Subsistence agriculture occurs when farmers grow food crops to meet the needs of themselves and their families. In subsistence agriculture, farm output is targeted to survival and is mostly for local requirements with little or no surplus.
Subsistence agriculture was predominant in parts of Asia, especially India, and later emerged in various areas including Mexico.In Central and Eastern Europe subsistence and semi-subsistence agriculture reappeared within the transition economy since about 1990.
Subsistence farming continues today in large parts of rural Africa, and parts of Asia and Latin America. In 2015, about 2 billion people (slightly more than 25% of the world’s population) in 500 million households living in rural areas of developing nations survive as “smallholder” farmers, working less than 2 hectares(5 acres) of land.
There are four types of subsistence farming They are shifting farming that is used for fodder crops and leave after yield. Nomadic farming is changing one place to one along with animals and tools. Primitive farming is like slash and burn of field to cultivate. Intensive subsistence farming is using simple tools and more labour at small area.
Subsistence agriculture can be used as a poverty alleviation strategy, specifically as a safety net for food-price shocks and for food security. Subsistence agriculture can be used in low-income countries as a part of policy responses to a food crisis in the short and medium term, and provide a safety net for the poor in these countries.