global level.

In addition to the low level of the will of the decision-making circles in these countries to develop the level of cooperation and coordination among them, in one hand to cope with the global economic system, on the other hand to cope with the global economic system. For developing countries to deal more rational and more open to the new economic variables, and working on extensive and comprehensive review of the development of its policies in preparation for the re-formulated in line and the new changes, and the development of economic mechanisms, including work contributes to better exploit the potential available and possible resources (Amin, 1997).

To conclude based from the above point, the new world economic order still needs to be repaired in its mechanisms and the functioning of its institutions, and reconsider the rules, whether in the field of trade, investment or other even it has the consent of the countries and the peoples of the developing world and the developed alike. It also notes that the new global trading system caused a sensation about his future, especially after widespread protest movements against globalization and its mechanisms.

  • Conclusions

 

  1. Developing countries in general face significant challenges may direct to gains, since if overcome, and could direct to losses if these countries unable to cope the changes.
  2. Reduce significantly the level of protection for the agricultural sector over the next few years, as it is also a most important sector in the economies of most developing countries that have a negative impact and unexpected results.
  3. These countries can draw its policy improvement and the development of their economies, especially with regard to the national production, which it is devoid of protection or low level of protection. There is no valid one answer for each of developing countries, and dealing with the issue of this importance vary from state to state depending on their circumstances and their potential.
  4. The abolition or reduction of subsidies for some products well weakens the competitiveness of developing countries in global markets.
  5. Progressive liberalization of services trade will lead to heightened competition in the global services market, and because of the weakness and fragility of the services sector in developing countries, especially the financial services activity of banks, insurance companies, Projections indicate that this sector may be affected negatively as a result of editing.
  6. The unit controls the commercial multi-density expansion parties and restricted the use of some selective economic policy that had a role in the success of the exports of developing countries tools, is no longer possible in light of the increasing liberalization in the international capital markets.The globalization of production of transnational corporations imposes legislation and laws on companies in relation to the objectives of the industrial policy of the host country. here it is emerge a conflict with the important role that practiced by governments in most developing countries, and especially industrial policies to accelerate structural transformation and strategic in the economy by supporting certain sectors identified as strategic to own comparative advantage kinetic potential task and receive so government support.

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