All posts by Educational News

Read more news at https://eduindexnews.com

How to write for international journals (title and abstract guide)

Early-stage researchers have the challenge of getting their papers accepted and published by well-established international journals. The major reason for this challenge is their ability and experience to understand what the editors of these top-tier journals look in a research paper. 

To avoid rejections and too much editing work of your research paper it is important to understand and write it according to the journal’s requirements. It is not an easy task. Kyle Vogan, in his speech at Career Expo 2015, has shared some insights that are helpful for students to understand how to write for international journals. Kyle Vogan is a senior editor at Nature Genetics, a famous and established international journal. 

He focused on carefully crafting the titles and abstracts of the research paper to get it accepted for publishing. He emphasized using titles and abstracts in such a way that the reader has enough confidence to believe that the paper has the actual data to support the claims made in it. These signposts should have information on study design, experimental evidence, sample size, and main conclusion as well. 

So, if you don’t want to cry in desperation “please someone write my research paper for me!”, we advise you to read carefully the text below. Here is a brief overview of his speech that will help you understand better how title and abstract should look in a research paper written for an international journal. 

Titles Should Be Simple and Specific: 

According to Vogan, titles should follow the DEF rule. DEF is an acronym of declarative, engaging, and focused. The title should also be able to encapsulate your paper novelty and simply understandable on its first reading. 

A declarative title means that it should make a statement about something that can be an object, an action verb, or a subject. A title is engaging if it is not overly technical. The focused title is short and specific. 

Here are a few other things that he emphasized to keep in mind for writing a topic of your research paper. 

  • You should write in an active verb rather than a passive verb. 
  • No need to use the words that do not add to the story of the paper such as investigation, on this, study, etc. 
  • Deliver your message in the title specifically. 
  • Avoid jargon and acronyms when possible that will make the title too specific. 
  • No need to be overly assertive in your titles. For example, you may claim a cause and effect relationship while data shows only a correlation. 
  • Titles should present outcomes and conclusions rather than teasing the reader. Titles with question marks usually get rejected. 

These are the simple rules but do not become too obsessive with them. Every good title may not tick every box according to Kyle Vogan. It is normally a trade-off between DEF as some titles may be declarative and focused only and not engaging and it may be the opposite case for other titles. 

To the Point Abstracts: 

An abstract should be to the point according to Kyle Vogan. He shared a simple method for writing an abstract. This method starts with a general statement to give the reader an idea of context. It follows the problem statement and the main results. The abstract should end with a summary and the value it adds to the previous research. 

He recommended to include keywords in the abstract and avoid too many details, abbreviations, and acronyms. 

We hope this guide will help you to start your article well and get your dream journal publication.

Separation of Powers

As the title of the article itself suggests that it describe the separation of the powers, the division of the power between different organs like the human body, the work is distributed among different organs not centralized in the particular, brain is the central organ as it regulates control coordination in the whole body. The separation of the power is like it is, the power is distributed and not centralized in the single organ.

As we know, democracy has three organs – executive, judiciary, legislature and the power distributed them accordingly. When we talk the executive organ, we have the union and state. The separation of power is given by the Montesquieu. According to this theorem, the separation of the power is defined as the power is distributed among different organs it is not centralized on the single body. It’s just to avoid the arbitrariness of the central organ, and to keep check and balance between different organ, a famous line the power corrupts and absolute power corrupts absolutely. Which in simple words that the, if power is absolute to a single organ it corrupts that source. When we dealing with this topic many questions just stuck in our mind, but we all know that if the whole power is given to the union then it creates arbitrary in the nation. It likes patriarchy, monarchy rather than democracy. As democracy have the ideology of the republic, so it maintains the checks and balance between the different organs. For example, the decentralization between the state and the union gives many matters to deal independently. The State has the power to make its own regulations regarding the policy. Like in COVID states have the authority related to unlocking policy accordingly the cases of their state. So with this example, we can understand, the decentralization concept. This also helps in the development of the local government as the state government can take look on the local self -government like panchayat. Now when we talk about the separation of the power it is given that legislative, executive, judiciary works independently but there are certain checks and balance imposed on them with the different organs. Like in the constitution it is given article 123 president is the executive head of the state but at a certain condition, it works as the legislative power. At the same time as in article 121, 211 talks about the state legislature and union legislature cannot talk about the High court and the Supreme Court proceedings and the conduct of the judges. Like there is a concept of Judicial review that the judiciary can strike down any law passes by the legislature if it has the unconstitutional in nature. If the law is against the supreme law, then the judiciary has the power to called that particular law as unconstitutional. In this manner, we can say that the judiciary has the check and balance over the legislative and executive, in the same manner, the legislative and executive have check balance over the judiciary but it doesn’t mean they have complete control over the organ but it is just to avoid the arbitrariness of the one organ. In this manner, the democracy gives the rights to an individual to express ones but at the same time there is a certain provision in the constitution just to avoid arbitrariness of the organ and the power is not centralized in the ingle organ but it is distributed among different organ accordingly.

Rule of Law
Rule of Law

Top Google Play Store Tips

We all know that most, if not all android devices, are not complete without the Google Play Store. The reason is that it is android’s official store to get secure applications in their numbers, hence making it a vital stop shop in our lives. You can find content on Google Play Store at term paper easy.

The app is not limited to buying and downloading apps only. There are tons of things you can do with the store that can help in managing all the applications that we download in our smart devices. Some of the tricks are listed below;

  1. Backing up previously installed Applications

The backup and restore options in Google Play Store allows the users to re-install the applications on a brand new gadget that were previously installed on another device by the same user. The backed up data is kept on Google Drive provisions. Before backing up your data, make sure you enable the option in your device. Here is how one can easily do it;

  • Go to the device settings
  • Select Google
  • Tap on Backup
  • Set the Backup to Google Drive
  • Memorize the Google account you will use for the backup
  • The data is saved and it is possible to restore in any device using the same Google account.

Google Play Store lets you install apps from previously backed up data, and only the applications will be restored, not app data.

  • Save Internet Data

Most smartphone users usually feel uneasy with their data or internet packages, and due to this, they tend to find ways of saving bundles while installing or updating phone applications. Heavy apps like games installations or updates tend to use more data and may finish the data before hitting the required task or date of expiry.

The solution to this is to toggle the settings of download preferences, auto-play videos, apps that auto-update, which consume data without the permission of the user. Here is the way you can tackle the situation;

  • Open Google Play and hit the settings icon.
  • Go to general settings section and find the following options:
  1. Application download preference > toggle to over WiFi only
  2. Auto-update applications > toggle to Don’t auto-update apps
  3. Auto-play videos > toggle to ‘Don’t auto-play videos

The settings allow downloads to take place when there is a WiFi connection to your device.

  • Parental Control/ restricting inappropriate downloads

There are numerous apps on the internet these days. There are others with copyright and age restrictions, which means that parents should take measures towards kids that are under age to avoid them misusing apps on the store. The feature allows parents to set up a password restriction to a number of apps before they get downloaded. Here is the way to restrict your child from accessing some of the apps:

  • Launch Google Play Store and select menu option to the top left section on the screen.
  • Hit settings and move to parental control
  • You will then Toggle button to ON
  • Set PIN
  • Select the things to be restricted or downloaded.
  • Test the new apps before they are released.

Most developers nowadays roll out new applications or features in apps before the official release date to get feedback from the public. The user gets the chance to try out these apps by joining beta programs or early access. Some of the apps made available before release date may develop crashes while others limit the number of people that can access the apps. If the spaces are all occupied, a prompt message saying ‘full’ will reach the user. If you are interested in joining an early access app, here are the steps to follow;

  • Launch Google Play Store app
  • Choose “early access” at the top bar
  • Look for an app allowing you early access and install the app
  • Use the app and give your feedback.
  • Download the Play Store Apps from a computer

Users can download applications on smartphone devices using the Google Play Store PC versions. You can do this by logging into your Google account on your PC, and head to the play store web platform. Locate the app you want and install. Afterward, look for a menu list having all the gadgets connected to the account and select the android device you want the app installed.

Plagiarism Checking for thesis

IJR provides authentic, 100% accurate and original Plagiarism Check report. We only use highly reliable, authentic, and paid tools for plagiarism check which is acceptable in all academic institutions and university across the globe.

How We Check Plagiarism

Once we receive your file one of our team members will contact you about plagiarism value/similarity index in your document after checking your file for plagiarism in our authentic tool. You will get your plagiarism report within 24hr of after the payment. 

Note:: Sometimes on larger files with more than 50-70 pages the delivery time may increase as per the size of the file and please note that the delivery is only possible within working hours. Also to check plagiarism a certain format will be used in your document which might increase the number of pages in your file.

What is plagiarism? 

How to check plagiarism? 

The most common offense under the Academic Code of Conduct is plagiarism, which defines as “Using someone else’s work in their own work without the proper consent, acknowledgment, or without a proper citation”.

Free platforms are unreliable as they provide reports that are not accepted by many universities. It is suggested to get your plagiarism checked by authentic software only.

Contact us through editor@pen2print.org

The Capabilities Of Custom Rotary Die Cutting

The Capabilities Of Custom Rotary Die Cutting

When you are looking for accuracy and exacting standards in cutting parts, you can use a high speed rotary die cutting machine. These machines are designed to work with a range of materials, and they can be set up inside any business or shop. Continue reading to learn what can be done when you would like to improve your manufacturing process. You will save money, save time, and avoid inconsistencies that will lose money, cause damage, or even cause injuries when your parts are not created properly.

Why Is Precise Cutting Important?

Precise cutting is important for every business because you need to know that the parts you have made will fit properly. Your customers are expecting you to give them the exact measurements they want, and these measurements are important when you are putting together several parts to build a product.

What Is The Process Like?

When you are using a high speed rotary die cutting machine, the machine does all the work for you. You will use special die cutters to cut each part, and these die cutters are installed and/or changed by workers who manage these machines. There is a motor on the machine that powers the cutter, and the machine will cut the material against an anvil roll.

You can laminate raw materials together, and you can quickly move from one item to another as you use the machine. You do not need to check your workspace, adjust your workspace, or clean your workspace. The machine does most of the work, and you can quickly clean up the interior of the machine.

How Do You Choose Rotary Die Materials

Die cutting is one of the most versatile things you can do to ensure that your business makes quality parts. You can design anything you want using one of these machines, and you can choose from a range of raw materials that will be just right for your business. Because you are allowed to laminate pieces, you can create the strongest materials possible.

When you are choosing your parts, you should look at:

  • Plastic
  • Rubber
  • Cork
  • Paper
  • Felt
  • Most fabrics
  • Foam

When you use these materials, you can get the exacting shapes that you are looking for. You do not need to guess about dimensions, and you can change the dimensions on the machine at any time. This allows your staff to move from one design to another quickly. You do not need to change the settings on a large machine, and you do not need to wait hours while the machine is adjusted. One die cutting machine can do all the work you need, and you will double your production capacity with another machine.

Custom Die Cutting Has Several Advantages

Custom die cutting is the most precise thing that you can do when you are creating parts for your company. You have several advantages when you are using these devices, and you should make sure that you consider switching over to die cutting to save money and time. These advantages include:

  • You can cut from a continuous roll to save time
  • You will produce less waste because the machine makes the cut once. You do not need to overuse your materials, and you can minimize waste while ensuring the die cutting machine has just enough material to get the work done.
  • Precision cutting occurs with a very low tolerance. This makes it much easier for the machine to work, the machine is not under tension that will make it break, and the machine is much easier to clean and power.
  • You can easily turn over to a new product, and you can get your work done much faster because the machine takes out several steps that make hand-cutting difficult.
  • You can get a consistent cut on every project no matter how many parts you need to create.
  • You can cut something that is very small with these machines because the speed of the die allows you to cut just once before the material breaks
  • You can do multiple cuts on the same project that will all be consistent.
  • You can use kiss cutting materials when needed.

When you are using die cutting, you should make sure that you have considered how fast you can get your work done. You can win contracts because you can make promises to your customers, and your parts will be extremely consistent. This means that you can build products without any trouble. This means that each product you create will be very consistent.

You Can Make Prototypes Easily

You can make prototypes at any time, and you will find that you can test these pieces without wasting all your time. You can set up the machine to make the new part, and you can test those parts at any time. You can go back to check on the parts again, and you can make a new prototype every few minutes until you know what you need to get the project done.

This also allows you to build prototypes for your customers. Your customers can try these parts, and they will let you know which one you should use. You can repeat this process in moments, and you can make a lot more money because you are not wasting cash on expensive prototypes that take days to complete.

Look Into Die Cutting Today

You can look into die cutting at any time, and you should make sure that you have considered which parts you can use. You can invest in some amazing parts that you can cut quickly, and you can create something that is very accurate. You can use the die cutting process to build your own products, or you can use this process when you need to create prototypes for your customers. Die cutting streamlines all your processes and helps your business increase profits.

Track2Training and Development in the Workplace

Improved employee performance – the employee who receives the necessary training is more able to perform in their job. The training will give the employee a greater understanding of their responsibilities within their role, and in turn build their confidence. This confidence will enhance their overall performance and this can only benefit the company. Employees who are competent and on top of changing industry standards help your company hold a position as a leader and strong competitor within the industry.

Improved employee satisfaction and morale – the investment in training that a company makes shows employees that they are valued. The training creates a supportive workplace. Employees may gain access to training they wouldn’t have otherwise known about or sought out themselves. Employees who feel appreciated and challenged through training opportunities may feel more satisfaction toward their jobs.

Addressing weaknesses – Most employees will have some weaknesses in their workplace skills. A training program allows you to strengthen those skills that each employee needs to improve. A development program brings all employees to a higher level so they all have similar skills and knowledge. This helps reduce any weak links within the company who rely heavily on others to complete basic work tasks. Providing the necessary training creates an overall knowledgeable staff with employees who can take over for one another as needed, work on teams or work independently without constant help and supervision from others.

Consistency – A robust training and development program ensures that employees have a consistent experience and background knowledge. The consistency is particularly relevant for the company’s basic policies and procedures. All employees need to be aware of the expectations and procedures within the company. Increased efficiencies in processes results in financial gain for the company.

Increased productivity and adherence to quality standards – Productivity usually increases when a company implements training courses. Increased efficiency in processes will ensure project success which in turn will improve the company turnover and potential market share.

Increased innovation in new strategies and products – Ongoing training and upskilling of the workforce can encourage creativity. New ideas can be formed as a direct result of training and development.

Reduced employee turnover – staff are more likely to feel valued if they are invested in and therefore, less likely to change employers. Training and development is seen as an additional company benefit. Recruitment costs therefore go down due to staff retention.

Enhances company reputation and profile – Having a strong and successful training strategy helps to develop your employer brand and make your company a prime consideration for graduates and mid-career changes. Training also makes a company more attractive to potential new recruits who seek to improve their skills and the opportunities associated with those new skills.
Training can be of any kind relevant to the work or responsibilities of the individual, and can be delivered by any appropriate method.

For example, it could include:

  • On-the-job learning
  • Mentoring schemes
  • In-house training
  • Individual study

Join Track2Training for enhancing your skills, visit us at https://track2training.com

Academic Leadershi journal (ISSN 1533-7812)

Academic Leadership Online Journal aims at the publication of original research, reviews and short communications on the latest developments in all fields of Science & Humanities and Engineering technology. The journal publishes original papers in English which contribute to the understanding of science and Humanities and also developments of the engineering technology and education. Papers may be theoretical, experimental or both. The contribution should be unpublished before and not under consideration for publication elsewhere.


The Journal is a peer reviewed international journal publishing high-quality articles dedicated to all aspects of Science and Humanities and Engineering technology. The Journal considers only manuscripts that have not been published (or submitted simultaneously), at any language, elsewhere. Send papers to editor@academicleadership.org

How to Pick the Best MBA Program?

One of the most sought out courses the MBA, typically also brings a lot of confusion, the most common one being which MBA program is the right one to select. Here you can decide on the one that must be applied?

Now that you’re clear on your goals. You can decide where you’ve got to apply. While selecting an MBA program there are a lot of things you must take care of – the main one being the website, rankings, MBA fairs, blogs through students, print articles along with admission committees, and the days of open campus – just naming a few of these. 

Steps for finding the right MBA program

Here you can get all of the essential information for helping you in making the best choices for enrolling in MBA programs. Here some essential steps are listed that provide meaningful information and also help in shaping the best decision. 

Checking on the rankings

The most recommended thing to do while looking out for an appropriate MBA program would be to check out the rankings. However, all the clients find that they’ve got a good beginning place. You can’t only rely on a single ranking publication. Here you can also check out various of these as each one can focus on various things and it also offers different points of data – and in almost all the cases it is the data that holds value not only the rankings. 

The data is used for evaluating competitiveness such as on-pars, reaches, and possible safety schools. There might be one or two programs that are out of range but it would still be worthwhile to apply for these if you think that these are best suitable according to your needs. And it would be great if there are some good elements present in your personal profile that the business school values enough for overlooking statistical deficit. Also, you need to be realistic at the same time. 

Make sure you need to be competitive for the programs that you’re applying to

While you’re in the process of checking the ranking of programs, make sure to look out for specialty rankings. You can lay emphasis on the MBA programs that are under the personal area of interest, especially when you’re not competitive at ranked highly overall but remain competitive at the ranking of programs for the specific set targets.

In order to prepare well for the admission essay writing visit Copycrafter, a professional writing service.

Taking recommendations from others

You can find people having experience in the MBA – friends, mentors, and colleagues – and you can learn about the post MBA career with the MBA experience evaluation. Then it’s best to mix qualitative feedback with research for starting analyzing the appropriate fit. 

Weigh the preferences and then fit

You can check out the MBA program websites that fall under your niche of interest and you can also be up to date with the college social media. You can read student blogs and focus on things that are vital for you, like flexibility, curriculum structure, student body placement record, make-up with the extracurricular activities that are related to the professional goals along with personal interests and hobbies, etc. Make sure to acquire both the objective and subjective information and determine accordingly.

Going in the Source

Logging the computer off and then taking part in the MBA fairs while visiting actual campuses. The clients found that nothing would be like speaking with the students and admission staff with professors and noticing how the community interacts for knowing if they fit there or not. 

Accreditation for the MBA programs

With proper accreditation it is ensured that the school and program have been trustworthy and certified. The accredited schools strictly follow standards that are articulated through outside learning commissions, so the degree seekers know that they’ve obtained quality education. 

Institutional accreditation is mainly available in two forms: national and regional. The regional accreditation is quite a rigorous process and the students with aspirations for attending graduate school and getting certificate and license must only consider enrolling in an institution holding regional accreditation.

The programmatic accreditation focuses on certain degrees for ensuring that the curriculum adequately has prepared all the postgraduates for employment post-college. There are many accreditation institutions for MBA colleges and many colleges are affiliated with these. 

You must know about the reputation of the program. The MBA programs have respected professors attracting attention and renowned alumni with the business community knowing the schools that reliably function similar to talent pipelines. Once you’ve got an idea of each program with a fair idea about their competitiveness, you can also visit the schools.

How Higher Education Will Change in 2021

According to the recommendations of the committee set up for draft National Education Policy (NEP), Human Resource Development (MHRD) ministry came up with a decision for modernizing the evaluation process after moving away with the school examinations in the year 2021. The newest module of evaluation would stress on assessments that are class-based and according to an official of the HRD, the schools will follow 5-3-3-4 structure.importance-of-education

All the possibilities are currently being examined by the government for finalizing the National Education Policy towards the month of October 2020, and these policies get implemented from the year 2021. “Also, we would be notifying boards for the recommendations on the new structure of the exam recommended by the committee. After getting suggestions from education experts and boards, the ministry would consider junking out the old format of 10+2, and it will proceed on the proposed process of evaluation from the year 2021,” was stated by the official to Indian Express.

The committee of draft National Education Policy (NEP) during the month of June also recommended the structure of 5-3-3-4 that comprised of five years foundation stage (with 3 years in pre-primary school with one or two classes), three preparatory years (three to five classes), and three middle stages of three years (six to eight classes), and for four years secondary stage (9 to 12 classes).

The committee has also recommended a Rashtriya Shiksha Aayog which would be chaired by the honorable prime minister. The board would also have education minister, Lok Sabha Speaker, and Chief Justice of India along with the country’s top academics. Also, it recommends the HRD ministry to be renamed as the Ministry of Education. The details are broken down by ET.

Changes in Schooling Education

The new structure was proposed by the committee on lines of international schooling based process of evaluation, which also assessed students on the basis of performance that was class-based. The committee also noted that through the present way of board examinations, the students were forced to only concentrate on some subjects without the need of getting any scope for learning an informative manner, which would eventually lead to stress among the students.

“For tracking students” progress was made throughout the experience of school, draft policy also proposed State Census Examinations with the class of three, five, and eight. Also, it further recommended the restructuring of board examinations for only testing skills, core concepts, and capacities of a higher order.

Such board examinations are based on various subjects. Students are free to choose accordingly with their subject of interest, and semester while they wished to take board exams. Final school examinations get replaced by such board examinations,” recommended the committee.

The ministry was also considering extensions of free age learning under the act of Right to Education (RTE) from 14 to 18 years of age. “As it got proposed under the NEP committee draft, the ministry currently is working on including secondary school education and early childhood education under RTE Act ambit. This extends the Act coverage to all the children aged between 3 to 18 years,” as it was said by the official.

Post School Changes

As was suggested under the panel, the higher system of education was brought within a single regulatory authority – National Higher Education Regulatory Authority (NHERA). While the University Grants Commission (UGC) is about to remain purely a grant body. Similarly to All India Council of Technical Education, National Council for Teacher Education, and Medical Council of India, it needs to evolve in Professional education standard-setting authorities, it was suggested by the panel.

The policy also suggested three universities. Universities focused on research, comprehensive teaching, and research universities with the Type 3 that are focused only on teaching. Look up omnipapers.com for more information.

The committee also recommended a four-year bachelor program for liberal arts or a bachelor’s degree in liberal education.

The panel also suggested that all courses in the undergraduate category need to be shifted to three-or-four-year duration with a lot of options for the exit while only allowing advanced diploma in discipline or after completion of two study years or diploma after completion of one year.

Different master’s program designs are proposed from the two-year program with second-year being entirely devoted to research or integrated five-year bachelor’s/master’s program besides having a single year master’s program for everyone who completed the program of four years.

Similarly, all institutes are permitted for offering a Ph.D. with either a master’s degree or four-year bachelor’s degree along with research.

Meanwhile, the states of West Bengal, Odisha, and Gujarat re-introduced the system of pass-fail for their schools.

Dona Juliana: A Forgotten Christian in Mughal Harem

-By Shivam Pathak

14th Century marked the advent of Portuguese in the Indian Subcontinent. Portuguese trade and commerce were flourishing in India because they were the first among other European nations who first discovered a direct sea route to India. The advent of Portuguese in India also laid the foundation stone of overseas romance in the exuberant peninsular region in south-central Asia. During 17th and 18th century Mughal Empire was started losing hold on the Indian peninsula because of the surging British extension on the landscape. Shah Alam also known as Bahadur Shah First ascended himself on the peacock throne of Delhi Sultanate after a vigorous fight with his father Auranzeb for his succession on the throne. Among the supporters of Shah Alam was a Portuguese Woman named Dona Juliana. She served the future king Shah Alam faithfully when the latter was in captivity after rebelling against his father. When Shah Alam was proclaimed King Juliana becomes his wife and her rank was above all the nobles in the court. It was believed that whenever Juliana would ride, she was escorted by five or six thousand men on foot. According to Italian Jesuit Ippolito Desideri, Juliana’s influence was so extraordinary on Shah Alam that she brought him to the brink of Baptism. The latter would kneel before Jesus in the prayer and send blessings to churches, and it was gossiped that he had become Christian on his deathbed. Her firm presence can be noticed in the Mughal court from one more instance when she persuaded the king to declare Surat a duty free port for the Portuguese because it was an important port in respect of trade and the emperor done so for her.With the course of time she was christened as “Bibi Juliana”. She was also conferred with several other titles such as “Fidavi Bahadur Shah Juliana” (Juliana, loyal servant of Bahadur Shah). Desideri also referred Juliana’s position in the moughal household (Harem) as a significant one. Dona Juliana throughout her life maintained diplomatic relations with Europeans, especially the Estado de Portugal. She can not only be identified as a diplomat, but also as a proxy for the Jesuit spiritual mission in India. It’s very important to observe that her influence wasn’t faded after Shah Alam’s death, but advanced even after his death. According to an Article written by historian William Irvine in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, Bibi Juliana died at the age of 75 in the year 1734. Likewise Moughal sources like “Tarikh-i-Muhammadi”, documented that a firangi woman who was dearest to the Late Bahadur Shah first, died in Delhi in 1734. Consequently Dona Juliana Diaz da Costa was a Portuguese woman whose credentials marked immense accomplishments in terms of enormous power and influence at the court of the Moughal king, Shah Alam. History can never consign to oblivion the memory of Juliana, whose existence was absolute in her own being.

Julianna Dias Costa

Sources of information used in this article are- Piece of Dr, Taymiya R. Zaman’s writing on the website of the University of San Francisco, Pankaj Vohra’s article “Juliana:The Mughal Princess from Portugal” in the Sunday Guardian and the article “Note on Bibi Juliana and the Christians at Agra”  by historian William Irvine, published in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society.