All posts by Dushyant Kumar

I am an enthusiastic content reader and writer inclined to the learning and fostering skills and key things to fortify the journey of learning and earning. I personally loved technical writing and content writing because it gave me an opportunity to express my inner voice and perception and knowledge what i explored over the time by doing various things.

unsymmetrical concept of constitution of federal state of “india”

What is Federalism ?

Federalism have a root Latin word that is ‘Foedus’ means treaty or any pact. Therefore as the meaning signifies it is stand for intermixing of federal government or central government with Provincial ,state ,or other sub unit Governments in a unitary political system.

It is therefore a kind of government in which distribution of powers took place between two levels of governments of same level. for example the federal state of India, Brazil, Russia united states etc. federalism in true meaning in federal state is defined as distribution of powers and relation between states and the central federal unit that is the national government or federal government.

Interesting model of global view of unified federation of India:

India had adopted the British north America act model and the government of India act model as its constitution. So, here in India we had a very engrossing model of federation with two different visions .one of these vision govern the state of Jammu and Kashmir and one vision for rest of all states of federal state of India. In contrast to US and Australian model the state of Jammu and Kashmir had given the power after our constitution came into play. there was a constituent assembly framed in state of Jammu and Kashmir in 1952 and they framed their constitution in 1957 for themselves.so this was very interesting before the abrogation of special status and article 370 to note down instead of India is a union of states which contains the state of Jammu and Kashmir so far as the all other states are concerned there is one set of laws that Manoeuvre . Apart from it for Jammu and Kashmir there was another set of law ,it was only the president that eventually permits in terms of our constitution to apply to the state of Jammu and Kashmir .

Constitution of federal state of India is unsymmetrical in nature:

As we discuss and concern about Federalism of India it is asymmetric there are various aspects which shows Un symmetric nature of constitution of India .

The most important was the case of state of Jammu and Kashmir before 5 August 2019:

Before the abrogation of special status and article 370 The constitution of Jammu and Kashmir vest the residuary power with the state and our article 248 did not operate in the state of Jammu and Kashmir. The only residuary power that the Center have as Jammu and Kashmir discussed was that of tackling with terrorism.

The state of Jammu and Kashmir had its own subject list upon which it legislated. part 6 our constitution which deals with the states did not apply to the state of Jammu and Kashmir even there is no list 2 for Jammu and Kashmir before. Apart from it had enjoyed special status.

Most significant aspects of asymmetry in Indian constitution:

Special provisions:

Under article 371 provides special provisions to the state of Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Goa, Mizoram, Manipur, Nagaland and Sikkim.

Our constitution does not allows or gives such definition but India has a multiparty system with political coalition frequently stands upon regional and caste identities especially at union level. and there is also not parallel surface of Distribution of powers resources and funds

Union territories :

Apart from Centre and states the country has union territories with legislature and without legislature.

The case of Panducherry and Delhi :

Panducherry Enjoys legislative Powers on any issue in the state list or the concurrent list insofar as it applies to the union Territory. Delhi which has three exceptions which are outside its purview that is police land and public order.

The sixth schedule:

Here According to this schedule The Tribal Areas of state of Meghalaya Tripura, Mizoram and Assam can frame autonomous districts and autonomous regions. Hence these all aspects signifies that Constitution of India has Unsymmetrical concept .

psychological determinants of revolution

It is very hard to perceive the emergence of states ,churches ,temples ,legal systems ,hierarchies ,organizations ,political ideologies,religions,and most important unification of Sapiens to survive from million of years without being coloborating without being believing in something which transforms us on every single stage of passing decades that is Revolution. Revolutions have occurred through mankind history and diversified in terms of methods, perpetuation, spreading of ideology, exhortation, to bring about wide changes in course of socio-political , cultural ,economy and institutional etc. reformations across the globe. Approximately 12 thousand years ago the agricultural revolution of plants and animals proper sheltering and settlement, then 5 thousand years ago it was emergence of first kingdom scripting and money, whether it was rise of Buddhism in India about 2500 years ago “A universal truth to liberate all human beings from sufferings” or great Revolution like scientific revolution occurred 500 years ago which changes the intercourse of human species to look in Extensive and capacious aspects of changing life . it Is all happened we evolved from genus homo in Africa 2.5 million years ago to Homo Sapiens in east Africa Up-to the most creative species on this planet because we kept revolting with our body keep revolting with the transformation of tools technologies ideologies myths skepticism religions etc.

But a question arise what it is that makes us all stand for a purpose in a Multitude ? what is it that binds us to perform collectively ?

Our language is prodigiously pliable ,we can construct a paltry number of sounds signs to propagate Infinite number of sentences each with a extensive and different meaning .Human beings can share and communicate,propagate and chant information with the surrounding world .Our language evolved as a medium to propagate information hence we homo sapiens grows as ‘modus Operandi’ of “gossiping” hence homo sapiens grew with social interaction, they are social animals they can distinguish whom they have to believe or whom they have to disregard hence they can expand from small groups to large groups and foster the most suave and consolidated co-operation .Apart from it one of the interesting aspect of our language is not just transmitting information but propensity of matters which does not exist, this is the most remarkable entity we homo sapiens possess that they can discuss thoughts things which we can not touch or can not seen. with the ‘cognitive revolution’ legends myths gods religion came into existence and homo sapiens widely used the fiction the mystic material and this is what Capacitate us not merely to imagine things but congeal our thoughts and actions to do so collectively.

According to a scientific study a maximum of 150 people can be consolidated with pure sharing of logical information, large masses can not stood together for a common goal until you tell them a ‘story’. Myth is something which captivate the common sharing of large mass by believing in common myths a large number of strangers can accumulate for a goal,A fleet of soldiers risks their lives for nationhood for their motherland for a portrait of belief, people worked for a political party’s ideology ,missionaries spreading religious education, All revolutions which shares emotions and active participation of large number of people across the globe may it was American revolution(1775-1783), French revolution(1789-1799), Russian revolution(1917),Great revolution of independence in India (1857-1858) they all emerged because of resentment born by differentiated perceptions invasive nature, dominant nature, harsh taxes rules harsh ruling etc. But shares one thing for common that is these all revolutions converted into sentiments of people through fiction, mystic material, exhortations, Hence transformation come across in beliefs, doctrines and ideas. A revolution considered to be successful only if it became belief and contributor to beliefs are certain myths stories mystic factors which gave man power to act and urge a large number of gatherings to march for a common goal.

In course of modern world exploring political revolutions brought about by mobs for the sake of better Transformed world puts forward interesting aspects wether it was standing unitedly against ‘the dark era of emergency’ or Political swamp by Honorable Prime Minister ‘Shree Narendra Modi’ consecutively through propagation and spreading of ideology all these political changes involves a large number of contribution from people with a common goal to abolish or to adopt based on mythical and mystic factors produced by political leaders who consolidates the emotions of people by telling them stories.