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Anthropological Elements in Zora Neale Hurston’s Novels

  1. B .Moses Chandrasekaran

Research Scholar

PG and Research Department of English

Sudharsan College of Arts and Science

Pudukkottai 622104


Dr. G. Sathurappasamy

Assistant Professor

PG and Research Department of English

  1. H. The Rajah’s College (Autonomous)

Pudukkottai 622001



Zora Neale Hurston (1891-1960) is one of 20th-century America’s foremost fiction and folklore writers. Though she was criticized by some of her contemporaries, including Richard Wright and Ralph Ellison, her works are now frequently taught in literature courses and are widely admired for their style and substance. She deals extremely with anthropological elements and sentiments in her novels. This paper explores three of her novels in the perspective selected in the title.


This paper analyses such the anthropological elements as people culture, origin and society portrayed in the novels of Zora Neale Hurston. This paper explains the African-American people’s origin, culture and society. It also portrays the culture of the people and how the women were treated in their society. This paper addresses female issues in society such as the socialization of g`irls and women to define ‘self’ in the relation to the ‘others’. It will be primarily about modern women with particular dreams, delights, despairs and how these women relate to one another in the name of love.

The Major focus is on how women were treated both in black and white society. The struggles they undergone by physically, psychologically and how they finally fulfil their goal of identity. The emergence of female identity and creativity and barrier to their development and the challenges that these women face are also explored.

To explain these issues the primary sources chosen for this paper are “Their Eyes were Watching God, Seraph on the Sewanee” and Jonah’s Gourd Vine” by Zora Neale Hurston.

Zora Neale Hurston was one of the prominent figures in Harlem Renaissance. She was the only women writer in that period who had become famous as a black. She always focuses in the gender politics, secrets, language and identity. The tyrannical social model and family expectation, familial devotion, romantic love, economic, emotional insecurity, self-fulfilment and lack of recognition are the recurring themes in her works.

The most significant and prominent novel is Their Eyes were Watching God. This novel focuses on Janie the protagonist. It narrates about a journey in which the title character, Janie Crawford searches for independence, self-fulfilment and love. Janie’s quest for identity is challenged by the norms of her society, and she defies her grandmother, lovers, friends and community in order to escape the imprisonment of their self-degrading ideologies. This novel portrays the atmosphere of Eatonville and Florida. As a single woman when she returns to Eatonville after burying her third husband Tea Cake who made her to learn new thing and developed her knowledge which was restricted to women in their society. This novel tells about the struggles faced by Janie in her development of her psyche. This novel portrays the atmosphere of Eatonville and Florida.

Seraph on the Sewanee is another novel which also takes place around Florida. This is the only novel the protagonist is a white women. This novel takes place in Sawley town present on the river bank of Sewanee. This novel also tells about the development of the protagonist Arvay in her marriage life. Arvay was all of twenty-one, and according to local custom, should have been married at least five years ago. When the story begins, Arvay is upset with her sister because she takes the man that Arvay wants to marry. Because she feels that the life that she wanted to live is taken away from her, she tries to go into seclusion and ends up marrying a man that she persuaded to love. There are also scenes in the story when Arvay wanted to leave Jim but she couldn’t because Jim’s influence over her was so great. His force is similar to the force that black women had with whites and oftentimes their husbands.

Jonah’s Gourd Vine is the first novel of Zora Neale Hurston. It is her indirect product as anthropologist research work. This work also represents her life in Eatonville and her family life. Lucy Potts, the character modelled on Hurston’s real life mother Lucy, is presented as a tragic figure who stayed loyal to her husband through all of his adulterous affairs and abusive behaviour. In this novel Lucy has an even narrower life space in Alabama. She is locked into the cycle of reproduction that literally ties her to bed. Her physical enslavement as a breeder is also symbolically reified. She is always presented in bed in her marriage both in Alabama and in Eatonville, Florida, too, where she reaches a middle class status on the side of her husband. The metaphor of the bed marks disability and social marginalization that really becomes powerful in contrast with the promiscuous behaviour of John, who is seldom presented in the home, but whose figure is connected to superior physical power and agency.

On her death bed, Lucy says that she has been to sorrow’s kitchen and licked out all the pots. This novel also revolves around the Eatonville society and the culture of the black people. This book also focuses on women, violence, and testimony in the African American society. The author asserts the violently enforced confinement and powerlessness of African American women during 1880s in her novel “Jonah’s Gourd Vine.”

In these three novels, Zora Neale Hurston discusses the culture and society of the black and white people lives around Florida. She had travelled many places and done many research as an anthropologist. So as an anthropologist her writing also filled with the same things such as culture and society around the South Florida.

As a feminine writer all her writings were focused on the women life in their culture, society and around South Florida. How they were crushed in the name of culture and society and how they finally full fill their rights as a women. Most female character in her writing will try to attain self-fulfilment in their life. Being an anthropologist she combines the culture and society which restrict women development in the social status shown in her works. Hurston’s women are often positioned in the private–most prominently: kitchens, bedrooms, back porches, and back yards; and rarely in the public–where they are marginalized and alienated. These women are thus ascribed to inflexible places, where, under the male gaze, they become immobile. However, even if Hurston’s women appear in a seemingly free context–outside the home and masculine social space– and acquire a nomadic identity, their stance remains intelligible in the function of transparent space. Her works display a deep interest in the anthropology and feminism.

Thus Zora Neale Hurston novels reflect a strong anthropology and feminism and she examines the lives in and around South Florida. Her research is about their culture and structure of the society and how they see women and how they treat them. All her female character in her novels seeks for affection, love and self-fulfilment.

Thus this paper analysed Zora Neale Hurston’s novels from a cultural, society, feminist literary perspective, examining the women experience and perception of the world, female identity and social constraints on their development.

Works Cited

Woodson, Jacqueline. Show Way. New York: G.P. Putman’s Sons, 2005.

Housten, Julian. New Boy. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2005.

Giovanni, N. Rosa. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 2005.

Freedman, R. The Voice that Challenged a Nation: Marian Anderson and the Struggle for Equal Rights. New York: Clarion Books, 2004.

Draper, Sharon A. Copper Sun. New York: Atheneum, 2006.

Hemenway, Robert. Zora Neale Hurston: A Literary Biography.

Hurston, Zora Neale. Dust Tracks on a Road.

Walker, Alice (ed.). I Love Myself…


Major Themes in Post-Apocalyptic British Fiction

Pooja Singal

Asst Prof of English

Rajiv Gandhi Govt College, Saha. (Ambala)


Major Themes in Post-Apocalyptic British Fiction
Major Themes in Post-Apocalyptic British Fiction

Post-Apocalyptic Science Fiction is a genre which involves global catastrophe risk. This kind of literature narrates an apocalyptic event typically being climactic which may be either natural such as runway climatic change or manmade such as nuclear warfare, or medical such as spread of virus or plague, or imaginative such as zombie apocalypse or alien invasion.  Environmental degradation is the deterioration of the environment through depletion of resources such as air, water and soil; the destruction of ecosystems; habitat destruction; the extinction of wildlife and pollution. Climate fiction, or climate change fiction, popularly abbreviated as cli-fi, modeled after sci-fi) is the literature that deals with global warming and climate extremities. Not necessarily speculative in nature, works of cli-fi may take place in our world in the near future.

Numerous societies, including the Babylonian and Judaic, had produced apocalyptic literature and mythology which dealt with the end of the world and of human society.  Some epics written around 2000 BC, tell about a myth where the angry gods send floods to punish humanity, but the intervention of the gods save them. In the Hindu Dharmasastra, the apocalyptic deluge plays a prominent part. According to the Matsya Purana, the Matsya avatar of Lord Vishnu, informed the King Manu of an all-destructive deluge which would be coming very soon. The King was advised to build a huge boat (ark) which housed his family, nine types of seeds, pairs of all animals and the Saptarishis to repopulate the Earth, after the deluge would end and the oceans and seas would recede. At the time of deluge, Vishnu appeared as a horned fish and Shesha appeared as a rope, with which Vaivasvata Manu fastened the boat to the horn of the fish. Variants of this story also appear in Buddhist and Jain scriptures. The scriptural story of Noah and his Ark describes the end of a corrupt civilization and its replacement with a remade world. Noah is assigned the task to build the Ark and save the life forms so as to reestablish a new post-flood world. Even in Quran, a similar story about the Genesis flood narrative is found, where the Islamic counterpart of Noah, Nuh builds the ark and rebuilds humanity.

Post-apocalyptic stories often take place in a non-technological future world, or a world where only scattered elements of society and technology remain. Other themes may be cybernetic revolt, divine judgment, ecological collapse, pandemic, resource depletion, supernatural phenomena, technological singularity, or some other general disaster. To study the themes of this genre, it is important to understand the  differences between these sub-genres. There are three main ‘bleak future’ narratives: dystopian, apocalyptic and post-apocalyptic. Dystopias are set in a fully functioning but malevolent society. Though the conditions are awful there are institutions such as medicine and finance that can be recognized. Apocalyptic stories are set during a major disaster such as an earthquake or alien invasion. The disaster is almost always averted in these films and society continues. Post-apocalyptic stories are set after an apocalyptic event. There is no structure and no society. Humanity has returned to a more primitive and brutal mode of existence. There are differences in the themes too. Apocalyptic literature is about humanity uniting to use our best resources and innovation to overcome an external threat as in Independence Day (1996) and Armageddon (1998). These books have very pro-technology themes, since that is often humanity’s best chance of survival.

In contrast, post-apocalyptic works are generally driven by anti-technology, anti-urban, and anti-modernity themes. The premise of these stories is that the modern world became so corrupted due to technological advancement and growing materialism that it destroyed itself. This leads to a second chance to build a pastoral utopia. Post-apocalyptic fiction takes the world back to a state of primitivism where life is arduous and strenuous without gadgets and machines. But the endings of these novels suggest the ideal scenario is to stay in one of the three main categories: a natural paradise, a pastoral farming community, and a small self sustaining town.

All three of these environments have several qualities in common: they are based on a rural way of life, they are small in area and limited in population numbers and most importantly, they are only sustainable if re-building is curtailed. This new way of life seems to be a perfect refuge from the threats and fears posed by both the post-apocalyptic wasteland and the failures on modern life. These utopias are quite short lived as they naturally grow and return to technology and cities which they initially rejected and held responsible for their destruction.

The Post Apocalyptic Literature came into being in 1947, with the publication of Joseph Ward Moore’s Greener Than You Think.  The novel is a bitter reflection of human civilization in a scathing manner often approaching absurdity. With his Swiftian sense of comedy, Moore blends gallows humour with fantasy and the absurd. The novel is a cynical satire on the intervention of man in nature. Mans hunger for excessively fast and unnatural growth of grass with magical growth formula and hence ending the world hunger. This formula sets in a chain reaction since some important point has been overlooked.  The grass starts erupting upwards at an excessive speed and incapacitates men who come to mow it. The unkillable grass renders even the military powerless.

The Ice People is a 1998 sci-fi novel by Maggie Gee, set in a future world dominated by a new ice age. Global warming is the initial context, where increases in temperature are then followed by the cyclic appearance of an ice age. The novel examines different elements of contemporary society: the fundamental roles and relationships of men and women, sexuality, politics and the issue of global warming.

Surviving Evacuation: Book one: London by Frank Tayell is a post apocalyptic novel about zombies: that is one of the major concerns in modern world. An outbreak has occurred in New York, of what no one’s entirely sure. There are zombies on the streets and the numbers of the living is diminishing day by day. The book is like a zombie outbreak story that’s been written in a very interesting and fresh style: the diary form. The story itself centers on Bill Wright, a Londoner who broke his leg on the day of the outbreak and is subsequently home-bound. As the man partially behind a childhood friend turned minor politician, Bill was instrumental in laying the foundations for the Evacuation – the mass movement of every British citizen living inland to the coastal regions. From there small agricultural enclaves would be built to make the British Isles self-sustaining before eventually beginning a push back inland to reclaim territory ceded to the undead. Yet the British public knows nothing of the push to reclaim land. Every night all the news channels keep stating is that there has been no outbreak of the virus in Britain or Ireland owing to the military shooting down every plane and the navy sinking every ship that dares to approach the islands.

This obviously isn’t true because Bill can see the undead outside his window. Not many at first, but the numbers ebb and flow as time passes. His friend had sent someone to rescue Bill from his house when he was unable to join the evacuation due to his leg, but with the escort lying dead in the road with a bite mark to his neck Bill makes another plan. Forced to leave the safety of his home he ventures out into the undead wasteland that once was England, where he will discover a horrific secret. The book follows Bill as he tries to make his way through London with a bad leg, very limited supplies and hordes of the zombies at every turn and, along the way, finding out why the evacuation plans and contingencies failed. Surviving Evacuation: London is told entirely from Bill’s perspective through entries in his diary. This is an effective means of conveying the story. The novel takes the reader through Bill’s day-to-day struggles for survival after the outbreak to a far more capable and competent man later.

Flood by Stephen Baxter, published in 2008, is set in England 2016, where the summers are becoming more and wet with each passing year. The sea levels are rising at a catastrophic speed because of the melting ice caps. When the world starts drowning, the race to safe places begins.  The novel portrays the current estimates of climate change-related sea level rise- the effects of which are catastrophic, In the opening chapter, four main characters (former USAF Captain Lily Brooke, British military officer Piers Michaelmas, English tourist Helen Gray, and NASA scientist Gary Boyle) are liberated by a private megacorporation called AxysCorp from a Christian extremist Catalonian terrorist bunker in Barcelona in 2016, after five years of captivity. AxysCorp was hoping to save a fifth prisoner, John Foreshaw, but he was executed minutes before the rescue. Nonetheless, the corporation continues to look after the four hostages and search for Helen’s daughter, Grace, who was conceived in captivity by the son of a Saudi royal and taken by his family. Helen befriends Foreign Office official Michael Thurley in the hopes of finding her daughter, and the four rescued hostages make a pact to keep in contact.

At this point, sea level changes have already submerged Tuvalu, a low lying South Pacific island, whose inhabitants have been evacuated to New Zealand. London and Sydney are prone to constant flooding. However, as a tidal surge hits London and Sydney, killing hundreds of thousands in both cities, scientists become aware that this cannot be explained solely by the consequences of climate change. American oceanographer Thandie Jones uncovers the truth – through deep sea diving missions to oceanic ridges and trenches reveal that the seabed has fragmented, and there is turbulence that can only be attributable to the infusion of vast subterranean reservoirs of hitherto hypothesised but undetected oceanic masses of water.

Over the next three decades, ocean waters rise exponentially and inundate the whole world, as the main characters struggle for survival in a vast and continuously altering environment. At this time, New York City is demolished by an Atlantic tidal wave -with hundreds of thousands killed in New York and the city leveled in the process-  and Washington, D.C. is evacuated. For the next twenty years, Denver, Colorado becomes the capital of the steadily diminishing United States, which fragments as individual states assert their own survival needs.

By 2020, much of the eastern coast of the United States is underwater, as well as Sacramento, California, on its western coast. Slowly, the United States is eroded away. By 2034, little of Western Europe, Russia, the Americas, Oceania, and Africa remain above the water. Ark Three sails the global ocean in search for trading and finding higher ground, despite running into skirmishes with pirates. Ark Three heads back out to sea but has nowhere to go, given that the floods are now lapping around the Rocky Mountains. By this time, over five billion people have perished from the floods. By 2048, the Andes, Rocky Mountains and elsewhere have been submerged. Tibet’s regime is no more, and Australia, North America, South America, Africa, and most of Asia except for the highest mountains in the Himalayas have been flooded. The novel ends in 2052, as a group of survivors watch the submergence of the peak of Mount Everest.  The post-deluge Earth is now at a new environmental equilibrium, with a vast global storm system that is reminiscent of those on Jupiter and Neptune. Civilization is virtually dead at the novel’s end. Survivors continue to exist only on the rafts and some decrepit surviving former navy vessels. The children of the rafts, raised on the water, start building their own aquatic culture. By the end of the novel, extinction seems certain for humanity on Earth.

    Alex Scarrow’s  Last Light, which depicts the crumbling of civilisation due to a worldwide and near-complete loss of access to oil, moves on in the sequel Afterlight. It’s a very different story to most of its kind and is entertaining as well as thought provoking. The book Afterlight opens 10 years after the collapse of civilization. Jennifer Sutherland and her children are living on a defunct oil rig off the Norfolk coast with about 450 other people. They are largely sustaining themselves with such activities as fishing and vegetable growing and have even managed to produce a little bit of chicken poo-powered electricity although they occasionally head back to shore to forage in the abandoned warehouses and shops for the things they can’t provide for themselves. Jenny Sutherland’s quiet leadership and her few but strict rules help the community rub along well together and make the best of their situation. Even so, most of them old enough to remember the times before the crash have a yearning for the things they miss – lights, music or other comforts they used to take for granted.

In London meanwhile one of the government’s designated emergency centers has also managed to remain functional. There are about 2000 people at the site which is still run by the man who was in charge at the collapse though he is now aided by a group of teenage boys-turned-soldiers who he essentially bribes with privileges like alcohol, computer games and girls to maintain his version of law and order. With a large stockpile of emergency rations this group has not felt the pressing necessity to become self-sustaining, although an attempt has been made.                Interestingly, the strongest characters of the book are women of various ages and backgrounds while most of the male characters in the book are weak and power mad, especially men under 40 are depicted as barely above wild animal on the evolutionary scale. The dependence of human race upon oil and technology has been taken up as the major theme in this novel.

Greybeard is a science fiction novel by British author Brian Aldiss, published in 1964. Set decades after the Earth’s population has been sterilised as a result of nuclear bomb tests conducted in Earth’s orbit, the book shows a world emptying of humans, with only an ageing, childless population left. The story is mainly told through the eyes of Algernon “Algy” Timberlane with a grey beard, (of the title) and his wife Martha. The novel ends at a hopeful note about one of the old women getting pregnant. This sounds like a miracle of God to save mankind from extinction. The novel stands on the theme of nuclear horrors which is one of the most pressing ideas in modern life.

H.G. Wells, in nineteenth century, wrote several novels that have a post-apocalyptic theme. The Time Machine (1895) has the unnamed protagonist traveling to the year 802,701 A.D. this is a post catastrophic world, where civilization has collapsed and humanity has split into two distinct species, the elfin Eloi and the brutal Morlocks. Later in the story, the time traveler moves forward to a dying Earth beneath a swollen, red sun. Similarly, The Machine Stops a science fiction short story by E. M. Forster is set in a post-apocalyptic world where humanity lives underground and relies on a giant machine to fulfill their needs, predicted new technologies such as instant messaging and the Internet. The story describes a world in which most of the human population has lost the ability to live on the surface of the Earth. Each individual now lives in isolation below ground in a standard ‘cell’, with all bodily and spiritual needs met by the omnipotent, global Machine. Travel is permitted but unpopular and rarely necessary. Communication is made via a kind of instant messaging or video conferencing machine with which people conduct their only activity: the sharing of ideas and what passes for knowledge.

Those who do not accept the deity of the Machine are viewed as ‘unmechanical’ and threatened with Homelessness. The Mending Apparatus—the system charged with repairing defects that appear in the Machine proper—has also failed by this time, but concerns about this are dismissed in the context of the supposed omnipotence of the Machine itself. At first, humans accept the deteriorations as the whim of the Machine, to which they are now wholly subservient, but the situation continues to deteriorate, as the knowledge of how to repair the Machine has been lost. Finally, the Machine apocalyptically collapses, bringing ‘civilization’ down with it. Before they perish, these people realize that Man and his connection to the natural world are what truly matter, and that it will fall to the surface-dwellers who still exist to rebuild the human race and to prevent the mistake of the Machine from being repeated.  

It will not be wrong to conclude that the Post Apocalyptic works of fiction not only reveal human perception of the past but also those of the future. The variety of themes in fact represents the variety of risks to human life in modern world. The past experience colour the vision and cast the shadows of the coming catastrophes on the present. Soon the horrendous web of technical and natural betrayals engulfs humanity leading to the end of the world.

Works Cited

  • Modern Short Stories, S. H. Burton ed., Longman Heritage of Literature series, Longman Group Ltd, Great Britain, first published 1965, sixth impression 1970
  • Gee, Maggie. The Ice People: London: Telegram, 1998. Print
  • Baxter, Stephen. Flood: London: Gollancz, 2008. Print
  • Aldiss, Brian. Greybeard: London : Faber& Faber, 1964. Print
  • Scarrow, Alex. Afterlight: London: Orion, 2011. Print
  • Moore, Ward. Greener Than You Think: Maryland Wildside, 2008. Print
  • Tayell, Frank. Surviving The Evacuation Book One: London: Create Space Publishing, 2013. Print
  • Berger, James. After the End: Representations of Post- Apocalypse: Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1999. Print
  • Vickroy, Laurie. Trauma and Survival in Contemporary Fiction: Charlottsville: Virginia Press, 2002. Print


Why is it Important to Learn Storytelling in College?

Ms Aarti Jindal

M.A English Literature, SCD Government College for Boys, Ludhiana

B.A English Honours, Khalsa College for Women, Ludhiana

story telling


The present paper shows or represents what the students go through in their student or per se college life. Also to pass it by without any difficulties  and with a technique that makes you more open and comfortable with vast aspect of knowledge with other present students around you and helps you get in the good books of everyone.


Stoorytelling, Technique,  Understanding Cultures, Imagination.

1 Introduction

It is a vast land with various kind of people residing where some share the space and some just not the space rather all the aspects of their lives with open arms to all. This subject and the technique of storytelling enhances the person and boosts up the confidence for him or her to act comfortably and confidently in all the areas of their lives which they go through or comes in challenge with. This is vital for all the individuals to gain knowledge as well as take up their imagination level to a total different level.

“The best experience is listening or hearing

As long as it is the Storytelling”

Storytelling take you by the mind and soul the un-trodden paths which you sometimes hardly realise that even exists. It is a way to get in a comfortable zone amongst people around you to win their confidence and make them believe you in so many ways which makes the journey pleasant all over. Today’s atmosphere of college is like students entering the classrooms with their eyes set on their tech products so much so that do not even bother what comes in their way. College is a platform that is filled with not only high level of competitions but also provides with various aspects of opportunities as well. It is this place that makes you see the whole another world with all kinds of students at a different level with total unlike backgrounds carrying the legacy given to them. Storytelling then thus becomes one of the main criteria that help students envision various aspects that they have been veiled from. Storytelling is like an ice cream that refers to the technique of inculcating the story fictional or non fictional stating the fact that no matter of what the age is but story is always a cherry on the top.

Storytelling is one of the best genres of literature that not only gives birth to the imagination but also takes the mind of the teller and the listener up a notch. Stories can be jovial or nostalgic, personal or professional yet somehow always adds to one’s experience. It not only helps gain experience rather the knowledge and better understanding of one’s own and also other’s life, history and also the cultural values. Storytelling makes one student comfortable with the other and also helps the teachers create a peace while making the students study. When a story told in the most effective narrative way it adds a taste of yearning for more knowledge and to acquire it thoroughly. The then brains of a teacher and a student runs in same fashion which gives vivid imagery of what is to be expected and to receive. It helps to form a genial association between whether the two students or a teacher and a student which further makes an unconstrained path for all to walk on and understand each other well and profoundly.

Stories has this starting and ending process where it all depends on how the story is started or ended to keep rolling the interest of the other person and take it to its peak. Storytelling is important in all the aspects of our life not only in a class, or in the school or in fact in the college but also at our jobs and workplace so as to form a cordial relationship with others and make a trail for better understanding and for knowledge so as to make it the priority. Storytelling in the aspect of college is vital as it gives the way for making conversations or discussions more interesting and more acknowledgeable. It is preferably the technique to grab one’s attention and when once you have it you know you would do good in college which refers to not only amongst your friends but also with all the other students who encircles you and studies in the same space. This technique interests others by not just its contents but also by what it means and how does it or whether it does or not relate to them in one way or the other. It creates the sense of imagination in the minds of people that not only helps them expand their vision but also at times go beyond their knowledge of what they know and what else more to it there is. Stories not only hold your mind to its roots but also your hearts which peaks one’s interests. It in fact make others confide in you and then join you in your journey through their imagination and walk with you side by side enjoying every aspect, accepting every challenge and facing every adventure. Storytelling is like the roller coaster ride making the teller and the listener go through each and every part of it as long as they are involved and interested in it.

Storytelling is the oldest way though one the most effective way to interest people and take them into your confidence by making a good use of your imagination to make good friends and keeping the mind always on the go. While listening the listener inhales each and every word and keeps in mind and heart and once the thing which is heard better and with keen interest is hard to forget and the to rely on for the future reference. It is one of the most elated and efficient way to keep one’s interest and imagination on their toes that is always and ever ready to go. Lastly, once the art of storytelling is imbibed to one’s imagination it boosts up the confidence and for college perspective and gets more comfortable with other people for better vision of them and their cultural values and making them confide in you.


Thus storytelling is vital for all the aspects of one’s life so as to grow maturely, knowledgeably and also in imagination. Not only it boosts your speaking skills in public but also your confidence that make you comfortable amongst others. This whole essay gives the review of what helps or might help one when going into a new space especially in college or a place which is known for its genre of knowledge and succeeds in providing one with impactful source of storytelling.


Egan, K. (1985). Teaching as story‐telling: a non‐mechanistic approach to planning teaching. Journal of Curriculum Studies17(4), 397-406.

Koch, T. (1998). Story telling: is it really research? Journal of advanced nursing28(6), 1182-1190.

Analysis of Chaman Nahal’s Azadi ‘Freedom’ in the Light of the Freudian Theory of Nachträglichkeit ‘Deferred Action’

Amrik Singh

Assistant Professor

Lovely Professional University

Phagwara- 144411

Punjab (India)



The present paper explores some new covert factors of trauma which haven’t had been paid attention by Sigmund Freud and Josef Breuer during their psychoanalytical efforts to treat the patients of corporeal exploitation. Secondly, the paper corroborates that the augmented Freudian psychoanalytical theory of Nachträglichkeit can be applied to the texts that possess traumatic incidents so that some more unexplored reasons for trauma and its ramifications on victims can be surfaced. The paper will definitely help the psychologists and psychiatrists to treat the patients of hysteria and trauma more effectively. The results are achieved by implementing the ‘deferred action’ theory in Chaman Nahal’s novel Azadi ‘freedom’. The paper concludes some new factors of trauma such as stillbirths, witness of murders, loss of land, house, friends, and hometown etc. These factors of trauma create repercussions such as flashback to the past traumatic incidents, tearfulness, incommunicability, abhorrence, revenge, confusion, uncanniness, restlessness, trauma, and collective trauma etc.

Keywords: Nachträglichkeit; deferred action; trauma; factors; repercussions

  1. Introduction


The German word, Nachträglichkeit has been translated into different phrases such as “deferred effect” (Freud, 2010, p. 472), “deferred fashion” (Freud, 2010, p. 387), “après-coup, afterwardsness, retroactive temporality, belatedness, latency, and retrospective attribution” (Bistoen, Vanheule & Craps, 2014, p. 672) and “deferred action” (Freud, 2001, p. 356). To Sigmund Freud, Nachträglichkeit is a two way process; it leads from the happening of a traumatic incident towards the reaction of a casualty and vice versa (Caruth, 2014, p. 28). It’s “something much more connected with the whole of a life” (Caruth, 2014, p. 43) of the victim of trauma.

Freud further states if a traumatic memory isn’t expressed, it turns the victim into trauma through the mechanism of ‘deferred action’.  Freud writes, “We invariably find that a memory is repressed which has only become a trauma by deferred action” (Freud, 2001, p. 356). But it’s observed that Freud confines the relationship between a victimizer and a victim only to sexual abuse. Both Sigmund Freud and Josef Breuer conducted their clinical experiments to develop their psychoanalytical theories of hysteria and trauma through the treatment of the victims of corporal abuse. These psychoanalysts believe that a victim understands an original incident much better when he/she leaves the stage of infantile sexuality. Freud records, “During the interval between the experiences of those impressions and their reproduction (or rather, the reinforcement of the libidinal impulses which proceed from them), not only the somatic sexual apparatus but the psychical apparatus as well has undergone an important development […]” (Freud, 2010, p. 472).

The Freudian psychoanalytical experimentations primarily focus on the victims of sexual abuse. For instance, Freud treated Emma Eckstein who was a victim of sexual abuse and whose treatment is documented in Project for a Scientific Psychology (Freud, 2001, p. 353) and another identical patient Dora whose treatment records are available in in Freud’s essay On the History of the Psycho-Analytic Movement (Freud,  2010, p.  2880). His other similar treatments include the case of somatic exploitation of a young boy documented in The Interpretation of Dreams (Freud, 2010, p. 685), impact of sexual abuse of a mother on her child added in Psycho-Analytic Notes on an Autobiographical Account of a case of Paranoia (Freud, 2010, p. 2426), and the case study of a child who witnesses the “picture of copulation between his parents” (Freud, 2010, p. 3527) which is documented in From the History of an Infantile Neurosis etc.

The researcher agrees with the Freudian psychoanalytical discoveries that if the victims of sexual abuse repress their feelings, they definitely become victims of trauma by deferred action (Freud, 2001, p. 356). But the researcher proposes that if just the relationship between a victim and a victimizer is executed in the texts having traumatic incidents, a number of factors of trauma will be explored in addition to Freud’s factor (sexual exploitation) of trauma.

  1. Research Methodology

The covert factors and repercussions of trauma are discovered by implementing the Freudian Nachträglichkeit ‘deferred action’ theory in Chaman Nahal’s novel Azadi ‘freedom’. The novel Azadi is autobiographical in nature and it has several elements of Sigmund Freud’s theory of Nachträglichkeit ‘deferred action’ of trauma. It’s Nachträglichkeit that Chaman Nahal composes this novel in 1975 whereas he has had witnessed the harrowing incidents and suffered because of them in 1947. After the gap of twenty eight years, Nahal couldn’t disremember the holocaust and his personal loss caused by the frenzied mob and the exile. In the opening of the novel, Nahal quotes the poetic lines by Rabindranath Tagore stating as, “Where the mind is without fear and […] Where the world has not been broken up into fragments by narrow domestic wall […]” (Nahal, 1988, p. 9). The revivification of Tagore’s poetical lines, advocate Nahal’s haunting fear and traumatic experience inherited from the Partition and it still exists in his psyche. Nahal, at the time of writing the novel Azadi, was still under the impact of “fear” (Nahal, 1988, p. 351). After losing his sister, brother-in law, property, home, and homeland during the savagery, Nahal projects his grief through his protagonist Lala Kanshi Ram and expresses his angst as, “No, he wanted to live in no camp now, among strangers. He wanted a home […] and see his two children” (Nahal, 1988, p. 351). In the above poetical lines, where Nahal refers to the “broken” world and “domestic walls” (Nahal, 1988, p. 9), he directly points towards the startling Partition that has created barriers in the mindsets of the broken-hearted Hindus, Sikhs and Muslims against each other.  Like Lala Kanshi Ram, Nahal also “felt small and debased” (Nahal, 1988, p. 343) when he begged the Rehabilitation and Custodian officers just for a shelter to cover his head in Delhi but they rejected and abused him sternly.

  • Analysis of Chaman Nahal’s Azadi ‘Freedom’ in the Light of the Freudian Theory of

Nachträglichkeit ‘Deferred Action’

The element of Nachträglichkeit ‘deferred action’ is traced when the protagonist Lala Kanshi Ram refers to Germany’s attack at the Soviet Union. In fact, in the world history, there hasn’t been a war like the acrimonious war between Germany and the Soviet Union. From Kiev to Stalingrad, from Leningrad to the Crimea, the Soviet Union was badly devastated – causing the death of 25 million Soviet citizens in the years of 1941 and 1942. Being a hardened racist, even before his attack at the Soviet Union, Hitler had started to detest the natives of the Soviet Union. In his public rally at Nuremberg in 1937, Hitler referred them as, “uncivilized Jewish-Bolshevik international guild of criminals and called the Soviet Union the greatest danger for the culture and civilization of mankind […]” (Rees, 1999, p. 15). Along with Germany’s attack at Russia, the Lala also mentions its invasion at Japan and the butchery of millions of Japanese (Nahal, 1988, p. 16-17). Lala Kanshi Ram asks Prabha Rani saying, “Arun’s mother, you know what? Germany has turned round and attacked Roos. (Coming as it did from a mouth filled with milk, ‘Roos’ sounded far more impressive and terrible than Russia). They’ve dropped an atom bomb on Japan” (Nahal, 1988, p. 16).

In the evening of 3rd June 1947, Lala Kanshi Ram was actually talking to Prabha Rani about the turbulence during the Partition but he suddenly got connected to the Germany’s invasion at Russia and Japan about which he had read a lot in the newspapers and heard on Bibi Amar Vati’s transistor. Then, the Lala starts associating the destruction and holocaust in Russia and Japan with the ongoing chaos and bloodshed in the Punjab. It’s a “deferred action” of trauma that, after witnessing the present carnage, Kanshi Ram goes almost five years back and resuscitates the ethnic-cleansing caused by Germany in Russia and Japan in 1941 and 1942.

It’s impact of this incident that the eyes of Kanshi Ram become “tearful” (Nahal, 1988, p. 16). Secondly, he has to “stop in the middle of his exclamations” (Nahal, 1988, p. 16) which means the shock of violence hampers his communication as well. Moreover, his trauma becomes a collective trauma when Kanshi Ram frets about Gandhiji who was the foremost hero of the Indian freedom movements and who got intensely upset after hearkening the British Viceroy’s announcement of the Partition of the Subcontinent. Accordingly, Kanshi Ram adds, “Today, Gandhiji goes on a fast unto death. . . . Gandhiji might now die – he might pass away” (Nahal, 1988, p. 16)! Kanshi Ram’s memory not only resurrects the massacre of millions of Russians and Japanese, but also it gets connected to the epic battle of Kurukshetra between the Kauravas and the Pandavas.

The Freudian Nachträglichkeit ‘deferred action’ of trauma is again explored when Lala Kanshi Ram refers to the classic battle of Mahabharata.  On the one hand where the Lala connects the holocaust of the Partition with Germany’s aerial bombardment at Russia and Japan, on the other hand, he also associates the former with the carnage that took place during the battle between the Pandavas and the Kauravas in 3000 BC (Nahal, 1988, p. 17). Though at this stage, Kanshi Ram doesn’t lose any property, friends, relatives or family members, but he is the eyewitness of the savagery, lootings, killings and rapes committed in Sialkot and in the other parts of the Punjab. For instance, Nahal writes, “The first riot took place in Sialkot on the twenty-fourth June. Many cities of the Punjab had been aflame for months; there were large scale killings and lootings in Lahore, Gujrat, Gujranwala, Amritsar, Ambala, Jullundur, Rawalpindi, Multan, Ludhiana and Sargodha” (Nahal, 1988, p. 125). It’s discussed earlier that the proclamation of the independence is made on 3rd June 1947, so just after 21 days, the entire Punjab gets aflame. Lala Kanshi Ram, being the eyewitness of the haunting scenes, gets traumatized and associates the upsetting scenes with the vexed events of the Mahabharata. It is ‘deferred action’ of trauma that the Lala goes thousands of years memorably back when the kamikaze battle of Mahabharata occurred between the Kauravas and the Pandavas.

It is very shameful that Yushishthira loses everything even his wife Draupadi to Duryodhan in the dice game. All sages and gurus remain silent when Duryodhan, Dushashana and Karna start disrobing Draupadi publicly. Then Lord Krishna saves Draupadi from dishonor after hearing her supplications. But there was heavy bloodshed when the Pandavas avenged against the Kauravas. The ongoing vicious violence is the signifier for Kanshi Ram because it connects him to the historical traumatic incident that took place several years ago. Lala Kanshi Ram refers to the historical epic battle questioning his wife as, “You remember the Mahabharata, don’t you? [ …] The fire darts they threw at each other, the Kauravas and the Pandavas? […] Well, it is like that, the atom bomb. You throw a dart or a bomb at your enemy, and that burns him up” (Nahal, 1988, p. 17)!

Another Nachträglichkeit ‘deferred action’ of trauma is explored when Lala Kanshi Ram witnesses the merciless and gratuitous shooting of Indian dogs by the British soldiers, but at that time he also resuscitates the Jallianwala Bagh massacre of 13th April 1919. Actually, the British soldiers kill some Indian dogs during their parades claiming that the dogs create mess and hindrance while the former organize the victory parade to celebrate the British triumph over the Germans in the 2nd World War. Another parade that comes to Kanshi Ram’s mind is concerned with the celebration of the enthronement of King Edward VIII (Nahal, 1988, p. 22). But, Lala Kanshi Ram states that there was no need to kill the dogs. He witnesses as, “It must be stressed that not once did any of these Indian dogs break the decorum of the parade. There is no record that any of them defiled the ground with its feces […] nor that any of them ever used a motionless soldier as a prop for lifting its leg and emptying its bladder” (Nahal, 1988, p. 28). After watching the lethal incident, Kanshi Ram’s memory takes him back to the massacre of the Jallianwala Bagh that took place at 05:30pm of 13th April 1919 – the time when approximately 1,000 defenseless Indians were killed and over 1,100 males, females and children were wounded at the command of the British Indian Brigadier-General Reginald Edward Harry Dyer. At that time, over 20,000 Indians were celebrating the Baisakhi fair at the Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar – the holiest city of the Sikhs. Though, Brigadier Dyer accepted that “it was quite possible that he had killed between four and five hundred” (Collet, 2007, p. 262) whereas the exact death toll was higher than 1,000 (Collet, 2007, p. 262). General Dyer was a ruthless opportunist who always looked for a large congregation of Indians to shoot them on the spot. His wife, Annie Dyer unfolded the bitter reality that General Dyer would have murdered lots of Indians, if he had found them earlier at such a platform as was the Jallianwala Bagh. Annie Dyer adds stating as, “How was he to fight the rebels, how was he to bring them to decisive action in the narrow streets and winding lanes of Amritsar? It was a problem […]. It placed them where he would have devised them to be – within reach of his sword” (Collet, 2007, p. 255). Thus, it’s observed that Lala Kanshi Ram witnesses the slaughter of the Indian dogs  in June 1947, but he gets connected to the extermination of the Jallianwala Bagh on 13th April 1919 that took place almost twenty eight years ago, and it happens only through the mechanism of Nachträglichkeit ‘deferred action’.

It’s the repercussion of the butchery of some Indian dogs that Lala Kanshi Ram starts again abusing the British officials. He calls this incident the “sacrilege committed by these filthy beasts of a filthy race” (Nahal, 1988, p. 28).  Secondly, Lala Kanshi Ram assimilates a revengeful attitude towards the British administrators and wishes that the latter must be retaliated for this vile crime as Shaheed Udham Singh Kamboj has avenged against their heinous crime contravened at the Jallianwala Bagh. Lala Kanshi Ram expresses his excruciating feelings as, “[…] the sergeants would have made men pay for that crime – as they did as recently as in 1919, when they shot hundreds of them out of hand with machine guns at the Jallianwala Bagh” (Nahal, 1988, p. 28). Thirdly, Lala Kanshi Ram also develops deep-rooted abhorrence for the penultimate British Viceroy in India – Lord Archibald Wavell (October 1943 – March 1947), who fail to manage India as a single platform for the Sikhs, Hindus and Muslims and paves the way for the Partition of the Punjab (Chawla, 2012, p. 7).

Again, it’s Nachträglichkeit ‘deferred action’ of trauma that Lala Kanshi Ram recalls the horrid days of 1943 of the British Raj in India under the leadership of a British Viceroy, Lord Wavell. The Lala adds, “If the British were going to lose India […] it was because of the tactical error they made in sending out an ugly Viceroy in the crucial days of their Raj” (Nahal, 1988, p. 30). Lala Kanshi Ram compares the administration of Lord Wavell with the leadership of the Punjab under Maharaja Ranjit Singh (1780-1839).  It’s Nachträglichkeit that Kanshi Ram revivifies the glorious, meticulous, candid, and open-hearted empire of Maharaja Ranjit Singh who established a great Sikh Empire in the Punjab which extended from Kashmir (in the North) to Sind (in the South) and from Sutlej (in the East) to Khaiber (in the North West). The Maharaja was an outstanding ruler of this mighty kingdom for forty years from 1799 to 1839 (Singh, 1996, p. 1). Lala Kanshi Ram expresses his regard for the Maharaja as, “It is true that Maharaja Ranjit Singh was one-eyed too, but then he had many virtues to make up for that. He tied such a beautiful turban and he supported a hawk so superbly on his hand as he rode” (Nahal, 1988, p. 31). But, Kanshi Ram condemns the British Raj led by Lord Wavell stating as, “[…] whereas Wavell blinked like an owl. Why of all the persons at their command, did the big sahibs have to send him? They had taken themselves very close to ruin in 1857 […]” (Nahal, 1988, p. 31). It’s another “deferred action” of trauma that the Lala compares the devastation that took place during the revolt of 1857 with the wretched administration by Lord Wavell.

The first insurgency was literally started, for the Enfield rifle was greased with lard and tallow in February, 1857. Later, it was confirmed that the British had manufactured the standard cartridges with pork fat (lard) which was assumed sacred by Muslims and cow fat (tallow) which made Hindus furious, for cows were sacrosanct to them. The sepoys (Indian soldiers) had to open the shells of these cartridges with their teeth before loading the Enfield rifles and it insulted the religious practices of Hindus and Muslims. Afterwards, the rebellion took the form of mutiny and the revolts started against the British administration, British taxation and land annexations by the East India Company in Saharanpur, Rurki and Muzaffar Nagar and Buland Shehr. Even the 3rd Light Cavalry based at Delhi attacked the British Army headquarters situated at Gurgaon (Nadiem, 2006, p. 45). Consequently, hundreds of the mutineers from the Bengal army that was comprised of 74 regiments of infantry and 10 regular regiments sacrificed their lives in order to get freedom from the gigantic clutches of the British (Mason, 1974, p. 241).

Likewise, Lala Kanshi Ram perceives that the efforts of Lord Wavell are also abortive as he fails to keep the geographic unity of India. For instance, the Shimla conference was organized in June 1945 to convince Muslims to give up their demand for an independent Muslim-majority state, but it turned to be an ineffective attempt as well. The penultimate British Viceroy even failed to withdraw the British authority from “the four Hindu-majority provinces of Bombay, Madras, Orissa and the Central Provinces […] before March 1948” (Chawla, 2013, p. 219). It’s ‘deferred action’ of Lala Kanshi Ram’s trauma that he associates the turbulent days of the Partition with a sheer botch of Lord Archibald Wavell (October 1943 – March 1947) and with those of the revolt of 1857. It’s Nachträglichkeit that Kanshi Ram’s memory takes him ninety years back when he wasn’t even born but he has just learnt about the mutiny through books, radios and people.

The traumatic incidents such the tempestuous days of the Partition, Kanshi Ram’s flashback to the chaotic administration under Lord Wavell and the revolt of 1857, make him too “timid” (Nahal, 1988, p. 32) to feel safe alone. Kanshi Ram’s wife, Prabha Rani expresses his wretched condition as, “And he seemed so scared. Nothing had happened in the house for several days to upset him; nor anything special in the store, either. What then” (Nahal, 1988, p. 32)?  But what impact him severely are the six deaths of infants in his house along with the incidents discussed so far.

It’s another Nachträglichkeit that Lala Kanshi Ram revivifies the appalling time of his life when his wife has had given birth to six infants but none survive (Nahal, 1988, p. 36). In one of the mornings of March 1947, Lala Kanshi Ram feels worried about the Lord Mountbatten’s announcement. Instantly, his mindset recalls the cramps and labour-pain of Prabha Rani when she has had given birth to Arun Kumar, their son. But straightway, Kanshi Ram resuscitates the six ceaseless deaths of his infants whom his wife and he couldn’t save. The revitalization of the stillbirths starts when the Lala just talks about the birth of Arun stating that Prabha Rani “might have shouted a lot when she gave birth to Arun, but that was not her fault, if the pain became too unbearable” (Nahal, 1988, p. 39). But this flashback gets connected to the traumatic time when the Lala and Prabha Rani have had lost their six infants in Sambrhial – the village where they used to live before they settled in Sialkot. Nahal depicts their grief as, “She gave birth to many, but none survived. Prabha Rani knew for certain it was because of the evil spells cast on her by the wives of Kanshi Ram’s brothers, who were ever busy mixing charms and going to fakirs […]” (Nahal, 1988, p. 35). This unpredictable loss of his six infants always haunts Lala Kanshi Ram and he never wants any kind of harm to his son Arun and daughter Madhu Bala.

It’s the impact of this incident that he always feels insecure, timid and anxious during the chaotic days of the looming Partition. That’s why, the Lala sighs soberly that “everything will be ruined if Pakistan is created” (Nahal, 1988, p. 39). The second repercussion of the incessant deaths of his six infants is that Lala Kanshi Ram utterly loses his “husbandly functions” (Nahal, 1988, p. 39). Though he is fifty and Prabha Rani is forty-eight (Nahal, 1988, p. 37) but after the birth of their son Arun, he always scares to have intercourse with her. He always thinks that he has already been given retribution from the gods in the form of the deaths of his infants because he has had mated Prabha Rani repeatedly. The Lala adds as, “When Arun was born, she had suffered badly. It was the seventh or eighth child […]. Lala Kanshi Ram knew it was a punishment from the gods – for continuing to mate […]” (Nahal, 1988, p. 36). The incessant deaths of his infants and the panic of the frenzied circumstances created by the Partition make him unreservedly confused, uncanny, restless, and “upset in the soul” (Nahal, 1988, p. 41). The Lala becomes so uncertain that he starts amalgamating his personal grief with the national problem of the Partition and he utters worriedly as, “What if the English agree to give Pakistan to Jinnah? […] And you know these English, they would rather divide than leave behind a united India” (Nahal, 1988, p. 39).

Apart from his personal anguish emerged out of the loss of his six infants (Nahal, 1988, p. 36), what really haunts the Lala are the imminent announcement of the Partition, too “much killing going on for the past many months” (Nahal, 1988, p. 41) and the unproductive meetings of the Cabinet Mission in Delhi in August 1947 – reflecting the inharmoniousness between Lord Mountbatten and the Indian political leaders such as Mahatma Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru, Mohammad Ali Jinnah, and Baldev Singh (Nahal, 1988, p. 40-41). That’s what concerns Kanshi Ram the most and he always questions himself, “What accord had they reached on Pakistan, on the future of the Punjab and Bengal? […] If Pakistan is created, we’ll have to leave. That’s if the Muslims spare our lives” (Nahal, 1988, p. 41)! Lala Kanshi Ram actually knows that there will be a lot of carnage if two new nations come into existence. This looming holocaust due to the Partition haunts him repetitively because he has already had experienced the trauma because of the loss of his six infants, and he doesn’t want to lose anything now in the impending debacle. He never wants to lose his happy family – Prabha Rani, Arun Kumar and Madhu Bala. He feels satisfied with his land and house. And now, he doesn’t want to be pushed out of his “safe little nest, in the name of freedom” (Nahal, 1988, p. 41). But, Lala Kanshi Ram’s 2nd trauma starts when everything happens in contrast to his wishes and he has to lose his shop, land, homeland, house, daughter (Madhu Bala), son-in-law (Rajiv), and friends in the name of freedom. Actually, it was not only Lala Kanshi Ram, but also innumerable people were impacted by the holocaust of the Partition. Sahitya Akademi advocates the fate of a number of émigrés such as Kanshi Ram stating as, “Millions of human beings, whose lives were affected in one way or another, do find a place in Nahal’s novel” (Sahitya Akademi, 1978, p. 117). Lala Kanshi Ram is one of the representatives of the victims who faced traumatic incidents during the Partition.

Another traumatic incident is witnessed by Lala Kanshi Ram when the Amritsar train fully loaded with the dead bodies of Muslims reaches Sialkot at six O’clock in one of the evenings of August 1947. Lala Kanshi Ram watches nine tongas in Trunk Bazaar of Sialkot. The surviving Muslim passengers in the tongas wail as, “Hai – they’ve killed us! Oh Allah, may your wrath fall on these Sikhs – they have ruined us […]” (Nahal, 1988, p. 127-28). The news spreads like wildfire in the entire Trunk Bazaar, Mahalla Dharowal, Mianapura and Kanak Mandi that the Muslims living in Amritsar “had been attacked and driven out of their homes by the Hindus and the Sikhs” (Nahal, 1988, p. 128).  The arrival of this Amritsar train in Sialkot makes the situation viciously rancorous and it initiates fires, lootings and killings of the Hindus and the Sikhs in Sialkot as well. Tai Yong Tan and Gyanesh Kudaisya also quote G.D. Khosla advocating that “madness swept over the entire land, in an ever-increasing crescendo, till reason and sanity left the minds of rational men and women, and sorrow, misery, hatred, and despair took possession of their souls” (Tan and Kudaisya, 2000, p. 7). For instance, the Muslims of Sialkot en masse, start stabbing the Hindus and the Sikh natives to death. But Kanshi Ram witnesses not only murders but the extreme brutality of the violence. Nahal advocates Kanshi Ram’s statement as:

“The killing was invariably done with a knife, and often the knife, the large blade driven clean through, was left in the body of the victim. Where the victim survived the first blow, he was repeatedly stabbed in the chest and the abdomen. Faces were disfigured […]. In each case, the intestines of the man would have spilled from the body and would be lying next to him in a pool of his blood” (Nahal, 1988, p. 126).

This type of bloodbath continues for several months and millions of victims lose their lives unnecessarily in the name of freedom. Urvashi Butalia also records in her book Other Side of Silence: Voices from the Partition of India that “estimates of the dead vary from 200,000 (the contemporary British figure) to two million (a later Indian estimate) but that somewhere around a million people died is now widely accepted” (Butalia, 1998, p. 6).

It’s the impact of the expropriations, stabbings and fires executed in Trunk Bazaar, Mahalla Dharowal, Mianapura, Kanak Mandi and in the neighboring towns of Sialkot that Lala Kanshi Ram feel “frightening and demoralizing” (Nahal, 1988, p. 126). It seems to him that “a red glow of death” (Nahal, 1988, p. 127) is waiting for him and his family. Lala Kanshi Ram becomes “numb with fear” (Nahal, 1988, p. 127) when he witnesses victims wailing in the crowd hysterically and uncontrollably (Nahal, 1988, p. 128). His heart fills with severe angst when he hearkens from the natives of Trunk Bazaar that they are heading towards the refugee camp established out of the town. Nahal adds that “these two words – ‘refugee camp’ – were to become a household name all over India in the next few months, but Lala Kanshi Ram was as yet not familiar with them” (Nahal, 1988, p. 129). After the arrival of the Amritsar train that brought the wounded and the dead Muslims in Sialkot and the subsequent violence emerged against the Hindus and the Sikhs of Sialkot, Kanshi Ram fails to “ sleep at all that night” (Nahal, 1988, p. 130). The situation becomes unmanageable and the police ask the Hindu and the Sikh inhabitants to evacuate Sialkot, but Lala Kanshi Ram never wants to become a refugee in his own hometown. The word ‘refugee’ haunts him recurrently when he copiously understands the real meaning of this word, and he starts shouting at the police saying, “I was born here, this is my home – how I can be a refugee in my own home” (Nahal, 1988, p. 130)?

Traumatic incidents gradually increase in Sialkot and they deteriorate the psychic condition of Lala Kanshi Ram.  Bistoen, Vanheule and Craps discover abruptly that “Delayed-onset PTSD may develop in some people due to a subsequent event which gives the original trauma a more threatening meaning” (Bistoen, Vanheule and Craps, 2014, p.  671). Lala Kanshi Ram has had lost his six infants, and he couldn’t forget that trauma. Now the fires, lootings, killings, and the news of evacuating Sialkot totally dishearten him, and he questions the competency of the authorities as, “Why can’t the government protect us? I’ve seen communal riots before in this country. How were the English able to put them down” (Nahal, 1988, p. 130)? Being a helpless émigré, Kanshi Ram cries and “his eyes filled with tears as he felt so unprotected and forlorn” (Nahal, 1988, p. 131). Lala Kanshi Ram feels psychosomatically and physically very tired when he thinks to leave his house and the shop. He defenselessly utters as, “What of the shop – the grain stored there? How would he dispose of it? Would anyone give him any price for it in such times? His tone was mournful […]” (Nahal, 1988, p. 132).

It’s Nachträglichkeit ‘deferred action’ of trauma that Lala Kanshi Ram runs his hands over the walls of his beloved house and instantly recalls his childhood days when he used to eat earth from the mud walls. He remembers how his mother used to beat him sternly. Lala Kanshi Ram revitalizes his infantile time when he is forced for exile as:

“How could he give this earth up? – and again he ran his hand over the wall. Some of his earliest memories, memories of his remote childhood, came back to him as he stood there. He remembered how as an urchin he was very fond of eating earth and how his mother used to beat him for that [ ..] he very much wanted to scrape a part of that earth and eat it again. We aren’t leaving yet, he said aloud […]” (Nahal, 1988, p. 132).

In the above incident, the walls and the clay that he used to eat, act as the signifiers and take him back to his impish childhood. Jacques Lacan also states that a signifier plays a vital role in the mechanism of Nachträglichkeit. To Lacan, signifier is a “Surprise, that by which the subject feels himself overcome, by which he finds both more and less than he expected […] it is always ready to steal away again, thus establishing the dimension of loss” (Lacan, 1998, p. 25).

It’s the repercussion of the loss of his land, house, friends, and hometown that Kanshi Ram gets ready to change even his Hindu religion so that he won’t leave for India. Lala Kanshi Ram acknowledges that “he would become a Muslim to stay here, if need be […]” (Nahal, 1988, p. 132). Secondly, the Lala starts using an abrasive language against the military, the police and even against his friends. For instance, when one of his old friends Abdul Ghani – a hookah manufacturer of Sialkot, laughs at the discomfort of Kanshi Ram since the Hindus and the Sikhs have been ordered to evacuate Sialkot, the latter shouts at the former uncontrollably and calls him an “idiot” (Nahal, 1988, p. 133). When Abdul Ghani addresses Kanshi Ram as a “kafir” (Nahal, 1988, p. 134) and adds that “I want you to leave because you’re a Hindu, and you don’t believe in Allah” (Nahal, 1988, p. 134), Kanshi Ram starts shouting aloud. Kanshi Ram retaliates that he too believes in God as much as Abdul Ghani does. But Kanshi Ram feels utterly distraught when he perceives that some of his Muslims friends such as Abdul Ghani turn hostile to him and want to take away his business (Nahal, 1988, p. 134).

Another traumatic incident happens in Lala Kanshi Ram’s life when his grain shop is looted by some Muslim lunatics of Mohalla Dharowal. After the incident, Kanshi Ram stands transfixed; his color turns ashen grey; he looks so crestfallen that he returns home surreptitiously like a ghost (Nahal, 1988, p. 136). Prabha Rani also witnesses that Kanshi Ram “now stood motionless, unable to decide what to do, as though he had come to the wrong house or he were not the same man” (Nahal, 1988, p. 137).  Afterwards, the Lala loses his faith in the military, the police and the local authorities as they fail to protect the émigrés and their property. Kanshi even curses the local Muslim leaders such as Professor Ghulam Hussain, Chaudhri Imam Baksh and Dr. Wazir Khan asserting that “I’m afraid there is no organized body of Muslims denouncing what is happening in the city” (Nahal, 1988, p. 140).

Kanshi Ram’s trauma becomes a collective trauma when he listens Chaudhri Barkat Ali advocating the wretched condition of émigrés as, “[…] everyday hundreds of refugees from India continue to arrive with tales of terror and disgust. Whatever is happening here in Sialkot, things very much like that are happening on the other side too – let’s make no mistake about it” (Nahal 1988: 140). As Ian Parker states in his book Lacanian Psychoanalysis: Revolutions in Subjectivity that trauma is the “breaches of the body and by implication also of the mind” (Parker, 2011, p. 29). Likewise, traumatic incidents such as the loss of his six infants in the past, the heist of his grain store and the witness of the Amritsar train fully loaded with the dead bodies of Muslims etc. increase in Kanshi Ram’s life day by day and they partition his body and mind. For instance, when his store is looted, Kanshi Ram becomes extremely numb; his arms and shoulders don’t seem to be the parts of his physique (Nahal, 1988, p. 132).  Then, his psyche also gets divided when he associates his own fear, safety and grief with the similar apprehension of other émigrés. Kanshi Ram asserts as, “Moving the populations would ruin both the countries. Yes, the leaders said, don’t move, stay where you are. But that was half-hearted, that was rather a lie, when they were doing nothing to protect the people […]” (Nahal, 1988, p. 131).

A further traumatic incident happens in Lala Kanshi Ram’s life when his daughter, Madhu Bala and son-in-law Rajiv are murdered in a train coming from Wazirabad to Sialkot to see him (Nahal, 1988, p. 168).  Lala Dina Nath who was in the same train and who had saved his life pretending that he is a Muslim, informs Kanshi Ram that the incident took place near Nizamabad – a village just the outside of Wazirabad. Not only were Madhu Bala and Rajiv exterminated, but also other “Hindus and Sikhs in the train were singled out and mercilessly slaughtered” (Nahal, 1988, p. 171).

It’s the ramification of the murder of Madhu Bala and Rajiv that Kanshi Ram body and psyche are “crushed” unreservedly (Nahal, 1988, p. 210). Nahal further states, “The death of Madhu was the last blow to his shattered psyche” (Nahal, 1988, p. 212). Now, he wishes to leave for India grudgingly as soon as possible. About his father, Arun also frets adding, “He was benumbed by the event” (Nahal, 1988, p. 210). The ceaseless traumatic incidents such as the loss of his house and land, the looting of his store and now, the death of his beloved daughter and son-in-law etc., narrow further his chances of living in his beloved hometown, Sialkot. Subsequently, Kanshi Ram abuses General Rees – the Commander-in-Chief of the Punjab Boundary Force, Nehru, Jinnah and Kripalani – the President of the Indian national congress and call them “the villains” (Nahal, 1988, p. 211). After Madhu’s death, Lala Kanshi Ram becomes speechless, and he hardly communicates even with Prabha Rani and Arun. Nahal advocates his psychosomatic condition as, “He was not an introvert. He liked meeting people and talking to them. But after Madhu’s death, he withdrew himself into a shell. Even to members of his own group, he spoke in monosyllables (Nahal, 1988, p. 212).  After the tragedy, Kanshi Ram emerges as a man “indifferent to the generosity” which he was known for (Nahal, 1988, p. 213). Madhu’s death shatters his mindset. Whenever Arun talks of Madhu, Kanshi Ram closes the subject because her separation haunts her severely and cyclically. Kanshi Ram tries to regain his consciousness but the spontaneous flow of traumatic incidents renders him unconscious again. In his concept of repetition, Jacques Lacan also states that the victim “loses itself as much as it finds itself again and in the sense that, in an interjection, in an imperative, in an invocation, even in a hesitation it is always the unconscious that presents you with its enigma” (Lacan, 1998, p. 26). Kanshi Ram fails to come out of the shock of his deceased daughter. Nahal also mentions Kanshi Ram’s psychic enigma as, “Arun saw him stop in the walk and turn his face furtively aside. Surreptitiously, furtively, like a thief, he lifted a corner of his shirt and wiped his eyes. Before Arun, he displayed nothing” (Nahal, 1988, p. 213). Moreover, the Lala looks “delirious”, “shrunken”, and “flaccid” (Nahal, 1988, p. 249). Nahal, next adds, “The good humour did not stay with him for many days; he was soon fussing and fuming as of old” (Nahal, 1988, p. 149).

Lala Kanshi Ram’s trauma becomes a repetitive trauma when he faces multiple harrowing incidents.  He had witnessed and experienced some of the incidents such as the loss of his house, store, land, friends, homeland, and the death of his beloved daughter and son-in-law but the “problems that loomed in the future were a thousandfold more complex and bewildering than what he had gone through” (Nahal, 1988, p. 274).  Kanshi Ram has just been busy piling up his haemorrhages for a couple of months. “Many parts of him had died” (Nahal, 1988, p. 274), writes Nahal, because of the innumerable and irretrievable losses. The Lala has “faltered and fumbled in his steps” (Nahal, 1988, p. 274) before he faces new looming calamity in his life.

Another phase of traumatic incidents starts in the life of Kanshi Ram when the foot convoy leaves Sialkot Cantonment and reaches Pasrur through the route of Gunna Kalan. The convoy moves farther side of Pasrur on 5th September 1947, and Kanshi Ram witnesses, “[…] the remains of parties that had been attacked and butchered. In many cases, the dismembered human limbs and skeletons were still lying there, and the stench was intolerable” (Nahal, 1988, p. 283). Such distressing scenes refresh Kanshi Ram’s traumatic wounds. The reminiscence of Madhu rigorously haunts him when the Muslim marauders attack at the 2nd unit of their convoy before it reaches the refugee camp at Qila Sobha Singh and carry away “a number of young refugee girls with them” (Nahal, 1988, p. 286). Being a civil leader of the 3rd unit, Lala Kanshi Ram feels utterly distressed when he further watches the holocaust of the 2nd unit of their convoy. Lala Kanshi Ram observes, “[…] a few women lay with their breasts exposed, with a dead child next to the breast. Most of the children lay with their faces downward. The men lay on their backs or on their sides, their mouths open. Some women lay doubled up like bundles […]” (Nahal, 1988, p. 287).  Kanshi Ram’s physique shudders when he scrutinizes the dilapidated body of Dr. Chander Bhan who has had brought the news of the murder of Madhu Bala and Rajiv.

Lala Kanshi Ram and the other émigrés have been attacked several times since they leave Sialkot. Their convoy just covers thirty-six miles from Sialkot but they lose over fifteen hundred of their colleagues during the various ambushes executed near the villages such as Gunna Kalan, Qila Sobha Singh and Manjoke. Several women are abducted and the number of the wounded rise to several hundred (Nahal, 1988, p. 288-89). It’s Nachträglichkeit that Kanshi Ram’s memory goes back to Madhu again when he learns that two of Dr. Chander Bhan’s “daughters, aged nineteen and seventeen, had been carried away by the mob” (Nahal, 1988, p. 288).

It’s another Nachträglichkeit ‘deferred action’ of trauma that Kanshi Ram still recalls Sialkot though he reaches Amritsar. He knocks at the doors of his distant relatives in Amritsar but none of them welcome him and his survival family. He abominates the idea of his settlement in Jullundur, Ludhiana and Ambala. The Lala whines saying, “I don’t like the sound of them. There was only one worthwhile town for him in the Punjab – and that was Sialkot” (Nahal, 1988, p. 325). Further, Lala Kanshi Ram’s traumatic reminiscence of the murder of Madhu and Rajiv along with hundreds of Hindus and Sikhs who were also butchered mercilessly in a train near Nizamabad (Nahal, 1988, p. 168, 171), revitalizes when he witnesses the carnage of innumerous Muslim refugees at the Amritsar railway station (Nahal, 1988, p. 327). While sitting in the waiting room of the Amritsar station, the Lala listens the wailing of the Muslim survivors. But it’s Nachträglichkeit ‘deferred action’ of his trauma that Kanshi Ram recalls the wails, cries, sobs, and moans of the Hindu and Sikh survivors who lose their family members and whose women are abducted during the attacks at the foot convoy near Pasrur (Nahal, 1988, p. 283), Qila Sobha Singh (Nahal, 1988, p. 286-87) and Alipur Saiyidian (Nahal, 1988, p. 288). Kanshi Ram accepts that “the wailing had a familiar ring” (Nahal, 1988, p. 328). Lala Kanshi Ram also recalls the failure of the Pakistani troops when he witnesses the ineffectiveness of the Indian soldiers to protect the lives and property of the Muslim émigrés. He asserts, “Indian soldiers stood guard with machine guns, but they were only a façade – like their counterparts in Pakistan. They had failed to protect the Muslims” (Nahal, 1988, p. 328).

Lala Kanshi Ram gets fed up with the governments, armies, Rehabilitation and Custodian Officers of both sides. Whatever practical help is provided to the émigrés, it is from private and charitable trusts. Kanshi Ram adds, “The government itself was ill-prepared and ill-equipped to handle them. Nearly two months after independence, it still had not come to grips with the situation” (Nahal, 1988, p. 326). Like thousands of other refugees, the Lala gets distressed when the Indian police ask him injudicious questions such as what his purpose to come in India is (Nahal, 1988:, p. 328). Subsequently, the Indian towns, officials and circumstances look “disgusting” (Nahal, 1988, p. 336) to Kanshi Ram. Prabha Rani knows that her husband is primarily upset because of the irrevocable loss of his house, store, land, friends, and hometown Sialkot. But the demise of Madhu is fundamental amongst them. Madhu’s death impacts him physically and psychosomatically. Prabha Rani gives an account of Kanshi Ram as, “He looked so much thinner now, the face especially. She knew he had suffered for Madhu. He had said not word. But she knew how excruciating had been his pain. A slow, silent eroding pain that had torn him asunder” (Nahal, 1988, p. 336).

Lala Kanshi Ram’s psychic condition becomes very miserable when he begs the Rehabilitation and the Custodian Officers in Delhi to allot him any flat in the middle of November 1947. Chaman Nahal delineates his condition stating as, “Lala Kanshi Ram became pale by degrees and now it seemed there was no blood left in him. He positively did not want to go to another refugee camp. Four months of that had shrunk his heart. Never before in his life had he felt so exposed, so naked, so defenceless” (Nahal, 1988, p. 350). It’s again Nachträglichkeit that homeless Kanshi Ram revivifies his appealing home and the other homely comforts which were snatched from him in Sialkot in the name of freedom. Nahal adds what Kanshi Ram now wants is only “[…] walls around himself and doors and he wanted a bed to lie on and clean sheets and he wanted Prabha Rani to be alone with him” (Nahal, 1988, p. 350). But the tragedy is that he has lost even his identity in Delhi. He wants “a name for himself once again – not fame, just a name” (Nahal, 1988, p. 350).

Another Nachträglichkeit ‘deferred action’ of trauma is observed when Madhu’s absence haunts Lala Kanshi Ram cyclically and he tries to rebuild her from his memory. The other girls remind him of Madhu and he traces her amongst them. Nahal asserts, “He remembered, to be sure he remembered, but the images overlapped and then it was so difficult for him to give them life even if he did succeed in putting the features together” (Nahal, 1988, p. 350). The demise of Madhu pains him so tremendously that sometimes he feels that she comes back to see him in person. Kanshi Ram fails to express whether it is reality or imagination, magic or charisma.   At this peak of his angst, the Lala becomes a victim of schizophrenia – a serious mental illness in which someone cannot understand what is real and what is imaginary. Rachel Miller and Susan Elizabeth Mason also advocate the lethal nature of schizophrenia as, “All illnesses are hard to talk about, but schizophrenia seems even harder. For many people the term schizophrenia carries a stigma so strong that just thinking about it is frightening. It reminds them of the strange thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that resulted in their needing treatment. They remember their weird beliefs and hallucinations or their disorganized, isolated or moody ways” (Miller and Mason, 2002, p. 1).

On the one hand, the Lala is utterly distressed because of the loss of his house, store, daughter, son-in-law, friends, land, and hometown, but he also suffers due to his homelessness in Delhi on the other hand. One of the Custodian Officers scolds the shattered Kanshi Ram and asks Arun to take him away. Nahal adds the statement of the Custodian Officer as, “Take care of your father. He has been weeping. I’ve told you people. There is nothing that I can do! There simply aren’t any more houses” (Nahal, 1988, p. 353). Because of the complicated and shocking circumstances, Kanshi Ram loses his thirst, hunger and sleep. He wants to take a sip of tea but he can’t; he wants to eat a biscuit, but he is unable to eat it; he wants even to weep, but there is no water left in the ducts of his eyes (Nahal, 1988, p. 353).

At last, Lala Kanshi Ram is allotted a brick hut in Kingsway Camp on Alipur Road in Delhi where he sets-up a small shop, but homelessness, nostalgia and poverty deteriorate him extremely (Nahal, 1988, p. 354). In the Punjabi culture, the Lala had grown up in, turban has its own dignity for Sikhs, Hindus and Muslims. Lala Kanshi Ram always turbaned whether he was inside or outside his home, but now in Delhi, he couldn’t save even his milky turban. Nahal writes, “Turban was a sign of respect, of dignity. He had no dignity left […]. He sat bare-headed, advertising his humble position to the world” (Nahal, 1988, p. 366).

It’s another Nachträglichkeit ‘deferred action’ of trauma of Lala Kanshi Ram that, while assessing the loss of his personality, acceptance, identity and the other material losses, Kanshi Ram’s memory gets connected to his daughter’s loss. This is what he primarily couldn’t forget for the rest of his life. Chaman Nahal delineates his shattered psychic condition as, “Lying on his bed late in the night, he thought of it. What of the loss of personality he had suffered? What of the material losses? What of Madhu? That could never be made good, never atoned for. And he saw years of bleakness before him, years of desolation” (Nahal, 1988, p. 369).

It’s the repercussion of his “material losses” and the “physical losses” that he couldn’t see anything for the future but just bleakness, coldness, gloominess and despondency (Nahal, 1988, p. 369). He feels himself in such a tunnel that has no other end (Nahal, 1988, p. 369). He can just see the “rude faces of the men” (Nahal, 1988, p. 369) who decide his future. He wants to talk about his distressed psychic condition, but he loses his “ability to communicate with his family” (Nahal, 1988, p. 369). He cries inwardly as he fails to “establish his contact either with his wife or with his son” (Nahal, 1988, p. 369). Kanshi Ran fails to fathom his “restlessness” and “sadness” (Nahal, 1988, p. 370). He feels himself guilty for “the material losses” (Nahal, 1988, p. 369) and for the demise of his daughter and son-in-law, though he isn’t responsible for this series of calamities. Kanshi Ram’s trauma enhances day by day and it deteriorates his mindset further as he lacks friends in Delhi unlike Sialkot. Judith Lewis Herman also states that social-relations are constructive for the recovery of trauma. The psychiatrist states, “The core experiences of psychological trauma are disempowerment and disconnection from others […]. In its renewed connections with other people, the survivor re-creates the psychological faculties that were damaged or deformed by the traumatic experience” (Herman, 1997, p. 133).

  1. Results

The researcher has analyzed only one character (Lala Kanshi Ram) from the selected novel Azadi in the light of the augmented Freudian theory of Nachträglichkeit ‘deferred action’ of trauma. Kanshi Ram encounters some traumatic incidents such as the vicious shooting of Indian dogs by the British soldiers (Nahal, 1988, p. 28), stillbirths (Nahal 1988: 36), witness of holocaust of the Partition (Nahal, 1988, p. 125), witness of the Amritsar train fully loaded with the dead bodies of Muslims (Nahal, 1988, p. 127-28), loss of his land, house, friends, hometown and heist of his grain store in Sialkot (Nahal, 1988, p. 136), slaughter of his daughter (Madhu Bala) and son-in-law Rajiv (Nahal, 1988, p. 168), and witness of the carnage of innumerous Muslim refugees at the Amritsar railway station (Nahal, 1988, p. 327) in his life. These harrowing events are considered as the factors of trauma and they affect Kanshi Ram’s body and psyche with several impacts.

Through the psychoanalysis of Kanshi Ram it’s observed that the protagonist faces the repercussions such as a flashback to the devastation caused by Germany in Russia and Japan (Nahal, 1988, p. 16), tearfulness (Nahal, 1988, p. 16), incommunicability (Nahal, 1988, p. 16, p. 213, p. 369), collective trauma (Nahal, 1988, p. 16), association of the current savagery with the epic battle of Kurukshetra between the Kauravas and the Pandavas (Nahal,  1988, p. 17), flashback to the massacre of the Jallianwala Bagh that took place on 13th April 1919 (Nahal, 1988, p. 28), abusiveness against the military, police and his friends (Nahal, 1988, p. 28, p. 133, p. 211), revengeful attitude and deep-seated abhorrence for the penultimate British Viceroy in India – Lord Archibald Wavell (Nahal, 1988, p. 30), flashback to the revolt of 1857 (Nahal, 1988, p. 32), timidity (Nahal, 1988, p. 32), wretchedness, scared and upset (Nahal, 1988, p. 32), insecurity and anxiety (Nahal, 1988, p. 39), loss of his husbandly functions (Nahal, 1988, p. 39), confusion, uncanniness and restlessness (Nahal, 1988, p. 41), amalgamation of his personal grief with the national problem of the Partition (Nahal, 1988, p. 39), feeling of death (Nahal, 1988, p. 127), numbness (Nahal, 1988, p. 127, p. 210), angst and sleeplessness (Nahal, 1988, p. 130), fearfulness even to hear the word ‘refugee’(Nahal, 1988, p. 130), disheartenment,  psychosomatic tiredness and defenselessness (Nahal, 1988, p. 132, p. 350), readiness to convert Hinduism into Islam so that he can keep his home, store and homeland (Nahal, 1988, p.132), shouting and distress (Nahal, 1988, p. 134), transfixion, disappointment and paleness (Nahal, 1988, p. 136), motionlessness, indecisiveness (Nahal, 1988, p. 137), loss of trust in the military, the police and the local authorities (Nahal, 1988, p. 140, p. 326), curse (Nahal, 1988, p. 140), loss of good humour (Nahal, 1988, p. 149), paralysis of his body and psyche (Nahal, 1988, p. 210, p. 274), indifference to generosity (Nahal, 1988, p. 213), unconsciousness particularly because of the repetitious reminiscence of his deceased daughter (Nahal, 1988, p. 249, 288), delirium, unwillingness, flaccidity (Nahal, 1988, p. 249), unsteadiness (Nahal, 1988, p. 274), hatred of the new country (India), officials and its new cities such as in Jullundur Ludhiana, Ambala etc. (Nahal, 1988, p. 325, 336), flashback to the Amritsar train fully loaded with the dead bodies of Muslims (Nahal, 1988, p. 328), feeling of an excruciating pain (Nahal, 1988, p. 336), debasement (Nahal, 1988, p. 343), display of his nakedness before the Custodian and Rehabilitation officers (Nahal, 1988, p. 350, p. 353), nostalgia (Nahal, 1988, p. 350), schizophrenia (Nahal, 1988, p. 350), repetitive fear (Nahal, 1988, p. 351), deep rooted desire to return to his home and homeland (Nahal, 1988, p. 351), loss of thirst and hunger (Nahal, 1988, p. 353), mournfulness, rootlessness, homelessness, and destitution (Nahal, 1988, p. 354), loss of dignity, personality and identity (Nahal, 1988, p. 366), bleakness, desolation and suffocation (Nahal, 1988, p. 369), and unnecessary feeling of guilt (Nahal, 1988, p. 369).

Similarly, the trauma of other victims such as Prabha Rani, Arun Kumar, Sardar Niranjan Singh, Sergeant William Davidson, Isher Kaur, Inayat-Ullah Kahn, Madhu Bala, Sunanda Bala, and Mukanda’s mother can be explored in the light of the Freudian theory of ‘deferred action’ to detect some more concealed reasons and ramifications of trauma.

  1. Conclusion and Recommendation

In the modern world, millions of people are suffering from the psychosomatic disturbance created by a number of traumatizing factors which lead to trauma either immediately or through the mechanism of ‘deferred action’. The researcher has explored some of the factors and ramifications of trauma through the analysis of Chaman Nahal’s Azadi but lots of covert factors of trauma can be explored if the Freudian theory of Nachträglichkeit ‘deferred action’ is applied to the texts which contain traumatic experiences because a detailed exploration of the reasons for trauma and its repercussions on the lives of traumatized victims is required for the trauma treatment centres worldwide dealing with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PSTD) to alleviate the travails of the victims of trauma. As each distressing factor is different, so are the traumatic experiences and the repercussions of trauma. There is no single protocol for grasping and treating the patients of trauma; therefore, the implementation of the Freudian theory of ‘deferred action’ in the suggested discourses is recommended to discover concealed factors of trauma so that the treatment of the patients of trauma could be made effectively productive.


Nahal, Chaman. 1988. Azadi. New Delhi: Orient Paperbacks.


Bistoen, G., Vanheule, S., & Craps, S. (2014). Nachträglichkeit: A Freudian Perspective on Delayed Traumatic Reactions. Theory & Psychology, 24(5), 668-687.

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Caruth, C. (2014). Death in Theory. Listening to Trauma: Conversations with Leaders in the Theory and Treatment of Catastrophic Experience. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.

Chawla, M. I. (2012). Wavell and the Dying Days of the Raj: Britain’s Penultimate Viceroy in India. Islamabad: Oxford University Press.

Chawla, M. I. (2013). Wavell’s Breakdown Plan, 1945-47: An Appraisal. Journal of Political Science, 16 (2), 219-234.

Collet, N. (2007). The Butcher of Amritsar: General Reginald Dyer. London: Hambledon Continuum.

Freud, S. (2010). From the History of an Infantile Neurosis.  In Ivan Smith (Ed. and Trans.), Freud-Complete Works. Accessed 05.08.15.

Freud, S. (2001). Project for a Scientific Psychology. In James Strachey, (Ed. and Trans.), The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. Vol.1. London:  The Hogarth Press.

Freud, S. (2010). Psycho-Analytic Notes on an Autobiographical Account of a Case of Paranoia. In Ivan Smith, (Ed. and Trans.), Freud-Complete Works. Accessed 20. 05.16.

Freud, S. (2010). Sexuality in the Aetiology of the Neurosis. In Ivan Smith (Ed. and Trans.), Freud-Complete Works. Accessed 19. 04. 16

Freud, S. (2010). The Interpretation of Dreams. In Ivan Smith, (Ed. and Trans.), Freud-Complete Works. Accessed 09.11 15.

Herman, J. L. (1997). Trauma and Recovery: The Aftermath of Violence – From Domestic Abuse to Political Terror. New York: Basic Books.

Lacan, J. (1998). The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psychoanalysis. In Jacques Alain Miller, (Ed.), In Alan Sheridan (Trans.), New York and London: W.W. Norton & Company.

Mason, P. (1974). A Matter of Honor.  Austin: Holt Rinehart & Winston.

Miller, R., & Mason, S. E. (2002). Diagnosis: Schizophrenia: A Comprehensive Resource. New York: Columbia University Press.

Nadiem, I. H. (2006). Punjab and the Indian Revolt of 1857. The University of Michigan: Sang-e Meel Publications.

Parker, I. (2011). Advancing Theory in Therapy. Lacanian Psychoanalysis: Revolutions in Subjectivity. (1st ed.), In Keith Tudor, (Ed.), London and New York: Routledge.

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Singh, K. (1996). How the Sikhs lost their kingdom. The University of Michigan: UPS Publishers’ Distributors.

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From Russia With Love

NEW YORK: An unusual flashmob took place today in Times Square. Unidentified activists were gifting flowers to women.


Activists wearing jackets with “From Russia with Love” inscription on their backs were gifting flower bouquets to women in Times Square. At the same time one of the Times Square billboards was displaying a picture of Russia covered in flowers with a signature “From Russia with Love”. Women were pleased and were smiling, this unexpected flashmob flattered them.

The flashmob was devoted to the International Women’s Day which is celebrated every year on March 8. This holiday is originating from the Solidarity Day of working women in their struggle for emancipation and equal rights. Traditionally, this day is celebrated in the former USSR countries, in China and in some African countries.

– Rick Irwin

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Comparison of Self-Concept between Rural & Urban School Going Adolescent

Dr. Sukhbir Singh

Assistant Professor,

Deptt. of Physical Education, A.I. J.H.M. College, Rohtak (Haryana)


Abstract: The purpose of the study, 50 subjects (25 rural and 25urban) were selected randomly from rural and urban area school going adolescent in Rohtak  District (Haryana). The age level of the subjects ranged from 13 to 14 years. The Self-concept variable was selected for the present study. Self-concept was assessed with the help of Swatva Bodh Parikshan (SBP) Self-Concept Questionnaire constructed and standardized by Dr. G. P. Sherry, Dr. R. P. Verma and Dr. P.K. Goswami. Swatva-Bodh Parikshan, is a forty-eight item test, yielding scores in eight different dimensions of the self-concept and on the total. Thus, the present test provides eight separate measures of self-concept. The data thus collected were put to statistical treatment computing independent t test to find out the differences, if any between the rural and urban. Further the level of significance was set at 0.05. The experiment carried out on twenty five rural and twenty five urban school going adolescent students to find out the comparison on self-concept. After applying standard questionnaire to obtained response and statistical treatment, the results come out were shows significant difference between rural and urban school going adolescent students.

 Keywords :  Self-Concept, Rural & Urban School, Adolescent, Random Method.

Introduction : Self-concept is a multi-dimensional construct that refers to an individual’s perception of “self” in relation to any number of characteristics, such as behavior, intellectual and school status, physical appearance and attributes, anxiety, popularity, happiness and satisfaction and many others. While closely related with self-concept clarity, it presupposes but is distinguishable from self-awareness, which is simply an individual’s awareness of their self. The self-concept is undergoing something of a renaissance in contemporary social psychology. It has, of course, been a central concept within symbolic interactionism since the seminal writings of Mead (1934), Cooley (1902), and James (1890). However, even within this sociological tradition there has been a revitalization of interest in the self-concept: with developments in role theory (Turner 1978; Gordon 1976), with the increasing focus on the concept of identity (McCall & Simmons 1978; Stryker 1980; Gordon 1968; Guiot 1977; Burke 1980), with the reemergence of interest in social structure and personality (House 1981; Turner 1976; Kohn 1969, 1981; Rosenberg 1979), and with the reconceptualization of small group experimental situations (Alexander and colleagues 1971, 1981; Webster & Sobieszek 1974). The reemergence of the self-concept is even more dramatic within psycho- logical social psychology. Much of this revitalization of interest in self- phenomena (e.g. self-awareness, self-esteem, self-image, self-evaluation) is due to the “cognitive revolution” in psychology (December 1974; Manis 1977), generally at the expense of behaviorism. As a result, the self concept has become conspicuous in areas and traditions that were previously considered alien terrain: within behaviorism via Bem’s (1972) theory of self-attribution; within social learning theory via Bandura’s (1977) focus on self-efficacy; and within cognitive dissonance theory via Aronson’s (1968) and Bramel’s (1968) reformulations. It is also increasingly evident in theories of attitude and value formation and change (Rokeach 1973, 1979), in attribution theory (Epstein 1973; Bowerman 1978), and in various other recent theories of cognitive processes (see Wegner & Vallacher 1980). Perhaps as important as these “intentional” theoretical developments in social psychology for the refocus on self-concept is what one reviewer calls “the inadvertent rediscovery of self” in experimental social psychology (Hales 1981a). This refers to the observation that experimental results frequently could be explained as well or better by the operation of self-processes within these settings [such as Alexander’s “situated identity theory” (1981)] than by the theoretical variables under investigation. This “inadvertent” discovery of self may have contributed to the socalled “crisis” in social psychology (Boutilier et al. 1980; Hales 1981a). In this review I focus on developments and trends in self-concept theory and research within social psychology.’ However, as Stryker (1977) and House (1977) point out, there are several social psychologies. The major distinction is between social psychology developed within the sociological tradition and that emerging from the psychological tradition. The self-concept is increasingly important within both disciplines; developments within both are reviewed. The two social psychologies differ in their focus. Sociology tends to focus on the antecedents of self conceptions, and typically looks for these within patterns of social interaction. Psychology, on the other hand, tends to focus on the consequences of self-conceptions, especially as these relate to behavior. The latter focus is more likely than the former to lead to questions of motivation (e.g. the self-esteem motive, consistency motive, efficacy motive). In a sense, sociology and psychology have complementary biases regarding the self-concept. If the “fundamental attribution bias” of psychologists is an overly “internal” view of the causes of behavior (Ross 1977), the attribution bias of sociologists is a tendency to look for the causes of behavior outside the individual-i.e. in culture, social structure, or social situation. Several aspects of the self-concept literature are not reviewed: I do not delve into the extensive literature on specific social identities, such as sexual and gender identities, various occupational identities, and specific deviant identities (e.g. delinquent, criminal, mental patient). Here I treat the social- psychological literature on self-concept, largely ignoring the clinical, humanistic, and philosophical traditions. (Gecas, 1982) [8]. indicates that a mean and standard deviation values with regard to self-concept variable in rural were 30.64 and 3.52 whereas in urban the mean and standard deviation were recorded as 34.28 and 2.851 respectively. There was significant difference between rural and urban school going adolescent students found as the calculated t-value (4.016) was more than tabulation t-value (2.01) at 0.5 level. As the results indicate researcher hypothesis is accepted.

Self-concept  : The self-concept as an organizer of behavior is of great importance. Self-concept refers to the experience of one’s own being. It includes what people come to know about themselves through experience, reflection and feedback from others. It is an organized cognitive structure comprised of a set of attitudes, beliefs, values, variety of habits, abilities, out looks, ideas and feelings of a person. Consistency of behavior and continuity of identity are two of the chief properties of the self concept. Self-concept is positively related with their school achievement. Self-concept is a factor which helps to study the human behavior and personality. There are several different components of self-concept: physical, academic, social, and transpersonal. The physical aspect of self-concept relates to that which is concrete: what we look like, our sex, height, weight, etc.; what kind of clothes we wear; what kind of car we drive; what kind of home we live in; and so forth. Our academic self-concept relates to how well we do in school or how well we learn. There are two levels: a general academic self-concept of how good we are overall and a set of specific content-related self-concepts that describe how good we are in math, science, language arts, social science, etc. The social self-concept describes how we relate ourselves to other people and the transpersonal self-concept describes how we relate to the supernatural or unknown.

Research Methodology :

  • Selection of Subjects : For the purpose of the study, fifty subjects (twenty five rural and twenty five urban) were selected randomly from rural and urban area school going adolescent in Rohtak District(Haryana)The age level of the subjects ranged from 13 to 14 years.
  • Criterion Measures : The Self-concept variable was selected for the present study. Self-concept was assessed with the help of Swatva Bodh Parikshan (SBP) Self-Concept Questionnaire constructed and standardized by Dr. G. P. Sherry, Dr. R. P. Verma and Dr. P.K. Goswami.
  • Description of the Test : Swatva-Bodh Parikshan, is a forty-eight item test, yielding scores in eight different dimensions of the self-concept and on the total. Thus, the present test provides eight separate measures of self-concept. The statements of the test are simple and declarative about self, see-king responses in “Yes” or “No”. Responses are obtained on an answer-sheet and the test booklet can be used again and again. There is no time for completing the test, but the respondent is advised to complete the test as quickly as possible. Generally it takes a respondent about 20 minute to complete the test. A high score on this test indicates a bright self-concept while a low score shows a poor self-concept.

 Analysis of the Data:

  • Result and Discussion : The data thus collected were put to statistical treatment computing independent t test to find out the differences, if any between the rural and urban. Further the level of significance was set at 0.05. The findings of the study have been presented in table- I Table 1: Showing comparison of self-concept between rural and urban school going Adolescent Variable

Variable Group Mean SD SE MD Ot df Tt
Health and Physique Rural 3.68 1.52 0.38 1.20 3.176 48 2.01
Urban 2.48 1.12
Temperamental Qualities Rural 2.92 0.86 0.21 1.36 6.425 48 2.01
Urban 4.28 0.61
Academic Status Rural 4.76 1.48 0.39 1.12 2.905 48 2.01
Urban 5.88 1.24
Intellectual abilities Rural 4.68 1.22 0.32 0.64 2.009 48 2.01
Urban 5.32 1.03
Habits and Behaviour Rural 3.48 0.87 0.26 0.28 1.074 48 2.01
Urban 3.76 0.97
Emotional Tendencies Rural 2.64 1.08 0.26 0.96 3.639 48 2.01
Urban 3.60 0.76
Mental Health Rural 4.44 1.26 0.37 0.20 0.548 48 2.01
Urban 4.64 1.32
Socio-Economic Status Rural 4.04 0.68 0.19 0.28 1.449 48 2.01
Urban 4.34 0.69
Total Rural 30.64 3.52 0.91 3.64 4.016 48 2.01
Urban 34.28 2.85

*Significant at 0.05 level of confidence, t.05 (48) = 2.01.

Table-1 reveals that there is significant difference in health and physique of school going adolescent between pre and post test. The obtained t-value of 3.176 is more than the table value of 2.01. Table-1 shows that there is significant difference in temperamental qualities of school going adolescent between pre and post test. The obtained t-value of 6.425 is more than the table value of 2.01. Table-1 reveals that there is significant difference in academic status of school going adolescent between pre and post test. The obtained t-value of 2.905 is more than the table value of 2.01. Table-1 shows that there is insignificant difference in intellectual abilities of school going adolescent between pre and post test. The obtained t-value of 2.009 is less than the table value of 2.01. Table-1 reveals that there is insignificant difference in habits and behaviour of school going adolescent between pre and post test. The obtained t-value of 1.074 is less than the table value of 2.01. Table-1 shows that there is significant difference in emotional tendencies of school going adolescent between pre and post test. The obtained t-value of 3.639 is more than the table value of 2.01. Table-1 reveals that there is insignificant difference in mental health of school going adolescent between pre and post test. The obtained t-value of 0.548 is less than the table value of 2.01. Table-1 shows that there is insignificant difference in socioeconomic status of school going adolescent between pre and post test. The obtained t-value of 1.449 is less than the table value of 2.01. The table -1 indicates that a mean and standard deviation values with regard to self-concept variable in rural were 30.64 and 3.52 whereas in urban the mean and standard deviation were recorded as 34.28 and 2.851 respectively. There was significant difference between rural and urban school going adolescent students found as the calculated t-value (4.016) was more than tabulation t-value (2.01) at 0.5 level. As the results indicate researcher hypothesis is accepted. Graphical representation of above table is made in fig.1. Fig 1: Mean difference of self-concept between rural and urban school going Adolescent

Conclusion : The experiment carried out on twenty five rural and twenty five urban school going adolescent students to find out the comparison on self-concept. After applying standard questionnaire to obtained response and statistical treatment, the results come out were shows significant difference between rural and urban school going adolescent students.


References :

  1. 1. Uppal AK, Rajinder Singh. Changes in Self-Concept As A Result of Eight Mouth Regular Participation in Physical Education and Conditioning Programmes, SNIPES Journal. 1987; 8:2.
  2. Alderman RB. Psychological Behaviour in Sports, Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders, 1974.
  3. Best JW. Research in Education (New Delhi: Kalyani Publication, 2006.
  4. Bhalla SK. A comparative study of the self-concepts of disciplined and undisciplined students, Ph.D. Psy., Pan. U, 1970.
  5. Campbell Paul B. School and Self-Concept. Association for Supervision and Curriculum development, 1967.
  6. Cliffor Edward, Clifford Marrijum. Self –Concept Before and After Survival Training, British Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology. 1967, 241-48.
  7. Floyd Conic Sturkie. Relationship between Physical Performance and Self-Concept Dissertation Abstracts International 1973; 12:6712.
  8. Gecas V. The Self-Concept. Annual Review of Sociology 1982; 8:1-33.
  9. Goswami PK. A study of self-concept of adolescents and its relationship to scholastic achievement and adjustment, Ph.D. Edu., Agra U, 1978.
  10. Huitt W. Self-Concept and Self –Esteem, 1998. http: //
  11. Joseph Benjamin Johnson. A Comparison of Physical Fitness and Self-Concept between Junior High School Negro and White Male Students, Dissertation Abstracts International, 1971, 5180-A
  12. Kensal Devinder K. Applied Measurement Education and Sports Selection, New Delhi, Sports Publication, 2008.

Innovative Initiatives for Farmers Development and Issues of Crop Diversification

                                                                            Dr. Shankar Chatterjee[1]

crop diversity.JPG

                                                                            Professor & Head (CPME)

NIRD & PR, Rajendranagar,   Hyderabad-500 0030, Telangana, India



The paper was presented at the Expert Group Seminar on “Crop Insurance Policy for Madhya Pradesh” (16-17 May 2015) held at Dr. B. R. Ambedkar University of Social Sciences, Mhow, Madhya Pradesh. The article is the revised version of the paper. In this paper for the benefit of farmers some issues have been covered.  An analysis has been made how agricultural marketing has been carried out by the self-help group members in Telangana so that farmers get their due price and marginal and small farmers’ group as studied by the author in Karnataka has been presented here. A case of creation of water –bodies on individual agricultural land of marginal and small farmers’ land from Bankura district of West Bengal under MGNREGS which changed economic life of many farmers is presented here.  In addition, the author by observing crop like ‘teff’ in Eritrea, and vegetables like avocado, artichoke and asparagus grown in Peru has suggested that, attempt may be made to grow such vegetables and crop, in our country as these vegetables are having high price in international market and teff is good for health and also can sustain in semi-arid area.  

Key words: Farmers, Hapa, SHG, Teff and Vegetables.



    Mahatma Gandhiji once said, “India lives in her villages”. Still today it holds good as Indian culture, food, society, etc., can be observed only in rural India. But among these, most important is that the occupation of the villagers as the villagers in India is earning their livelihood mainly through agriculture and allied activities. According to 2011 Census, of the total population of India 121 crore, 83.3 crore live in rural areas while 37.7 crore people reside in urban areas which in relative term can be said 70 per cent of the country’s population lives in rural areas.  The state wise data reveal that Uttar Pradesh is much ahead while  maximum number of people living in rural areas is considered – 15.5 crore. Against the backdrop, Mumbai tops the list as five crore people live in urban areas.  Agriculture provides employment to 56 per cent of the Indian workforce where as its contribution to the gross Domestic Product is around 15 percent. Again, looking at the land holding data it is observed that as per 2010-11 of the total holdings of 137757 numbers, marginal holding constituted 92356 numbers (67%), smallholding-24705 (18%), Semi-medium-13840 (10%), medium -5856 (4%) and large holding-1000 (1%). The statistics further divulge that marginal holdings had increased substantially over a period of time i.e. from 64.8 percent (83694 nos.) in 2000-01 to 92356 numbers (67%) in 2010-11. Against the backdrop, in case of all other holdings, the same has declined (NIRD&PR, 2015).    The farmers’ problems in India mainly lie with marginal and small farmers. In this regard one important news item from    the Times of India (18 April 2014) may be referred which is mainly findings of a research study carried out by the British researchers.

 “British researchers have said they have found few of the main reasons behind India’s farmer suicides. Investigations by researchers from the Cambridge University’s Department of Sociology and University College London’s Department of Political Science has found that rates of suicide are highest in areas with the most debt-ridden farmers who are clinging to tiny smallholdings – less than one hectare – and are trying to grow cash crops such as cotton and coffee that are highly susceptible to global price fluctuations. Farmers at highest risk have three characteristics: those that grow cash crops such as coffee and cotton; those with ‘marginal’ farms of less than one hectare; and those with debts of Rs 300 or more. States in which these characteristics are most prevalent had the highest suicide rates. These characteristics accounted for almost 75% of the variability in state-level suicides”.

   The news item has further quoted one Sri Kennedy, a researcher, “Small scale farmers who cultivate capital-intensive cash crops – which are subject to massive price fluctuations – are particularly vulnerable to accruing debts they can’t repay. Many male farmers – who are traditionally responsible for a household’s economic well-being – resort to suicide because they can’t support their families”. According to the researchers, “In Gujarat, where cash crops are mainly cultivated on large-scale farms have low suicide rates”.

  This review discussion has shown the path that small holders experimenting with capital intensive cash crops have been suffering and finally many of them committed suicide. So to prevent suicide, I feel ‘prevention is better than cure’ which in details are discussed here.

     In the Twelve Plan Document issues related to agriculture has been explicitly analyzed. By quoting from the plan document it may be stated that “The average farm sector growth in the Eleventh Plan period may be a little over 3.0 per cent. This is a marked improvement from the average growth of about 2.0 per cent during the Tenth Plan period. ……Since agriculture is a State subject, the Centre will have to work hand in hand with the States to bring coherence in policies and strategies. Seeds and irrigation are the priority areas, which can be catalysts for raising productivity on the supply side. On the demand side, there is urgent need to remove most of the controls that have denied a unified and seamless all India market for most agri-products (12th Plan document).

    Another important point to be noted is that for development of agriculture judicious use of water is sine qua non. “Agriculture accounts for 80.0 per cent of water needs at present, and there is considerable scope for increasing efficiency of water use in this area. This requires better management of water in areas of large and medium irrigation projects. It also requires putting in place more holistic aquifer management strategies” (ibid).

 Price Support to Farmers: Innovative Initiative:

     For the minimum price support of the farmers, an innovative model developed in the undivided Andhra Pradesh is presented here as well as crop diversification is also suggested from the two countries, in addition a case of development of water conservation measure from West Bengal.  The based on feasibility as well as local situation, the Government of Madhya Pradesh may implement in the nook and corner of the villages of the State at least in distress districts like Annupur, Ashoknagar, Balaghat, Betul etc. It may be mentioned that according to the Report of the Expert Group on Agricultural Indebtedness (Banking division, Dept. of Economic Affairs, Ministry of Finance, Govt. Of India, July 2007), out of 100 agriculturally less developed and distressed districts in India, in Madhya Pradesh there are 18 districts .

   As the State is having the Madhya Pradesh State Co-operative Marketing Federation, popularly known as MP Markfed which is an APEX body of Marketing Co-operative Societies established in 1956, a registered body under the Madhya Pradesh State Cooperative Societies Act, 1960 so it can play a lead role for minimum price support to the farmers. MP Markfed was setup with the objective of purchase, sale and distribution of agriculture related commodities like fertilizer, seed, pesticide, agriculture machineries and procurement of food grains under minimum support price schemes from primary agriculture credit co-operative societies, marketing co-operative societies and farmers in the NeGP-Agriculture Mission Mode Project Software Requirement Specifications Madhya Pradesh State Agricultural Portal remote areas (NeGP, 12). Markfed has a vast marketing network comprising of 7 zonal offices, 41 district offices and 426 distribution centres at 244 different locations and supported by 280 Marketing Societies and 4526 Primary Agricultural Credit Co-operative Societies.

  In view of this it is suggested that MP Markfed should come forward and through self-help groups (SHGs) minimum price support to farmers as observed in Telangana may be initiated.

 Case from Telangana:

               To provide farmers with minimum price support for their produce, Andhra Pradesh Government (undivided, now a part is Telangana) under its organization viz., Society for Elimination of Rural Poverty (SERP) initiated innovative steps through self-help groups (SHGs) from 2000. Even after creation of Telangana, SERP has been crated separately both for Andhra Pradesh and Telangana. However, SERP worked on a comprehensive multi-dimensional poverty alleviation strategy by focusing equally on the ‘Livelihoods Value Chain and Human Development Indicators’.  Keeping this in mind, SERP of undivided Andhra Pradesh worked on a unique structure of community based organization by organizing 11.4 million rural women into 1.27 million SHGs, 38646 Village Organizations, 1098 Mandal Samakhyas (Mandal Federation i.e. cluster of villages)and 22 Zilla Samakhyas (District Federation   (

  Regarding price support to the farmers, the procurement and marketing of the agricultural goods were meticulously planned by establishing procurement centers through Village Organizations (VOs, federation of SHGs at village level) under the umbrella of SERP so that marginal and small farmers   get remunerative prices. It is pertinent to mention that maize and paddy were the two major crops which farmers used to sell as observed in the field by the author. Initially in 2004-05, procurement at village level was started with maize and observing its success, Andhra Pradesh Civil Supplies Corporation was entrusted the responsibility of procurement of paddy from 2005-06 through Village Organization. And every year specific dates (average 45 days duration each in Kharif and Rabi) were notified and willing famers can sell their goods through SHGs which is very transparent. The major objectives of marketing support through SHGs inter alia, were:

  • To enable the small & marginal farmers to obtain the best price for their Agricultural Commodities and forest produce.
  • To minimize the cost of inputs to the rural poor farmers.
  • To create Marketing facility at their door steps.

  Initially marketing efforts were initiated with the procurement of Neem fruit in one Mandal and red-gram dal in five Mandals in 2001 of Mahabubnagar district, (then Andhra Pradesh now Telangana) subsequently the process was spread over to 21 districts of undivided Andhra Pradesh involving 50 items purchased through Village Organizations (VOs). And later on maize and paddy were included. To get an idea about the benefits reached to the farmers following table may be seen at a glance.

Although table is self-explanatory but few important points as observed from the table are:

  1. Out of the 22 districts (undivided Andhra Pradesh), 21 districts were covered under the scheme and similarly out of 1098 mandals, 771 were covered. The variations in the number of mandals are observed because in sometimes there was no necessity of price support through SHGs. The farmers could sell their goods in the open market.
  2. Since inception of the scheme, crores of goods were transacted.
  3. The beneficiaries were in lakh indicating lakhs of families were benefitted.
  4. Not only farmers were benefitted even VO also earned as commission.

     Case: This study was carried out in last week of December 2012 at Eklaspur village, Manthani mandal, Karimnagar district of then Andhra Pradesh now Telangana.  In Eklaspur village, the marketing Centre was meant for procurement of paddy as in the village and nearby areas mainly paddy is cultivated.  During the time of visit, Meghna Village Organization (as there were two VOs and each year one VO is given the task) was assigned the task. As a part of marketing system the farmers had to bring paddy at their own cost at the Centre, in addition they have to pay at the rate of Rs. 20 per quintal, if the labourers upload/download paddy who are normally available at the site. Before coming to the Centre, each farmer was given a token mentioning the date for selling the paddy in order to avoid chaos. The Eklaspur village Centre started its operation from 7 November 2012 and closed on 4 January 2013, except Sundays all the days were open for operation.  For smooth functioning of the activities like other cases, 5-member committee from the members of VO was formed to oversee marketing process and each was assigned a specific task and in addition 2 more members – 1 as book-keeper and 1 Community Resource Person (CRP) – were also involved and thus 7 persons were involved in the process here. Except one male Community Resource Person (CRP), all were women indicating activities were carried out by the women. The job of CRP was to verify the paddy bags with their numbers while uploading to the trucks meant for rice mill vis-a-vis monitoring the movement of trucks till it reaches to the rice-mill. The functioning of the 5 members was- first member checked quality of paddy, confirmation of farmers’ name etc. Second member was maintaining records of gunny bags etc. Third member was supervising weight of paddy and its proper bagging etc. Fourth member was in-charge of loading in the trucks, transportation, truck-sheet maintenance, etc. Fifth member’s important assignment was issuing cheques to the farmers. Generally postdated cheques were given to the farmers for 4-5 days duration. It is pertinent to mention that two grades of paddy were procured – Grade-A variety, price of which was Rs. 1280 per quintal and another was Grade-B variety, price was Rs 1250 for one quintal.       For carrying out the activities, each one was paid at the rate of Rs. 200 per day and rough calculation shows each was earning minimum of Rs. 10000 in one season which was their additional income. Moreover some local labourers also were involved in the process and they were earning good amount for loading/uploading. After closing of the Centre on 4 January 2013, data were collected from DRDA and observed that altogether 555 farmers sold their paddy in the Centre and total quantity of paddy sold was 28542 quintals (Grade-A was 3179 quintals & Grade-B was 25363 quintals). In monetary term, total value was Rs. 3,57,72870 – for Grade-A the amount was Rs. 40,69120 and for Grade-B, the value was Rs. 3,170,3750. Total commission generated by the VO was to the tune of Rs. 894322.  Total expenditure incurred by the VO was to the tune of Rs. 2.20 lakh and thus the VO could earn a net profit of Rs. 7,74,322 (Chatterjee, 2014).

Case from Karnataka: Initiative by NGO:

Issues related to Marginal & Small farmers:    Sufferings of Indian farmers can be attributed to many factors inter alia, of which are non-availability of timely loan, marketing of products etc.  According to the All India Debt and Investment Survey (AIDIS), the share of total debt of cultivator-households taken from formal sources fell from 64 per cent in 1992 to 57 per cent in 2003.  In the same period, the share of total debt taken from money lenders almost doubled from 10.5 per cent to 19.6 per cent, (Agriculture Today 2012). By quoting from the Agriculture Today journal 2012 (March issue), it may be stated that “Money lenders continue to be the base of Indian agriculture”.

            In this paper, measures taken by an NGO viz. Shri Kshethra Dharmasthala Rural Development Project (SKDRDP) to improve economic condition of   marginal and small farmers is presented.  This study was carried out by the author in 2010 directly contacting the NGO and the farmers. The NGO, SKDRDP in Karnataka by forming 5-8 small/ marginal farmers in a self-help group has proved that their economic condition can be improved to a great extent. The experiment was started in 1991 with the change of concept from charity to self-help. The marginal and small farmers (5 to 8 farmers) by forming self-help group under the banner of ‘Pragathibandhu’ (meaning farmers’ friend) by SKDRDP work together for their agricultural development. Based on sustainability of the groups, the SKDRDP extends loan to them with easy rate of interest. In addition, farmers can borrow from bank also, if they desire. Important point under ‘Pragathibandhu’ is free sharing of labour which means each member in a group has to work in others  land one day in a week at free of cost and thus in rotation agricultural land of all the members are cultivated.

   Although the table is self-explanatory, but regarding value of labour sharing, it may be mentioned that an amount of Rs 733.70 crore of money could be saved by the marginal & small farmers by sharing the free labour under Pragathibandhu. Labour sharing not only helped small and marginal farmers to save some amount but it facilitated to develop fraternity among the group members. The filed study by the author divulged that marginal and small farmers were earlier surviving on hand to mouth by growing only paddy and vegetables and after forming SHG, their quality of life has been changed and almost all of them had TV, refrigerator, gobar gas plant, solar light etc. Regarding growing of crops it was observed that in addition to cultivating paddy and vegetables, other crops like are areca nut and coconut, black pepper, jasmine flower etc., were also grown. To get an idea about the Pragathibandhu,

     Sometimes in a dry area a single input can transform life of marginal farmers and this case is from a poor and backward district of West Bengal namely Bankura. The   district is spread over to an area of 6,882 square kilometers with a total population of around 36 lakh as per 2011 census. The district is drought prone and due to undulating, lateritic, & porous soil moisture content at subsoil level is low. Due to low irrigation facility cropping intensity on average was 147 percent.  Average size of land holding was 1.02 acre and 67 percent of the holding was around 0.53 acre. In view of this, district officials decided and designed under the guidance of an NGO viz., ‘Pradan’ construction of   hapa (water tank with average size of – 60x40x12 feet) on individual land belonging to below Poverty Line families (BPL) of marginal and small farmers.  These were constructed under Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS) through Gram Panchayat and hapas are mainly meant for water conservation approach as well as provide gainful employment MGNREGS workers. It is pertinent to mention that the length, width and depth of one hapa are 60 feet, 40 feet and 10-12 feet respectively and an amount of Rs 48,000 to Rs. 55,000 is required ( as per 2014-15 prices) where around 400 person-days of employment can be created.

  The author visited the district as a part of NIRD&PR’s ‘Village Adoption Study’   in three phases – 2012, 2013 and 2015 and observed, after constructing of hapas economic condition of the farmers has been improved. As an example case from one GP, is presented here. At Biradih village of Hirbandh block, Bankura district the data provided by MGNREGS Cell of West Bengal, Government reveal that for 35 households, mostly belonging to marginal farmers as well as marginalized community, were provided with one hapa each benefitting land area of 30 acres by doing irrigation. The marginal farmers’ income on an average in each season went up to Rs. 25000 as plenty of vegetables like tomato, brinjal etc., are cultivated in addition to paddy. Further, water harvesting structure also has facilitated to cultivate fish.  To get an idea one Akul Bawri (SC) having slight less than 2 hectares of land was contacted. He informed that before provided with the hapa in 2009-10, maintenance of his family was an issue as sequel he had to migrate to nearby districts for about 3 months. After getting hapa, his income not only scaled up but all the three children were extended good education as they were admitted in a hostel. He no longer was migrating in other districts for livelihood. With net yearly of around Rs. 80,000 he almost regularly consumed fish as fish and rice are favourate diet of the Bengalis.


This case is from a South American country namely Peru where uncommon crops like artichoke, asparagus, avocado etc., were grown and author while visited in May, 2013 observed marginal and  small farmers earning substantial amount by cultivating these crops.  Such crops on experiment basis may be taken up in the State for the benefit of small and marginal farmers.

        Peru is a country with 29 million people spread over to an area of    1,285,216 square kilometers is    situated on the Pacific coast of South America.  While coffee remains Peru’s most important agricultural export crop, however, more than 60 percent of all agricultural exports are fruits and vegetables in recent years of which asparagus is the largest fruit and vegetable exported from Peru.  According to the statistics, Peru’s fruit and vegetable exports were close to U.S. $1.2 billion in 2009, which scaled up from $60 million in 1990. Since 1990, exports have increased at an average annual rate of 16 percent. In the following table, some selected items which are exported in different countries are presented for the interest of readers.

   It is suggested here that Government of Madhya Pradesh may initiate to grow such crops if feasible, in the state.

Eritrea and crop ‘teff’:

 With the increase in population in India demand for food grains has been increasing. On the other hand, because of less rainfall, inelastic supply of agricultural land  etc. need of the hour is to experiment to cultivate new crops which require less rain and nutritious also. In this article, based on author’s experience cultivation of teff of which injera (looks like our Indian dosa but big in size) is prepared is discussed. This food is consumed by the people of Eritrea (even in Ethiopia) as staple food.  The author stayed two years in Eritrea during late 2000 and studied importance of this crop inter alia, with his teaching job. Eritrea is located in northeastern Africa and it has a land area of 125,000 square kilometers and an estimated population was 42 lakh.

      The crop teff is uncommon to Indians albeit, it is the staple food of the people of Eritrea. Recently farmers in Australia and the United States started to experiment with growing of teff as it is having high nutritional value. From teff, the dish which is cooked is known as injera and most of the time mixed with barley or wheat injera is prepared. Injera can be compared with a big size of our dosa prepared in India and it is commonly eaten with sauce, vegetables, meat etc. One injera is shared with 3-4 family members. Teff is a great source of protein and it is gluten free. I suggest Government of Madhya Pradesh should try to introduce the crop wherever feasible. It is pertinent to mention that in Madhya Pradesh only traditional crops are grown such as paddy, wheat, jowar, gram, soybean, sugarcane and cotton.

Conclusion and suggestions:

  Agriculture sustains the lives of millions in the world in terms of nutrition and income, but changing rainfall patterns and poor storage can severely cut productivity. Simple innovation can help farmers grow healthier crops and store their produce for longer. But for an invention to work, it has to be affordable and integrate smoothly into farmers’ existing workflow.

  To address the issues pertaining to the farmers’ in general and marginal and small farmers in particular State Government in collaboration with Central Government should work hand in hand. Even NGOs and CBOs should take initiative to help farmers whether technically, scientifically or extending knowledge or financially.   We have to remember the farmers are our ‘annadata’ (providers of food) so they must be taken care of by the society. Any case of suicide of the farmers because of crop failure or lack of minimum price support is a shocking incident for all the Indians. I suggest prevention is better than cure. So to prevent farmers for experimenting with new crops for earning more money at the initial stage should not be encouraged. And the following suggestions are made is this paper.

  1. MP Markfed should come forward and through self-help groups (SHGs) minimum price support to the farmers, as observed in undivided Andhra Pradesh, may be initiated as the system is transparent.
  2. For the benefit of marginal and small farmers, experiment basis growing of cash crop is not suggested particularly coffee and cotton. If at all they are interested then in addition to cultivate food crops as observed in Pragathibandhu SHG, in a small part of their land experiment basis cash crop may be cultivated.
  3. New type of crops like ‘teff’ as observed in Eritrea (as it also a food-crop which can be grown with minimum water) may be grown in Madhya Pradesh, if feasible.
  4. Other crops which are having high international value like artichoke, asparagus, avocado etc., may be taken up in the State at least on experiment basis as these in addition to fetching foreign currency can be consumed.
  5. The Pragathibandhu (PBG) model has proved that marginal and small farmers can earn substantially and also it helped to build national integration as well as brotherhood feeling. The concept, PBGs have been working successfully for about two decades indicating its sustainability of the groups. Earlier it started in one district of Karnataka subsequently spread over to other districts.
  6. For benefit of marginal and small farmers scope of developing hapa may be worked out as it was highly beneficial to them.


  1. Planning Commission, (October 2011) “Faster, Sustainable and More Inclusive Growth: An Approach to the Twelfth Five Year Plan (2012-17)” New Delhi.
  2.  ibid
  3.   Sinha Kounteya “UK researchers unravel reasons behind India’s farmer suicides”
  4.     Times of India, 18 April, 2014.
  5.  RangacharyuluV.  & G Rajani Kanth (2013-14) (ed.) “Rural development Statistics”, NIRD&PR, Hyderabad.
  6.  Mahendra Dev S. “Small Farmers in India: Challenges and Opportunities” Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai, June 2012
  7.   Department of Agriculture & Cooperation Ministry of Agriculture, (2012), “NeGP-Agriculture Empowering Farmers”, Government of India, New Delhi.
  8.  Chatterjee Shankar “Innovative Case of Minimum Support Price to Farmers
  9. Through Self-Help Groups: A Case From India” SAMZODHANA “Journal of Management Research” Vol. 2, Issue 1 March 2014.

[1] The paper was presented at the Expert Group Seminar on “Crop Insurance Policy for Madhya Pradesh” (16-17 May 2015) held at Dr. B. R. Ambedkar University of Social Sciences, Mhow, Madhya Pradesh. The article is the revised version of the paper.

The Role of Formal Education in the Rehabilitation and Reintegration of Prisoners in Nigeria: A Case Study of Jos Prison, Nigeria

Otodo Ifeanyichukwu



This study investigates the role of education in the rehabilitation and reformation of inmates of Jos prison. The rehabilitation of prisoners through formal education is necessary. The study adopted the descriptive research design. Therefore, a 23-item questionnaire was developed and administered to 250 respondents comprising of 150 inmates and 100 staff of Jos Prison who were chosen through stratified random sampling. The result showed that the respondents agreed that education for prisoners is very important in the rehabilitation and reformation of inmates. Also, some challenges militating against the smooth operation of formal education in Jos prison were highlighted. Based on the finding, some useful recommendations were made on how to better the education of inmates for effective rehabilitation and reformation.

Key words: Rehabilitation, reintegration, education, prison, prisoner.

1.0 Introduction

A prison can be sociologically defined as a confinement where socially and legally interned people who have wronged the society are kept for reformation, rehabilitation and possible reintegration into the society where they would contribute meaningfully to the development of the society. Ideally and as obtained in other developed climes, the prison is the last place for the transfiguration of those who the society dim unfit to cohabit with it owing to the fact that their stay in the society is inimical to the continued co-existence of the members of the society. Prisons are very important to the survival and continued existence of every society. Infact, the importance of prisons cannot be over-emphasised.

Prisons are designed to keep custody of the legally interned, and by doing so, it helps to keep the society safe from misdemeanants and lawbreakers who disturbs the peace of the society. Many are oblivious of this fact. When criminals and other dangerous elements are locked up in the prison, the society is insulated from their nefarious activities, thereby making the society safe for habitation and cohabitation. Hence, the prison is a vital part of the security set up of every society. Imagine what the society would look like if the content of the prisons in Nigeria are poured out.

According to Gumi (2014), people are sent to prison in order to protect the society from harm. Investing in the physical structures of prisons such as in buildings, protective bars, guards and guns alone may help to reduce crime in the short-term; ultimately it does nothing to make society safer. This is because almost everyone in prison will eventually return to society at the end of their term. If they remain idle during their time in prison, they are likely to become bitter and resentful (Gumi, 2014). If however prisoners are given meaningful things to do and are equipped with the skills and self-belief they need to support themselves upon release, society becomes safer because the rate of re-offending would decrease (African Prison Project, 2014).

 Reformation of Prison Inmates can only be achieved through education and skill acquisition training. Formal education becomes a panacea for effecting positive changes in the prison inmates before they are released. Formal education in prison aims at providing the awareness that will enable young as well as mature adults to improve or supplement their knowledge and skills in general subjects. The education of prisoners enhances their abilities to improve their future job and educational possibilities and potentials (Ewulum, Omeriyang and Mbara, 2015).

Education is thus one key aspect of the rehabilitative role in which prisoners can engage while in prison. It is not just a means of keeping the prisoner occupied, but has the capacity to form a stepping stone towards prisoner’s inclusion and reintegration into society. By providing positive learning environments, prisons can support the inmates to make good use of their sentence; to address gaps in their learning skills; to improve their employability; and to change their personal attitudes and perceptions. This in a long run helps them to understand the reasons for and consequences of their actions. All of these factors can reduce their chances of re-offending (Hawley, 2013).

Moreover, access to education is a fundamental human right and prisoners should not be denied the chance to exercise this right (Hawley, 2013). It can therefore be argued that imprisonment, even if it is viewed as justified punishment, should not bring with it the additional deprivation of civil rights, which include education (UNESCO, 1995).

Ogundipe (2008) posits that the Nigerian Prison Service has established practical programmes for reformation and rehabilitation of prison inmates. These programmes include: Vocational skills development Programme (SVDP) which aims at empowering the prisoners who have no formal education background with the practical skills in handworks like carpentry, metal-work, shoe-making, tailoring and others. This would help them to be self-reliant when they are released from prison. The second programme is the Adult Remedial Education Programme (AREP) which is designed to help prisoners who were pursuing one academic programme or the other before imprisonment. These programmes enable prison inmates to learn skills in such vocation as tailoring, plumbing, carpentry, woodwork, barbing, shoe making, and a host of others; and also to be grounded academically to become professionals like Doctors, Lawyers and graduates after discharge. Ogundipe (2008) also stated that through remedial programmes in the various Nigeria prisons, 1,306 candidates sat for the WAEC and GCE examinations as well as NECO in 2006 while in 2007, 1,198 candidates took the same examinations. For this success, the West African Examination Council made Ikoyi Prisons, Lagos one of its examinations centres.

Globally, education has had a consistent presence in correctional facilities over the past 200 years, though the form it has taken and the rationale behind its provision have changed over time. In 1798, education was introduced in the Americas first correctional facility—the Walnut Street Jail—in the context of religious instruction intended to help individuals repent for their crimes and develop spiritually and morally. The late 1800s marked the rise of the reformatory era, and educational offerings expanded beyond religious instruction to emphasize literacy and communication skills, as well as the inclusion of secular courses such as astronomy, geography, and history. Education was further entrenched within correctional institutions with the introduction of indeterminate sentences, which required evidence of self-improvement as a condition of release. Through the 1970s, often considered the “golden age” for rehabilitative programs, educational instruction proliferated, eventually including high school courses and general equivalency diploma (GED) preparation, vocational training in specific trades, life skills programs, academic higher education program, and study release (Gumi, 2014).

Prisoners can be indifferent to education in prison. Research from the United States of America, Ireland and the United Kingdom shows that prisoners are more likely to have literacy difficulties than the general population (Batchelder and Pippert, 2002; Cropsey, Wexler, Melnick, Taxman and Young, 2007; Hurry, Brazier, Snapes, and Wilson, 2005) and tend to have lower than average attainment and poor experiences of compulsory education (Morgan and Kett, 2003; Muth, 2006; Winn and Behizadeh, 2011). In prisons, particularly in the United Kingdom, the curriculum is often restricted so that prisoners are expected to engage in education that is focused on improving narrow literacy skills rather than broader, and potentially more attractive, educational areas (Hurry, Brazier and Wilson, 2009).

Many prisoners, and adults who have similar unhappy experiences of compulsory education, tend to have negative attitudes to learning and can be very resistant to education that is like school (Barton, Ivanic, Appleby, Hodge and Tusting, 2007; Belzer, 2004; Kilgore, 2001; Maclachlan, Hall, Tett, Crowther and Edwards, 2008). This is especially true of provision focused only on narrow literacy skills such as spelling and thus such courses tend to promote little learning and a great deal of resentment amongst prisoners. On the other hand, Hurry, Brazier and Wilson (2009) found in their study of English prisons that prisoners became engaged and participated in more effective learning when the programme was more contextualized and active. Research from across the UK also shows that creating an environment where learning operates from an individual’s ‘strengths’, rather than their ‘deficits’ is the most effective (Crowther, Maclachlan and Tett, 2010; Entwistle and Smith, 2002). This involves building on and extending the knowledge and skills that individual’s already have, an approach that has been found to be very uncommon in prisons in studies in the US and the UK (Batchelder and Pippert, 2002; Kilgore, 2001).

This research, therefore, seeks to assess the role of education in inmates’ reformation and rehabilitation in Jos Maximum prison; and to determine the extent to which prison inmates have been exposed to formal education with a view to improving their rehabilitation and reformation. The research also exposed the challenges faced by the prison adult school in Jos prison.

2.0 Methodology

The study employed the use of a descriptive research design. Descriptive research design was chosen because it enables the researcher to generalize the findings to other prisons across the country.  The population of the study is made up of all the prisons staff and inmates in Jos prison. Jos prison as at 1st July, 2015 has 243 staff and 721 inmates. Therefore, the total population for the study was 964. The sample used for this study consisted of 250 respondents: 150 inmates and 100 prisons staff who were selected through the purposive sampling method. The sample is made up of 204 males and 43 females. The age of the respondents ranged from 18-59 years, with a mean age of 34.5 years. Eighty-seven (87) of the inmates were Muslims, while one hundred and sixty three (163) inmates are Christians.  Only convicted inmates serving short and long term sentences were used for the study. Those awaiting trails were left out of the study because they are not qualified for rehabilitation and reformation programmes.

The research made use of a self structured questionnaire which was developed by the researchers. The questionnaire was subjected for validity by two experts in criminology from the University of Uyo; and other two senior prison officers working in the Plateau state headquarters of the Nigerian Prisons Service. Comments and recommendations of the experts were incorporated in the final construction of the instrument which ended up with 23 items. The instrument yielded a reliability coefficient of 0.76 using the test-retest reliability method and was considered high enough. The data collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics and percentages. While simple percentages was used to analyze research question one, mean score was used in Research question two. Decision rule for Research question two was based on 4-points numerical values assigned to the responses: Strongly Agree (SA) = 4-points, Agree (A) = 3 points, Disagree (D) = 2 points and Strongly Disagree (SD) = 1 point. Items which had mean rating of 2.50 and above were agreed on. Conversely, items which had less than 2.5 were considered to be disagreed on.

3.0 Results and findings

The results of the study were presented according to the research questions. Out of the 250 copies of the questionnaire distributed and returned, 3 were badly filled and discarded while the remaining 247 copies were presented and analyzed in tables using descriptive statistics and percentages.

3.3 Discussion of Results

Result of research question one show that education is very important in the rehabilitation and reformation of inmates’ of Jos prison. This is in tandem with Gumi (2014) who posits that formal education is cardinal to the rehabilitation of prison inmates. The result also agrees with Omoni and Ijeh (2009) that the issue of vocational and formal education cannot be overemphasized in the rehabilitation process of prisoners. The aim of imprisonment is not only for punishment, but to prevent offending and reoffending. In the society today, the leading cause of crime and criminal behaviours is lack of empowerment. Education in prison can reduce recidivism as inmates will be empowered with the academic knowledge that can make them stay off crime and lead law-abiding lives. Table 2 shows that 72.1 percent of the respondents strongly agreed that education in prison play a cardinal role in the rehabilitation and reformation of inmates. Also, 17.8 percent of respondents agree with the assertion. This shows that, about 89.9 percent of the respondents supports that education is paramount in the rehabilitation and reformation of inmates.

Table three showed that the respondents agreed that all the challenges listed therein militate against the smooth running of the prison adult school in Jos prison. These problems ranging from lack of enough teachers to time constraints are the major challenges bugging down education in the prison. This is in agreement with Ewelum, Omeriyang and Mbara (2015) who found out that the major challenges militating against the reformation of prison inmates in Anambra state include: lack of professional educators, lack of staff training, poor funding, among others. Nigeria prisons according to The Nation (2010) are “living hells.” Most prisons are bedeviled by poor facilities like classrooms, stationery and books, lack of qualified educators to teach in the prison schools, among others. This scene is reflected in all prisons structures in the country. This has led to the non-performance of the schools in our prisons. From table three, it is obvious that some of the maladies affecting the administration of formal education in Jos prison include; lack of enough teachers, frequent transfer of prisoners and teaching staff, lack of stationery and books, and poor funding. Other challenges as agreed by the respondents are lack of external assessment by examination bodies like WAEC/NECO/JAMB, poor library and time constraints.


4.0 Conclusion

It is obvious from the result of this study that the prison is a very important agent of rehabilitation and reformation of the social misfits. It is also a component of the criminal justice system charged with the responsibility of confirming, reforming and rehabilitating prison inmates so that they would become better citizens when released from the prison. This study reveals that education in prison is very cardinal in the rehabilitation of inmates. However, it was discovered that several challenges ranging from lack of enough teachers to time constraints hinder the smooth running of the prison adult school in Jos prison. These maladies have led to the non-performance of the school and explain why the rate of recidivism in Nigeria is at increase.  For this reason, recommendations were proffered on how to resuscitate education as a tool of rehabilitation in Nigerian prison thereby improving the service delivery of our prisons system.

5.0 Recommendation

After a careful analysis of the role of education in the rehabilitation and reformation of prison inmates, this study came up with the following recommendations:

  1. The federal government of Nigeria should float a Prison Development Trust Fund (PDTF) to fund the prisons in the area of vocational and formal education. In other words, the education of prison inmates should receive closer government attention financially and otherwise.
  2. The Nigerian Prisons Service should create public awareness programmes through the mass media on the role of prison and its rehabilitative roles. This in the long run will improve the image of our prisons and also provide a platform for more sensitization on prison education.
  3. The Nigerian Prisons Service should collaborate with the various state ministries of education in order to benefit from the various plans by these ministries.
  4. National and regional examination bodies like the WAEC, NECO, JAMB and NABTEB should be lobbied to establish examination centres in our prisons.
  5. The National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN) should be made to open a centre in at least one prison in all the geopolitical zones of Nigeria.
  6. The Nigerian Prisons Service should recruit more educators and teachers. Also, schools should be floated in prisons where such does not exist.


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between participation in prison work and education programs. The Prison Journal, 82(2),269–280.

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learning’,Adult Education Quarterly, 55, 41–59.

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and services: Results from a national survey’, The Prison Journal, 87(1), 58–85.

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to persist, progress and achieve: Literacies learners at risk of non-completion of learning targets. Edinburgh, Scottish Government.


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 This study focused on the effect of socio-economic status of parents on the academic performance of students in Technical Colleges in Delta State. Two research hypotheses were formulated. There is no significant difference between Academic Performance of Students from poor background compared to those from wealthy homes, there no significant correlation between students from intact homes and that of broken homes. Recommendations were made based on the findings.


Keywords: Profession/Vocation, Educational level, Socio-Economic Status and family type.


The role parents in the upbringing of the child cannot be overemphasized and as such it’s socioeconomic status is of vital importance. Students have shown that parental influence manifests itself in parental values and experience, education, vocation/profession of parents, religion and socio-economic background of parents. Parental socio-economic status and intelligence have either facilitating or inhibitory effect on the child depending on the traits inherited and the environment in which he is brought up. The self and work roles begin early in life and the home in conjunction with it’s related social system have great influence on them. The parents or family provides the initial social encounter through socialization process, also provides the 3models with which the child can identify, usually a child may consciously or unconsciously, learn from the parents by imitation. Parental set standard may greatly affect the life’s of adolescents and so motivate them to be achievement oriented. Thus a family where some particular careers are of great priority tend to orient it’s children in achieving that goal.

Therefore, the socio-economic status of a parent goes a long way to mould a child’s personality both morally, academically, economically, socially, spiritually or otherwise. Jacquelynm and Eccles and Pamela Daviskean (2005)

Statement of the Problem

The socio-economic status of parents can motivate or hamper the child’s academic performance in schools. For students to have excellent performance in schools, they should be reared in a home free quarreling and rancor, should have enough parental security and financial security, readiness to learn to the part of the student a good learning environment and learning materials. A lot of problems are faced by students in Technical Colleges in Delta State.

The Concept of Socio-economic status

This study focused on the effect of socio economic status of parents on students in Technical. Colleges in Delta State. The concept of socio economic status based on socio-economic factors represnts one of the major systems of stratification. Social stratification arises out of the recognition in all societies people are ranked or evaluated at a number of levels of social class is common to most societies ancient or modern. Infact almost every community has within it, groups which think of themselves being somewhat alike.

The member of these groups may exhibit similarities in choice of food, housing, dressing, language, occupation, income values, social behaviour and even colour or race. Farooq (2011) emphasized that the social class of parent is a dominant factor in the academic performance. The academic abilities and the socio-economic background of youth impose considerable constraints upon the performance of students and on the type of vocation they can make. He able boy from a middle class family has a wider range of possibilities open to him than a boy from a poor socio-economic class. Okoh, (1980) in his work say that students have shown that children from low income homes come to school with a two-fold handicap.

Their innate intelligence is under developed in certain aspects that are important for success in present day educational systems and their personality is structured that they are not likely to do well in school. The child from the low social class according these studies has not his spare time carefully organized for. He has a very notion and is incapable of planning and pursuing long term projects. To such a child, luck, rather than vigorously planned work appears to be reason for success.

According to Rothesetein (2004) the social class of parents are fundamental to the individual’s educational and vocational decisions. He went further to explain that social membership influence and is influenced by occupational membership. Other factors identified  which exert considerable influence on the individual include sex, family age, race, culture school and economy. Azhar Nadeem, Naz Perveen & Sameen (2015) testifies to the fact that much of the child’s educational development starts at home, before he actually starts the formal education, to him the middle class homes are always able to provide the necessary prerequisites success. For example, they can provide good environment, motivation, the necessary financial help and also hi1ighted some facts on the influence of socio economic status of either the parents, home or environment on the occupational preference of youths. They postulated that a child’s particular socio-economic inheritance may a direct and important effect on the occupation open or life attractive to him. The economic an occupational level of the home affects performance of the students, Farooq (2011).

The study was organized under the following headings

  1. Occupation of parents
  2. Parental background
  3. Type of family
  4. Wealth of the family
  5. Broken family

Occupation of Parents

This involves the type of work or job done by the parents of these student this go a long way to affect the performance of those students. There are parents whose work do not give time for their children as such the students are affected negatively Duke, (2000), Sewell, William and Robert, Hauser (1975). Most time you discover that most students or children are influenced by the occupation of their parents or stimulated by what they find their parents doing, parental or family set-standard may greatly affect performance of their children either positive or negatively even in the occupational choice of their children later in their lives and so motivate them to be achievement oriented. Thus a family where some particular careers are of great priority, tend to orient it’s children towards achieving that goal. In some families because the family head is a lawyers the children will want be lawyer or even doctors, nurse or teachers or accountants because their parents are one or have set such standard for them. Studies have shown that a child’ particular socio-economic inheritance may have a direct and important effect on the career open or attractive to him than does his physical inheritance. The economic and occupational level of home affects the vocational goals of the youth by influencing their aspirations to be similar to those held by their parents and by Halsey, Health and Ridge (1980) discouraging aspirations to levels much above or below the parental occupational. The child’s biological endowments in terms of personality traits are transmitted to him in form of genetic inheritance. If both parents possess high intellectual capabilities and transmit the traits for indigence to the child, that, child is very likely to be highly intelligent and benefit from education which will likely enhance his opportunity for occupations on the hand, a child of very low intellectual parents who inherited this trait may turn out to be an imbecile who may later find it difficult to be properly educated and be gainfully employed. So, the occupation of parents has a vital role to play in the lives students in Technical Colleges. Halsay, health and Ridge (1980).

Parental background

Parental socio-economic status and intelligence have either facilitating or inhibitory effect on the child depending on the traits inherited and environment in which he is brought up. The self and work roles begin early in the life and home in conjunction with its related socio system have great influence on the them. The family comprising of parents, siblings, relatives, friends and neighbours, providing the initial social encounter through socialization process, also provides the models with which the child can identify. Usually the child may consciously or unconsciously learn from the parents by role playing or imitation. Parental background with talk about whether parents of children is high socio-economic status, middle or low socio-economic status as a long way to play in the performance of students in technical Colleges. Azhar, Nadeem, Naz, Perveen and Sameen (2015).

A family could be classified as either of high or low socio-economic status. The question might be asked how do we dichromize between high and low socio-economic family background Owalabi (1988) criteria for classifying Nigerian parents could be adopted, here. For him parents who are professional senior civil servants, graduates and non-graduates teachers, clerks, traders and businessmen and women of appreciable income parent who have post primary and higher education are referred to as being of high socio-economic status while parent who are craftsman artisans and farmer and parents who have no schooling or have elementary education are referred to as being of low socio-economic status. Differential access to education theory is apparently true in Nigeria, thus, children of low socioeconomic families do not have as much access to education as children of high socio-economic family background are found mostly in good quality post primary institutions such as the Federal Government Controlled Colleges which are adequately provided with qualified teachers and materials to Ramey and Ramey (1994) the disadvantage of brilliant children from poor homes. One of the implications of such differential access to education could be that children from high socio-economic families especially in careers of greater social demands and status.

Also it was discovered that some students who failed the West African School Certificate (WASC) Examinations who would have preferred to go back to their schools or other schools to repeat the year were prevented from doing so because of the inability of their parents to meet up-financially the cost of their going back to school. He further revealed that consequently, such students went into the teacher training colleges which were free thereby choosing teaching as career circumstantially while others went into other unskilled jobs. Finally parental family background plays important or affects the child performance the school. Ramey and Ramey (1994).

Types of Family

Under types of family we are looking at whether, the children or child is born into a polygamous home, monogamous family and so on. The type of family which the students are born into can affect them either positively or negatively. A child born by polygamous parents will find it very difficult to meet up with the financial demands of his school. Since there are a lot of children and wives to take care and as such the financial responsibility on the family will be very high such child will be affected negatively except the family is buoyant. Femi Ogushola and Adewale (2014).

Also even in a monogamous homes if the number of children in the family is large there will be great financial responsibility on the parents. The child may be affected negatively but if the numbers of children are reduced the parents will able to meet their needs easily considering the family income. Also in families where the breadwinner of the house is late (either the men or women). There will high financial responsibility especially on our women if it was the man who died. So, the children will be affected negatively and it will hinder their academic performance in the school, Anderso and Sullivan (1998).

The wealth of family

The wealth of the family is of paramount importance, if the family is wealthy, children’s needs whether academic or otherwise will be met easily without much stress but where the family poor, the academic need of the children will not be met easily, this goes a long way to affect the child performance negatively. There are situations where the parents of students may not have money to pay their children’s school fees and children are sent of out of school for non-payment of school fee and other necessary fees, in such cases, the child or students may not be allowed take their examination. The wealth of the family talks about the family income whether it is high or low. Ramsey and Ramsey (1994), Memon, Joubish and Khurram (2015)


Broken Homes

A child from broken home is never happy or a child from a home where there quarreling and fighting is never happy because of the environment that he or she is coming from. Also a child whose mother left the house because the frequent fighting and quarrellings in home or immoral behaviours of their father, will never be happy in school and will not concentrate in his studies, his mind will easily go back to the occurrence of home or a child that is under care of his mother and not being accepted by his stepfather because he is not that man’s child will never be happy in the class and invariably, will not do well in his studies.

Furthermore, a child living with the father, where the mother is no longer in home may receive ill-treatment from the father’s wife or wives especially if is the wicked and bad type. Such child will never be happy in class and if a child not happy, there is every tendency that child or student’s performance will be affected negatively except for a determined child who Wants to excel through work undermining the situation at home.

Research Questions

  1. Is there any significant difference between the academic performance of students from poor background and those from wealthy home?
  2. Is there any correlation between the academic performance of students from broken homes and those from intact homes?

Purpose of the Study

  1. The main purpose of the study is to determine effect of socio-economic status of students in Technical Colleges.
  2. To determine the difference between the academic performance of students poor background and those from wealthy homes.
  3. To determine the relationship between the academic performance of student from broken homes and from those of intact homes.

Significance of the Study

There has been a general motion that increase, monetary rewards and academic ability are the major influences on the performance of students. The socio economic status of parents is hardly linked with these factors. The finding of this study will be beneficial to government, parents teachers and the society at large. It will serve as a guide to administrators and education planners when making decisions it will affect students.

It will serve as an eye opener on the effects social economics status of parent on their children and how the negative effects can be corrected. This study will help educational or guidance counselors to identify students whose parents are from the lower social class and profit solution to their problems. It will also help students in career choices and the available resources at their disposal.

Definition of important Terms

  1. Profession / Vocation: This is defined as definable work activity that occurs in many different setting.
  2. Education Level: The educational height of an individual whether is an individual is highly educated or not.
  3. Socio-economic status: This refers to ones social and economic standing within a social stratification or classes and are explained a follows:
  4. a) An upper class: These are wealthy individuals who frequently did not and constitute about 25% of the population.
  5. b) An upper middle class: These are mostly skilled workers whose sons were generally apprenticed to same or some other skilled trade frequently they become clerks but seldomly merely labourers.
  6. c) Low middle class: These are unskilled workers and domestic workers or servants. In this class children usually augment the family income by manual work at an early age.
  7. d) Lower Class: These are unskilled workers who are predominantly poor. Their standard of living is very low and their children worked from an early age and receive about ¼ of the pay of an unskilled workers.

Research Methodology

This is the description of the methods used in carrying out the study, which include, the following headings.

  1. Design of study
  2. Population of study
  3. Sample of selection
  4. Sample area
  5. Instrumentation
  6. Administration of question

Design of Study

This design of study employed is the survey method, survey study is a descriptive research method. It is aimed at discovering relative, incidence, distribution and inter-relationship of educational, sociological, physiological, political and economical variables. The researcher examined the opinion attitudes or feelings of individual about a particular problem.

Population of study

The population of this study comprises is all the Technical Colleges in the State (Delta), Sample of the study

The study was carried out in randomly selected Technical Colleges in the State. The randomly selected schools induce specific the no before history

  1. Issele-Uku Technical College, Issele-Uku
  2. Agbor Technical College, Agbor
  3. Sapele Technical College, Sapele
  4. Delta Career Warn


The instrument used for this study was questionnaire. It consists of two sets. That of teachers and the students. The teacher questionnaires consist of twenty items is divided into section A & B section A consists of personal data of the respondents while section B deals with the questions based on the hypothesis. The teacher questionnaire consists of two sets. That of teachers and students. The teacher questionnaire consist of twenty. It is divided into section A & B, section A consists of personal data of the respondents while section B deals with the questions just as in the teacher questionnaire.

Administration of Instrument

The entire questionnaire was administered by the researcher through a visit to the sampled schools. This enable the researchers to get responses from teacher and students. In each school were given questionnaires were collected by the researcher. About two hundred questionnaires were distributed.

Method of Data collection or Analysis

The data collected were tabulated and analysed using the chi-square test of contingency. It’s formula is given as

x2 =   ∑(O -E)2


Where X2               =                              Chi-square

∑                             =                              Summation sign

O                             =                             Observed data

E                             =                              Expected data

This test has a level of significance of 0.05 with degree of freedom as one (1) and two (2) where necessary.

Validation of Instrument

The questionnaire is the outcome of the intensive process of validation. The questionnaire is carefully designed to meet the targeted goal, the questionnaire was submitted to two lectures and it was properly scrutinized and deleted substandard questions (if any). Thus; this helped in selecting the needed basic objectives of study. The items were pruned appropriately and as such the questionnaire was described as valid in content and context.

Data Analysis, Presentation of Result

It deals with analysis of data in respect of the questionnaires already administered on the proposed sample. The analysis, presentation of result and discussion was pointed towards verifying the hypothesis earlier formulated.

Data Analysis

Testing of the hypothesis

Hypothesis One: Ho1 states that there is no significant difference between academic performance of students from poor background compared to those from wealthy homes. To test the above hypothesis the chi-square of test contingency was employed which was performed at 0.05 level of significance.

The test result is presented in the table below:

Table One: Distribution of the findings analysis on the response of students of Technical College on the effect of family

The x2 was computed as 0.37 the critical value of the df(1) = 3.38 and 0.05 level of significance. The hypothesis was accepted because the calculated value is lower than the expected value.

Hypothesis two

Hypothesis Ho2: There is no correlation between students academic perfirmance form intact homes and those from broken homes.

Distribution of The Findings

Table two: Analysis on the response of students of Technical Colleges on the effect of broken and intact homes on academic performance.

Where X                =              stands for intact homes

Y             =              Broken homes

The hypothesis is rejected because from the calculation — I shows a very high relationship and are both affected by socio-economic status of parents

Summary of findings

  1. There no significant difference between academic performance of students from poor background compared to those from wealthy homes.
  2. From the result of findings it shows there is no correlation performance between intact homes and broken homes.


Discussion of Findings, Conclusion And Recommendation

The findings from analysis will be discussed as follows;

Hypothesis One

The finding of the researcher says that there is no difference between academic performances of students from poor background compared with those from wealthy.

This result is in line with the view of Hill et al (2004) which states Socio-Economic status of parents does affect student’s academic performance but makes possible for both children from rich and poor families to compete with each other.

Hypothesis Two

The findings of the research states that there is no significant difference between the academic performance of children from intact homes and those of broke homes. This shows that whether the students are from intact homes or broken homes, it has nothing to do with their academic performance. There are cases where even when students are living with parents, their parents never have time to check their children’s work; are always too busy, never found at home, only at nights to move very early the next morning, the children hardly have a taste of their parents also there are cases where even when children may not be living with the parents or is living with one of the parent, is determined to make the best of the situation by hard work and much studies, such a child might do well.

This shows that both are affected by socio-economic status. According to Azhar, Nadeem, Naz, Perveen and Sameen (2015) stated that the child’s educational development should start from home, before he actually starts the formal education. Proper attention should paid to educational development of the children for better performance at school.


The study showed that there is relationship between socio-economic status of parents and the choice course made by the students, so parents should try as much as possible to supervise the work of their children, and counseling them into making right career choices, these should be not based or the wealth of family. Also hypothesis one shows that there was no significant different between the performance of children from intact home and broken homes. This reveals that once a child is determined work or study, making use of the human and material resources available to him, whether broken home or not, the sky is his limit, they are encouraged to be serious with their studies whether living with their parent or not. Parents should strive to live together for proper up bring of their children, in order to avoid having dropouts and nonentities as children.

Parents as well as government should provide good learning atmosphere for the students to enhance better performances of the students, on the other hand students should make use these learning materials provided for them by the government and parents and stop perambulating around the streets of Nigeria, and stop forming different cults and nefarious groups that does foster their academic performance in schools. Teachers also have a role to play by making sure these students are well taught, occupied with assignments and class-work so as to create sense of seriousness in them. These assignments should be marked and recorded as continuous assessment. Quizes and test via examination should also be administered by the teachers. Workshop practice should also be taught in all the technical colleges to make them self-reliant and practically oriented.


The recommendations are made based on the findings and conclusion of this study.

  1. Parents should endeaviour to support and supervise their children’s academic work in and out of school.
  2. Parents should try as much as possible to live together for the proper upbringing of their children and avoid separation or broken homes.
  3. Parents and government should try as much as possible to see to needs of students in technical colleges.
  4. Government should furnish their libraries with current text books not the old fashioned and outdated ones; they should equip their laboratories, workshops and typing pools for effect studies.
  5. Government should provide and install computers in all Technical Colleges employ competent hands who can manage these computers.
  6. Government should ensure that salaries of teachers and worker in Technical Colleges are paid as and when due.
  7. Also workshop practice should be made compulsory for all students in Technical Colleges so as to be practically oriented and self-reliant.
  8. Furthermore practical allowances should be paid to teachers of Technical Colleges by the government.



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